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Our population statistics cover age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, migration, ancestry, language use, veterans, as well as population estimates and projections.
This section provides information on a range of educational topics, from educational attainment and school enrollment to school districts, costs and financing.
We measure the state of the nations workforce, including employment and unemployment levels, weeks and hours worked, occupations, and commuting.
Our statistics highlight trends in household and family composition, describe characteristics of the residents of housing units, and show how they are related.
Health statistics on insurance coverage, disability, fertility and other health issues are increasingly important in measuring the nation's overall well-being.
We measure the housing and construction industry, track homeownership rates, and produce statistics on the physical and financial characteristics of our homes.
The U.S. Census Bureau is the official source for U.S. export and import statistics and regulations governing the reporting of exports from the U.S.
The U.S. Census Bureau provides data for the Federal, state and local governments as well as voting, redistricting, apportionment and congressional affairs.
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Geography provides the framework for Census Bureau survey design, sample selection, data collection, tabulation, and dissemination.
Geography is central to the work of the Bureau, providing the framework for survey design, sample selection, data collection, tabulation, and dissemination.
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The Geographic Support System Initiative will integrate improved address coverage, spatial feature updates, and enhanced quality assessment and measurement.
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Metropolitan and micropolitan areas are geographic entities used by Federal statistical agencies in collecting, tabulating, and publishing Federal statistics.
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Definitions of geographic terms, why geographic areas are defined, and how the Census Bureau defines geographic areas.
We conduct research on geographic topics such as how to define geographic areas and how geography changes over time.
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Learn how we serve the public as the most reliable source of data about the nation's people and economy.
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Our researchers explore innovative ways to conduct surveys, increase respondent participation, reduce costs, and improve accuracy.
Our surveys provide periodic and comprehensive statistics about the nation, critical for government programs, policies, and decisionmaking.
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The Census Bureau's Director writes on how we measure America's people, places and economy.
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To prepare economic census data for release to the public, the data are processed in three primary ways:
Data captured in an economic census must be edited to identify and correct reporting errors. The data also must be adjusted to account for missing items and for businesses that do not respond. Data edits detect and validate data by considering factors such as proper classification for a given record, historical reporting for the record and industry/geographic ratios and averages.
The first step of the data editing process is classification. To assign a valid kind-of-business or industry classification code to the establishment, computer programs subject the respondents’ responses to pre-specified items of a series of data edit programs. The specific items used for classification depend on the census report forms and include:
If critical information is missing, the record is flagged and fixed by analysts before further processing occurs.
If all critical information is available, the classification code is assigned automatically. After classification codes are assigned, a "verification" operation is performed to validate the industry, geography and ZIP Codes.
After an establishment has been assigned a valid industry code, the data edits further evaluate the response data for consistency and validity—for example, assuring that employment data are consistent with payroll or sales/receipts data. Response data is always evaluated by industry; in some cases, type of operation or tax-exempt status is also taken into account. Additional checks compare current year data to data reported in previous censuses or from administrative sources.
Nonresponse is handled by estimating or imputing missing data. Imputation is defined as the replacement of a missing or incorrectly reported item with another value derived from logical edits or statistical procedures.
There are two types of nonresponse:
Title 13 of the United States Code states that respondents are required to answer all questions to the best of their ability. Incomplete forms, unclear or erroneous data, or nonresponse can affect data analyses and the quality of the published data.
Problems that arise from missing data include:
Note: If a data cell contains too much imputation, the value will be suppressed with an ‘S’ flag.
Individual establishment records are tabulated in different ways based on data product and analytical needs. Tabulations include data summed by industry, specified geographic areas, establishment-size, products produced, materials used, fuels used and product lines sold.