Introducing a new way to navigate by topics. Access the latest news, data, publications and more around topics of interest.
Our population statistics cover age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, migration, ancestry, language use, veterans, as well as population estimates and projections.
This section provides information on a range of educational topics, from educational attainment and school enrollment to school districts, costs and financing.
We measure the state of the nations workforce, including employment and unemployment levels, weeks and hours worked, occupations, and commuting.
Our statistics highlight trends in household and family composition, describe characteristics of the residents of housing units, and show how they are related.
Health statistics on insurance coverage, disability, fertility and other health issues are increasingly important in measuring the nation's overall well-being.
We measure the housing and construction industry, track homeownership rates, and produce statistics on the physical and financial characteristics of our homes.
The U.S. Census Bureau is the official source for U.S. export and import statistics and regulations governing the reporting of exports from the U.S.
The U.S. Census Bureau provides data for the Federal, state and local governments as well as voting, redistricting, apportionment and congressional affairs.
Search an alphabetical index of keywords and phrases to access Census Bureau statistics, publications, products, services, data, and data tools.
Geography provides the framework for Census Bureau survey design, sample selection, data collection, tabulation, and dissemination.
Geography is central to the work of the Bureau, providing the framework for survey design, sample selection, data collection, tabulation, and dissemination.
Find resources on how to use geographic data and products with statistical data, educational blog postings, and presentations.
The Geographic Support System Initiative will integrate improved address coverage, spatial feature updates, and enhanced quality assessment and measurement.
Work with interactive mapping tools from across the Census Bureau.
Find geographic data and products such as Shapefiles, KMLs, TIGERweb, boundary files, geographic relationship files, and reference and thematic maps.
Metropolitan and micropolitan areas are geographic entities used by Federal statistical agencies in collecting, tabulating, and publishing Federal statistics.
Find information about specific partnership programs and learn more about our partnerships with other organizations.
Definitions of geographic terms, why geographic areas are defined, and how the Census Bureau defines geographic areas.
We conduct research on geographic topics such as how to define geographic areas and how geography changes over time.
Visit our library of Census Bureau multimedia files. Collection formats include audio, video, mobile apps, images, and publications.
Collection of audio features and sound bites.
The Census Bureau packages data and information into easy-to-understand visuals.
Browse Census Bureau images.
Read briefs and reports from Census Bureau experts.
Watch Census Bureau vignettes, testimonials, and video files.
Read research analyses from Census Bureau experts.
Access data through products and tools including data visualizations, mobile apps, interactive web apps and other software.
Developer portal to access services and documentation for the Census Bureau's APIs.
Explore Census Bureau data on your mobile device with interactive tools.
Find a multitude of DVDs, CDs and publications in print by topic.
These external sites provide more data.
Download extraction tools to help you get the in-depth data you need.
Learn more about our data from this collection of e-tutorials, presentations, webinars and other training materials. Sign up for training sessions.
Explore Census data with interactive visualizations covering a broad range of topics.
Learn how we serve the public as the most reliable source of data about the nation's people and economy.
How we provide the best mix of timeliness, relevancy, quality, and cost for the data we collect.
Our researchers explore innovative ways to conduct surveys, increase respondent participation, reduce costs, and improve accuracy.
Our surveys provide periodic and comprehensive statistics about the nation, critical for government programs, policies, and decisionmaking.
Learn about other opportunities to collaborate with us.
Explore the rich historical background of an organization with roots almost as old as the nation.
Explore prospective positions available at the Census Bureau.
Explore Census programs targeted for particular needs.
Discover the latest in Census Bureau data releases, reports, and events.
The Census Bureau's Director writes on how we measure America's people, places and economy.
Find interesting and quirky statistics regarding national celebrations and major events.
Listen to audio files on fun facts, historical figures, and celebrations of the month.
Find media toolkits, advisories, and all the latest Census news.
See what's coming up in releases and reports.
While the goal of SAIPE is providing estimates of numbers of people in poverty in various groups, for many purposes poverty rates are more readily interpreted. We provide these rates but regard them as inferior to the estimates of numbers of people in poverty because of the unknown quality of our estimates of the required denominators. We provide what we regard as "illustrative" confidence intervals around the poverty rates, which are computed as if the poverty universe estimates were "true", i.e., without error.
The state models estimate ratios of number of people in poverty to population, as measured in Current Population Survey (CPS) Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC), for the groups of interest. We convert them to estimates of numbers of people in poverty by multiplying by demographic estimates of the population, as covered by the CPS ASEC, for these groups. The county models directly estimate logarithms of numbers of people in poverty in the groups of interest. The computation of poverty rates based on the model-based state and county estimates of numbers of people in poverty requires estimates of the number of people in the relevant poverty universes. Because the poverty numbers are consistent with the CPS ASEC definitions, the poverty universes must also be. The poverty universes for CPS ASEC estimates of the numbers of people in poverty have specific definitions that exclude various population subgroups from the baseline noninstitutional population (the sampling frame for the survey). We base our approximations of these groups on county-level postcensal estimates (as of July, after the postcensal year for which the poverty estimates are created) of resident population and of the group quarters population by group quarters type and by age group provided by the Census Bureau Population Division. For our 1999 estimates, we based our approximation on the Census 2000 population. Procedures for state and county estimates are different from each other in postcensal years, and from census years.
State Level Estimates
We derive state level estimates of the poverty universes for postcensal years in five steps:
County Level Estimates
We derive county level estimates of the poverty universes for postcensal years in four steps:
Implicit Shift from Unadjusted to adjusted Populations Before Income Year 2000
Before income year 2000, when controlling the estimates of the poverty universe to CPS ASEC results, we implicitly generate population estimates at the county level that reflect adjustment for the 1990 census undercount. A second effect of the process is to shift the July population estimates to the CPS ASEC estimates that reflect the population as of March. Population estimates based on Census 2000 do not reflect any adjustment for undercount.
Poverty Universe Estimates for 1989
We form state and county-level 1989 poverty universe estimates for the computation of illustrative model-based poverty rates by multiplying 1990 census county poverty universes for the groups of interest by the ratio of the CPS ASEC national total to the 1990 census national total for each group.