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TheU.S.ConstitutionTitle13andtheACSConductingtheACSiscoveredbytheconstitution.TheU.S.ConstitutionstatesthatAnEnumerationshallbemadewithinthreeYearsaterthefrstMeetingotheCongressotheUnitedStatesandwithineverysubsequentTermotenYearsinsuchMannerastheyshallbyLawdirect.PursuanttothisconstitutionaldirectiveCongresspassedseparatelawsoreachdecennialcensusandspecifedtheinormationtobecollected.In1954CongresscodifedearliercensusactsandallotherstatutesauthorizingthedecennialcensusasTitle13U.S.Code.FromtheveryfrstcensusactCongresssoughtthecollectionomoreinormationthanjustaheadcount.ThecurrentlegalauthorityorcollectingthesedataresidesinTitle13otheU.S.CodeortheCensusAct.TheCensusActprovidestheCensusBureauwithlegalauthoritytoconductthedecennialcensusanddelegatesbroaddiscretionaryauthoritytotheSecretaryoCommerceordeterminingthemanneroconductingthecensus.ThisauthorityhasbeenredelegatedbytheSecretarytotheDirectorotheCensusBureau.EventhoughCongresshasgrantedthisbroaddiscretionaryauthoritythequestionsaskedinthecensusandACSaredeterminedbywhatstatisticsareneededtoimplementavastarrayoederalprograms.CourtsroutinelyhaveupheldtheconstitutionalityocollectingcensusdatacharacterizingasunquestionablethepoweroCongresstorequirebothanenumerationandthecollectionostatisticsinthecensus.ThecourtshaveheldthattheConstitutionincludingtheourthandfthamendmentsdoesnotprohibitthegatheringootherstatisticsinadditiontotheenumerationevery10years.LegalAuthorityfortheCensusandtheACSConstitutionoftheUnitedStatesArticleISec.2inrelevantpart.RepresentativesanddirectTaxesshallbeapportionedamongtheseveralStateswhichmaybeincludedwithinthisUnionaccordingtotheirrespectiveNumbers...TheactualEnumerationshallbemadewithinthreeYearsaterthefrstMeetingotheCongressotheUnitedStatesandwithineverysubsequentTermotenYearsinsuchMannerastheyshallbyLawdirect.10www.census.govacs