Introducing a new way to navigate by topics. Access the latest news, data, publications and more around topics of interest.
Our population statistics cover age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, migration, ancestry, language use, veterans, as well as population estimates and projections.
This section provides information on a range of educational topics, from educational attainment and school enrollment to school districts, costs and financing.
We measure the state of the nations workforce, including employment and unemployment levels, weeks and hours worked, occupations, and commuting.
Our statistics highlight trends in household and family composition, describe characteristics of the residents of housing units, and show how they are related.
Health statistics on insurance coverage, disability, fertility and other health issues are increasingly important in measuring the nation's overall well-being.
We measure the housing and construction industry, track homeownership rates, and produce statistics on the physical and financial characteristics of our homes.
The U.S. Census Bureau is the official source for U.S. export and import statistics and regulations governing the reporting of exports from the U.S.
The U.S. Census Bureau provides data for the Federal, state and local governments as well as voting, redistricting, apportionment and congressional affairs.
Search an alphabetical index of keywords and phrases to access Census Bureau statistics, publications, products, services, data, and data tools.
Geography provides the framework for Census Bureau survey design, sample selection, data collection, tabulation, and dissemination.
Geography is central to the work of the Bureau, providing the framework for survey design, sample selection, data collection, tabulation, and dissemination.
Find resources on how to use geographic data and products with statistical data, educational blog postings, and presentations.
The Geographic Support System Initiative will integrate improved address coverage, spatial feature updates, and enhanced quality assessment and measurement.
Work with interactive mapping tools from across the Census Bureau.
Find geographic data and products such as Shapefiles, KMLs, TIGERweb, boundary files, geographic relationship files, and reference and thematic maps.
Metropolitan and micropolitan areas are geographic entities used by Federal statistical agencies in collecting, tabulating, and publishing Federal statistics.
Find information about specific partnership programs and learn more about our partnerships with other organizations.
Definitions of geographic terms, why geographic areas are defined, and how the Census Bureau defines geographic areas.
We conduct research on geographic topics such as how to define geographic areas and how geography changes over time.
Visit our library of Census Bureau multimedia files. Collection formats include audio, video, mobile apps, images, and publications.
Collection of audio features and sound bites.
The Census Bureau packages data and information into easy-to-understand visuals.
Browse Census Bureau images.
Read briefs and reports from Census Bureau experts.
Watch Census Bureau vignettes, testimonials, and video files.
Read research analyses from Census Bureau experts.
Access data through products and tools including data visualizations, mobile apps, interactive web apps and other software.
Developer portal to access services and documentation for the Census Bureau's APIs.
Explore Census Bureau data on your mobile device with interactive tools.
Find a multitude of DVDs, CDs and publications in print by topic.
These external sites provide more data.
Download extraction tools to help you get the in-depth data you need.
Learn more about our data from this collection of e-tutorials, presentations, webinars and other training materials. Sign up for training sessions.
Explore Census data with interactive visualizations covering a broad range of topics.
Learn how we serve the public as the most reliable source of data about the nation's people and economy.
How we provide the best mix of timeliness, relevancy, quality, and cost for the data we collect.
Our researchers explore innovative ways to conduct surveys, increase respondent participation, reduce costs, and improve accuracy.
Our surveys provide periodic and comprehensive statistics about the nation, critical for government programs, policies, and decisionmaking.
Learn about other opportunities to collaborate with us.
Explore the rich historical background of an organization with roots almost as old as the nation.
Explore prospective positions available at the Census Bureau.
Information about the current field vacancies available at the U.S. Census Bureau Regional Offices.
Discover the latest in Census Bureau data releases, reports, and events.
The Census Bureau's Director writes on how we measure America's people, places and economy.
Find interesting and quirky statistics regarding national celebrations and major events.
Listen to audio files on fun facts, historical figures, and celebrations of the month.
Find media toolkits, advisories, and all the latest Census news.
See what's coming up in releases and reports.
For states and counties, comparisons between modeled estimates for two different years, in the 2006-2013 time period are possible for median household income, poverty rate of the all-age population and poverty rate of the population ages 0 to 17. For the school-age poverty rate estimates, which is the population ages 5 to 17 in families, comparisons can be made for a wider interval, 2005-2013. Comparison of the number in poverty for a given period between 2013 and earlier years is not generally recommended. Such comparisons should be done with caution, due to the new decennial 2013 baseline incorporated in the more recent estimates. No guidance for comparison of school district-level estimates, either poverty rates or number in poverty, is given.
The SAIPE program has produced precise estimates of the significance of year-to-year changes for individual counties. Listings for counties in which we measure a significant change at the 90% level over the 2007-2013 interval are given in List of Counties with Significant Changes between 2007 and 2013.xls [XLS - 147k]. For other intervals of interest, an approximate method for determining the significance of changes over time is available.
First, construct an approximate upper bound for the margin of error (MOE) for the difference between the two estimates chosen for comparison. This approximate upper bound MOE is constructed as the square root of the sum-of-squares of the individual MOEs for each estimate (see example below).
If this constructed MOE for the difference is smaller than the absolute value of the calculated difference between the two point estimates, then one can conclude that the two estimates are significantly different for at least a 90% statistical significance level. If the MOE for the difference is larger than the calculated difference between the two point estimates, then the comparison is inconclusive as to whether or not there is a statistically significant difference.
For example, say the 2013 SAIPE estimate for percent in poverty, within the population ages 0-17, were 15.1% for county A, with a MOE of 1.4, and 18.2% in county B, with a MOE of 1.5%. Then the calculation is:
90% MOE for the difference between the two estimates = square-root(1.4 x 1.4 + 1.5 x 1.5) = 2.0% Absolute value of the difference between the two estimates = 18.2 - 15.1 = 3.1%
Since the MOE of the difference, 2.0%, is less than the difference between the two estimates, 3.1%, one can conclude that the two estimates are significantly different, with at least a 90% significance level. In contrast, if county A's poverty rate were instead 16.3%, and all other values as above, then the difference between the two estimates, 1.9%, is less than the MOE of the difference, 2.0%, and the test would be inconclusive.
Note this method produces a reasonable upper bound approximation to the 90% margin of error for the difference, and not an exact MOE. The reason for this caveat is that modeled estimates like SAIPE have correlations between the estimates, and the exact MOE would account for these correlations. For SAIPE over the time period 2005-2013, all correlations have been estimated as strongly positive, which means the exact MOE would be generally smaller than the approximation described above and the recommended test would have a confidence level better than 90%.
The same approximate methodology can be applied to median household income estimates. This technique should only be used for the 2006 to 2013 time period (2005 to 2013 for ages 5 to 17 in families). Earlier SAIPE estimates were based on the Current Population Survey’s Annual Social and Economic Characteristics Supplement, which has a different sample design, period of coverage, and other differences that create a notable difference in poverty and income measurement.