The US Census Bureau

2002 Economic Census main page

2002 Economic Census:
Comparative Statistics and Bridge
Introductory Text

Introduction to the Economic Census
Purposes and uses Industry classifications Relationship to historical classifications Basis of reporting Geographic area coding Additional data Historical information Sources for more information

Drill-Down Tables  Appendix C

Drill-Down Tables


The Geographic Area Series drill-down tables present data from the 2002 Economic Census Geographic Area Series and Subject Series reports.

The Comparative Statistics report presents data at the two- and three-digit, and selected four- through six-digit 1997 NAICS levels for 2002 and 1997. This report includes statistics on the number of establishments; employment; payroll; and value of sales, receipts, revenue, or shipments for establishments of firms with paid employees. Drill-down tables include the percent change between 1997 and 2002 for each statistic, figures not published elsewhere.

The Bridge Between 2002 NAICS and 1997 NAICS report presents data for 2002 for (a) industries whose NAICS classification has changed between 1997 and 2002, or (2) industries affected by changes in the way NAICS classifications were implemented in census operations between 1997 and 2002, typically because the definitions were developed too late for imlementation in the 1997 Economic Census. Data are shown for each of these six-digit 2002 NAICS industries and their 1997 NAICS components, as well as data for each corresponding six-digit 1997 NAICS industry and its 2002 NAICS components. This report includes statistics on the number of establishments; employment; payroll; and value of sales, receipts, revenue, or shipments for establishments of firms with paid employees. The structures of Bridge table 1 and table 2 are discussed separately.

Exclusions: The economic census does not include the Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, and Hunting sector and the Public Administration sector. A number of individual industries, such as religious organizations, also are not covered. Further, government-owned establishments in covered industries, such as a government-operated trade school, are also not included, with the exception of government-operated hospitals and liquor stores, which are included.

These tables exclude establishments of firms with no paid employees. These “nonemployers”, typically self-employed individuals or partnerships operating businesses that they have not chosen to incorporate, are reported separately in Nonemployer Statistics. The contribution of nonemployers may be examined at

Definitions: Definitions of industry categories and other terms are linked in the column and row headings of the tables.


The drill-down tables provide only the highlights from the 2002 Economic Census. Additional details are published in the following series, available in PDF and in American FactFinder.

Subject Series. For each sector, there are reports that explore a particular subject in greater detail, primarily at the national level. Examples include product lines and establishment and firm size.

ZIP Code report. This report presents data for establishments of firms with payroll by United States ZIP Code for nine sectors.

Nonemployer Statistics report. This report presents the number of establishments and receipts for nonemployers, that is, firms not subject to payroll tax, typically self-employed individuals. Data are presented for the United States and States, and are also available for counties and metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas.

Survey of Business Owners. There is a separate report for businesses owned by Blacks, Hispanics, Asians and Pacific Islanders, American Indians and Alaska Natives, and women, with a company summary that includes businesses owned by whites and males. Data are presented for both firms with paid employees and all firms, including nonemployers. General statistics are shown for the United States, states, metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas, counties, and places with 2,500 or more inhabitants. Additional characteristics shown for the United States and states include owner characteristics, such as age, education level, and disability status, and business characteristics, such as sources of financing and whether the business is home-based or family owned.

Business Expenses report. This report presents, for the United States, operating expenses for wholesale merchants, retail trade, most service sectors, and manufacturing.


All dollar values presented are expressed in current dollars; i.e., 2002 data are expressed in 2002 dollars, and 1997 data, in 1997 dollars. Consequently, when making comparisons with prior years, users of the data should consider the changes in prices that have occurred.

All dollar values are shown in thousands of dollars.


Both the 2002 Economic Census and the 1997 Economic Census present data based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). The changes between 1997 and 2002 NAICS have had a much smaller impact on the comparability of data between the 2002 and 1997 censuses than the change from SIC to NAICS had between the 1992 and 1997 censuses. A summary of the 1997-2002 changes lists highlights by NAICS sector. For more detailed information on these NAICS changes, see the Bridge Between 2002 NAICS and 1997 NAICS report.

