The U.S. Census Bureau develops demographic, economic, geographic, and fiscal data for school districts, and many of these data collection activities are conducted in cooperation with the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), part of the U.S. Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences. The U.S. Census Bureau does not collect student achievement information and it does not provide data that identifies characteristics of individual students or staff members.
The U.S. Census Bureau's Geography Division updates school district boundaries every other year as part of the School District Review Program. This initiative provides boundaries for the production of school district demographic estimates, and also provides school district boundary layers for the Census Bureau's TIGER/Line spatial data products.
As part of the Annual Survey of Government Finances, the U.S. Census Bureau's Governments Division collects fiscal data from a wide variety of local governments and agencies with taxing authority, including school districts.
The U.S. Census Bureau's Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates program (SAIPE) produces annually updated school district poverty estimates to support the administration and allocation of Title I funding under the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (the most recent reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965). These data include estimates of total population, number of children ages 5 to 17, and number of related children ages 5 to 17 in families in poverty.
The U.S. Census Bureau's Education Demographic and Geographic Estimates project (EDGE) produces a variety of geodemographic data for the National Center for Education Statistics. It is the primary source of custom tabulated school district demographic data from the decennial census and the American Community Survey.