The US Census Bureau

2002 Economic Census main page

2002 Economic Census:
Comparability of the
2002 and 1997 Censuses



Introduction to the Economic Census
Purposes and uses Industry classifications Relationship to historical classifications Basis of reporting Geographic area coding Additional data Historical information Sources for more information

Drill-Down Tables  Appendix C
 Methodology

COMPARABILITY OF THE 2002 AND 1997 CENSUSES

Both the 2002 Economic Census and the 1997 Economic Census present data based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). The changes between 1997 and 2002 NAICS have had a much smaller impact on the comparability of data between the 2002 and 1997 censuses than the change from SIC to NAICS had between the 1992 and 1997 censuses. A summary of these changes, grouped by NAICS sector, is presented below. For more detailed information on these NAICS changes, see the Bridge Between 2002 NAICS and 1997 NAICS report.

NAICS Sector 21, Mining

There were several revisions to selected industries in the mining sector for 2002. These changes were due to industries that are now being classified in the construction sector. These changes are:

NAICS Sector 22, Utilities

Among electric, gas, and water utilities, many locations with activities that might in other industries be considered as support or auxiliary activities (such as headquarters operations) are included in this report as operating locations.

NAICS Sector 23, Construction

For the 2002 Economic Census, there were substantial revisions made to the entire construction sector. These changes are summarized below:

  1. Each subsector from 1997 has been reclassified in 2002 to:
  2. 236Construction of Buildings
    237Heavy and Civil Engineering Construction
    238Specialty Trade Contractors
  3. This sector adopted several mining industries:
    1. Oil and gas pipeline and related structures construction is now in industry 237120
    2. Site preparation and related construction activities on a contract or fee basis is now in industry 238910.
  4. The sector also adopted part of industry 561720 (Janitorial Services) in the Administrative and Support and Waste Management and Remediation Services sector. Cleaning buildings interiors during and immediately after construction is now in industry 238990.

NAICS Sector 42, Wholesale Trade

Under the 1997 NAICS, Wholesale Trade was comprised of two subsectors: 421, Wholesale Trade, Durable Goods, and 422, Wholesale Trade, Nondurable Goods. In addition, the U.S. Census Bureau presented data in the Wholesale Trade sector by three type-of-operation categories: 1) Merchant wholesalers, 2) Manufacturers' sales branches and offices, and 3) Agents, brokers, and commission merchants.

Under the 2002 NAICS, to recognize production differences in some types of operation, the Wholesale Trade sector was reorganized into three subsectors: 423, Merchant Wholesalers, Durable Goods; 424, Merchant Wholesalers, Nondurable Goods; and 425, Wholesale Electronic Markets and Agents and Brokers. The 2002 NAICS industry definitions for Merchant Wholesalers in subsectors 423 and 424 include type-of-operation categories for manufacturers' sales branches and offices, as well as the 1997 Census Bureau-defined merchant wholesalers. Agents and brokers are defined as a separate NAICS industry in subsector 425 and are no longer included in the type-of-operation structure. For 2002, data are presented by two type-of-operation categories: 1) Merchant wholesalers, except manufacturers' sales branches and offices, and 2) Manufacturers' sales branches and offices.

In Comparative Statistics, 1997 data are replaced with "N" for some industries where changes 1997 to 2002 in census implementation of NAICS classifications shifted significant operations between wholesale trade and retail trade.

NAICS Sector 44-45, Retail Trade

There were revisions to some industries in this sector for 2002.

For the Retail Trade sector, additional levels of detail for department stores and nonstore retailers are included in 2002 NAICS. Department stores are now further broken down into Department Stores (except Discount Department Stores) and Discount Department Stores. Electronic Shopping and Mail-Order Houses are now further broken down into Electronic Shopping, Electronic Auctions, and Mail-Order Houses.

NAICS classifications reflect the establishment operations that exist during the reporting period. The data may not reflect true changes in an industry between census years due to company shifts in operations, resulting in classification changes.

In Comparative Statistics, 1997 data are replaced with "N" for some industries where changes 1997 to 2002 in census implementation of NAICS classifications shifted significant operations between retail trade and wholesale trade.

NAICS Sector 48-49, Transportation and Warehousing

These tables for 2002 include transportation and warehousing establishments that primarily serve other establishments of the same enterprise. These “enterprise support” establishments were not included in data for this sector in 1997, but were instead included in the “Other auxiliary establishments” kind-of-business category in the “Auxiliaries, Excluding Corporate, Subsidiary, and Regional Managing Offices” reports.

NAICS Sector 51, Information

For the 2002 Economic Census, new industries were created for Internet publishing and broadcasting and Web search portals. Revisions to the hierarchical structure were also made and revised NAICS codes were assigned to selected industries.

Also, the tables for 2002 include information establishments that primarily serve other establishments of the same enterprise. These “enterprise support” establishments were not included in data for the information sector in 1997, but were instead included in the “Other auxiliary establishments” kind-of-business category in the “Auxiliaries, Excluding Corporate, Subsidiary, and Regional Managing Offices” reports.

NAICS Sector 54, Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services

For 2002, data for NAICS 54132, Landscape Architectural Services, and NAICS 54194, Veterinary Services, are included. These NAICS industries were out of scope in 1997.

Also, tables for 2002 include professional, scientific, and technical service establishments that primarily serve other establishments of the same enterprise. These “enterprise support” establishments were not included in data for the professional, scientific, and technical services sector in 1997, but were instead included in the “Other auxiliary establishments” kind-of-business category in the “Auxiliaries, Excluding Corporate, Subsidiary, and Regional Managing Offices” reports.

NAICS Sector 56, Administrative and Support and Waste Management and Remediation Services

For 2002, data for NAICS 56173, Landscaping Services, are included. This NAICS industry was out of scope in 1997.

Also, the tables for 2002 include administrative support and waste management and remediation service establishments that primarily serve other establishments of the same enterprise. These “enterprise support” establishments were not included in data for the administrative and support and waste management and remediation services sector in 1997, but were instead included in the “Other auxiliary establishments” kind-of-business category in the “Auxiliaries, Excluding Corporate, Subsidiary, and Regional Managing Offices” reports.

NAICS Sector 61, Educational Services

The tables for 2002 include educational establishments that primarily serve other establishments of the same enterprise. These “enterprise support” establishments were not included in data for the educational services sector in 1997, but were instead included in the “Other auxiliary establishments” kind-of-business category in the “Auxiliaries, Excluding Corporate, Subsidiary, and Regional Managing Offices” reports.

NAICS Sector 72, Accommodation and Food Services

NAICS classifications reflect the establishment operations that exist during the reporting period. The data may not reflect true changes in an industry between census years due to company shifts in operations, resulting in classification changes.

NAICS Sector 81, Other Services (except Public Administration)

These tables for 2002 include other services (except public administration) that primarily serve other establishments of the same enterprise. These “enterprise support” establishments were not included in data for the other services (except public administration) sector in 1997, but were instead included in the “Other auxiliary establishments” kind-of-business category in the “Auxiliaries, Excluding Corporate, Subsidiary, and Regional Managing Offices” reports.