Comparative Statistics presents data classified according to NAICS 1997 to facilitate year-to-year comparisons. Data for 1997 are shown as "N" in those cases where census industry classification practices differed enough between 1997 and 2002 that the results were considered not comparable. Those data are still included in higher level totals, where the relative impact of the classification change is much smaller.

The following industries included in 2002 were out of scope of the 1997 Economic Census: NAICS 54132 Landscape Architectural Services, 54194 Veterinary Services, 56173 Landscaping Services, and 81291 Pet Care (except Veterinary) Services.

The 2002 data for selected industries include “enterprise support” establishments that primarily serve other establishments of the same enterprise. These establishments were not included in industry totals in 1997, but were instead included in the “Auxiliaries, Excluding Corporate, Subsidiary, and Regional Managing Offices” reports.


Most data compiled in this report originated from either census report forms or administrative records of other federal agencies and, therefore, are not subject to sampling errors. However, all of the data are subject to nonsampling errors. Nonsampling errors can be attributed to many sources: inability to identify all cases in the actual universe; definition and classification difficulties; differences in the interpretation of questions; errors in recording or coding the data obtained; and other errors of collection, response, coverage, processing, and estimation for missing or misreported data.

In addition, data for the Construction sector are subject to sampling errors. The estimates developed from the sample can differ somewhat from the results of a survey covering all companies in the sample lists, but are otherwise conducted under essentially the same conditions as the actual sample survey. A result of these sampling errors can be seen in the Bridge Between 2002 NAICS and 1997 NAICS report where the data for a construction industry presented in the NAICS 2002-based tables and the NAICS 1997-based tables may not match when a piece of that industry moved from the Construction sector (which is subject to sampling errors) to another sector (for example, Mining) which is not subject to sampling errors. The estimates of the magnitude of the sampling errors (the difference between the estimates obtained and the results theoretically obtained from a comparable, complete-coverage survey) are provided by the standard errors of estimates shown in two tables in American FactFinder.

For a more detailed discussion of these sampling errors, see Appendix C, Methodology.

The accuracy of these tabulated data is determined by the joint effects of the various nonsampling errors. No direct measurement of these effects has been obtained except for estimation for missing or misreported data; however, precautionary steps were taken in all phases of the collection, processing, and tabulation of the data in an effort to minimize the effects of nonsampling errors.

Moreover, the Census Bureau obtains on computer tape limited information extracted from administrative records of other federal agencies. This information is used in conjunction with other information available to the Census Bureau to develop estimates for nonemployers, small employers, and other establishments for which responses were not received in time for publication.


In accordance with federal law governing census reports (Title 13 of the United States Code), no data are published that would disclose the operations of an individual establishment or company. However, the number of establishments classified in a specific industry or geography is not considered a disclosure and may be released even though other information is withheld for that industry or geography.


The U.S. Census Bureau conducts a number of monthly, quarterly, and annual surveys of businesses. These surveys, while providing more frequent observations, typically yield less kind-of-business and geographic detail than the economic census.

The County Business Patterns program offers annual statistics on the number of establishments, employment, and payroll classified by industry within each county, and Statistics of U.S. Businesses provides annual statistics classified by the employment size of the enterprise, further classified by industry for the United States, and by broader industry categories for states and metropolitan areas. Both of these programs include data for a few industries excluded from economic census reports.


Questions about these data may be directed to the U.S. Census Bureau, Economic Planning and Coordination Division, 1-877-790-1876 or


The following abbreviation is used with these data:

D Withheld to avoid disclosing data of individual companies; data are included in higher level totals
N Not available
Q Receipts not collected at this level of detail for multiestablishment firms
r revised
S Withheld because estimates did not meet publication standards
X Not applicable