Definitions

Establishment

A "construction establishment" is defined as a relatively permanent office or other place of business where the usual business activities related to construction are conducted. With some exceptions, a relatively permanent office is one which has been established for the management of more than one project or job and which is expected to be maintained on a continuing basis. Such "establishment" activities include, but are not limited to estimating, bidding, purchasing, supervising, and operation of the actual construction work being conducted at one or more construction sites. Separate construction reports were not required for each project or construction site.

Companies with more than one construction establishment were required to submit a separate report for each such establishment operated during all or any part of 1992.

Types of Construction

This item provides data by the types of buildings, structures, or other facilities being constructed or worked on by construction establishments in 1992. Respondents were instructed that each building, structure, or other facility should be classified in terms of its function. For example, a restaurant building was to be classified in the restaurant category whether it was designed as a commercial restaurant building or an auxiliary unit of an educational institution. If respondents worked on more than one type of building or structure in a multibuilding complex, they were instructed to report separately for each building or type of structure. If they worked on a building that had more than one purpose, i.e, office and residential, or commercial, they were to classify the building by major purpose.

In addition all respondents were requested to report the percentage of the value of construction work done for new construction, additions, alterations, or reconstruction, and maintenance and repair work for each of these types.

All Employees

Comprise all full-time and part-time employees on the payrolls of construction establishments, who worked or received pay for any part of the pay period including the 12th of March, May, August, and November. Included are all persons on paid sick leave, paid holidays, and paid vacations during these pay periods. Officers of corporations are included, but proprietors and partners of unincorporated firms are not. All employees is the sum of all employees during the pay periods including the 12th of March, May, August, and November, divided by 4.

Construction workers

Includes all workers up through the working supervisor level directly engaged in construction operations, such as painters, carpenters, plumbers, and electricians. Included are journeymen, mechanics, apprentices, laborers, truck drivers and helpers, equipment operators, and on-site record keepers and security guards. Supervisory employees above the working foreman level are excluded from this category but are included in the "other employees" category.

Other employees

Includes employees in executive, purchasing, accounting, personnel, professional, technical activities, and routine office functions. Also included are supervisory employees above the working foreman level.

Value of Construction Work Done

In earlier censuses, construction receipts only were collected. In 1987 and 1992, the value of construction work was collected to better measure actual construction activity done during the year.

Includes all value of construction work done during 1992 for construction work performed by general contractors and special trades contractors. Included is new construction, additions and alterations or reconstruction, and maintenance and repair construction work. Also included is the value of any construction work done by the reporting establishments for themselves.

Speculative builders were instructed to include the value of buildings and other structures built or being built for sale in 1992 but not sold. They were to include the costs of such construction plus normal profit. Also included is the cost of construction work done on buildings for rent or lease.

Establishments engaged in the sale and installation of such construction components as plumbing, heating, and central air conditioning supplies and equipment; lumber and building materials; paint, glass, and wallpaper; and electrical and wiring supplies, elevators or escalators were instructed to include both the value for the installation and the receipts covering the price of the items installed.

Excluded was the cost of industrial and other specialized machinery and equipment which are not an integral part of a structure.

General Building Contractors and Operative Builders
(SIC MAJOR GROUP 15)

This major group includes general contractors and operative builders primarily engaged in the construction of residential, farm, industrial, commercial, or other buildings. General building contractors who combine a special trade with the contracting are included in this major group.

Heavy Construction, except Building
(SIC MAJOR GROUP 16)

This major group includes general contractors primarily engaged in heavy construction other than building, such as highways and streets, bridges, sewers, railroads, irrigation projects, flood control projects and marine construction, and special trade contractors primarily engaged in activities of a type that are clearly specialized to such heavy construction and are not normally performed on buildings or building-related projects. Specialized activities that are covered here include grading for highways and airport runways; guardrail construction; installation of highway signs; trenching; underwater rock removal; and asphalt and concrete construction of roads, highways, streets and public sidewalks. Establishments primarily engaged in specialized activities that may be performed on buildings or on other heavy construction projects are classified in Major Group 17. These included contractors primarily engaged in painting (including bridge painting and traffic lane painting), electrical work (including work on bridges, power lines, and power plants), and carpentry work.

Special Trade Contractors
(SIC MAJOR GROUP 17)

This major group includes special trade contractors who undertake activities of a type that are specialized either to building construction, including work on mobile homes, or to both building and nonbuilding projects. These activities include painting (including bridge painting and traffic lane painting), electrical work (including work on bridges, power lines, and power plants), carpentry work, plumbing, heating, air-conditioning, roofing, and sheet metal work. Special trade contractors primarily engaged in activities that are clearly of a type specialized to heavy construction, such as grading for highways and airport runways; guardrail construction; installation of highway signs, underwater rock removal; and asphalt and concrete construction of roads, highways, streets, and public sidewalks are classified in Major Group 16.

Special trade contractors may work on subcontract from the general contractor, performing only part of the work covered by the general contract, or they may work directly for the owner. Special trade contractors for the most part perform their work at the site of construction, although they also may have shops where they perform work incidental to the job site.