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Survey of Business Owners (SBO)

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Definiton of Common Terms

    GENDER

    Gender is based on self-identification; respondents are asked to report the sex they consider the business owner to be. Businesses could be categorized either as:
    • Women-owned or female-owned. Women own 51 percent or more of the equity, interest, or stock of the business.
    • Men-owned or male-owned. Men own 51 percent or more of the equity, interest, or stock of the business.
    • Equally men-/women-owned or equally male-/female-owned. A 50-percent male and 50-percent female ownership of the equity, interest, or stock of the business.

    ETHNICITY

    Ethnicity and race are treated as separate concepts in the federal statistical system. The SBO asks both an ethnicity and a race question. Based on self-identification, the question on ethnicity asks the respondents if the business owner(s) is Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino.

    The ethnicity categories are:
    • Hispanic or Latino. A person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race. Data are tabulated for the following Hispanic subgroups:
      • Mexican, Mexican American, Chicano
      • Puerto Rican
      • Cuban
      • Other Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin
    • Not Hispanic or Latino. A person not of Hispanic or Latino culture, regardless of race.

    Businesses could be categorized either as:
    • Hispanic-owned. Hispanics own 51 percent or more of the equity, interest, or stock of the business.
    • Equally Hispanic-/non-Hispanic-owned. A 50-percent Hispanic and 50-percent non-Hispanic ownership of the equity, interest, or stock of the business.
    • Non-Hispanic-owned. Non-Hispanics own 51 percent or more of the equity, interest, or stock of the business.

    Detail may not add to total for all businesses because a Hispanic or Latino firm may be of any race. Moreover, each owner had the option of selecting more than one race and therefore is included in each race selected.

    RACE

    Race and ethnicity are treated as separate concepts in the federal statistical system. The SBO asks both a race and an ethnicity question. Based on self-identification, the question on race asks respondents to report the race or races they consider the business owner(s) to be.

    The race categories are:
    • American Indian or Alaska Native. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America), and who maintains tribal affiliation or community attachment.
    • Asian. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam. Data are tabulated for the following Asian subgroups:
      • Asian Indian
      • Chinese
      • Filipino
      • Japanese
      • Korean
      • Vietnamese
      • Other Asian
    • Black or African American. A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa, including those who consider themselves to be "Haitian."
    • Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands. Data are tabulated for the following Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander subgroups:
      • Native Hawaiian
      • Samoan
      • Guamanian or Chamorro
      • Other Pacific Islander
    • White. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, North Africa, or the Middle East.
    • Some other race. This category includes all other responses not included in the "American Indian or Alaska Native," "Asian," "Black or African American," "Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander," and "White" race categories described above.

    Businesses could be categorized either as:
    • American Indian- and Alaska Native-owned. American Indians and Alaska Natives own 51 percent or more of the equity, interest, or stock of the business.
    • Asian-owned. Asians own 51 percent or more of the equity, interest, or stock of the business.
    • Black-owned. Blacks or African Americans own 51 percent or more of the equity, interest, or stock of the business.
    • Native Hawaiian- and Other Pacific Islander-owned. Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders own 51 percent or more of the equity, interest, or stock of the business.
    • White-owned. Whites own 51 percent or more of the equity, interest, or stock of the business.
    • Minority-owned. Hispanics, Blacks or African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders, and/or owners of some other race not classified as "non-Hispanic White" own 51 percent or more of the equity, interest, or stock of the business.
    • Equally minority-/nonminority-owned. A 50-percent minority and a 50-percent nonminority ownership of the equity, interest, or stock of the business.
    • Nonminority-owned. Non-Hispanic Whites own 51 percent or more of the equity, interest, or stock of the business.

    Detail may not add to total for all businesses because a Hispanic or Latino firm may be of any race. Moreover, each owner had the option of selecting more than one race and therefore is included in each race selected.

    VETERAN STATUS

    Veteran status is based on self-identification; respondents are asked to report if a business owner is a veteran of the U.S. military service including the Coast Guard. Businesses could be categorized either as:
    • Veteran-owned. U.S. military service veterans own 51 percent or more of the equity, interest, or stock of the business.
    • Equally veteran-/nonveteran-owned. A 50-percent veteran and 50-percent nonveteran ownership of the equity, interest, or stock of the business.
    • Nonveteran-owned. Nonveterans own 51 percent or more of the equity, interest, or stock of the business.

    PUBLIC

    Publicly held and other firms not classifiable by gender, ethnicity, race, and veteran status companies include:
    • Publicly held. Includes corporate enterprises owned by many shareholders who hold a collective interest in the equity of the company in the form of shares of stock. Capital may be raised by selling ownership shares to the general public.
    • Foreign-owned. Includes U.S. corporations controlled or owned by any foreign entity directly or indirectly, based on 50 percent or more of a U.S. corporation's voting stock at the end of the tax year.
    • Not for profit. Establishments that indicated that all or part of their income was exempt from federal income tax under provisions of Section 501 of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) code.

    [Note: Publicly held and other firms not classifiable by gender, ethnicity, race, and veteran status data are tabulated separately in the ethnicity, race, and veteran status fields. As the result of these tabulations and the timing of the data releases, these estimates may not always be equal when comparing 2007 SBO data files.]

Source: U.S. Census Bureau | Survey of Business Owners | (301) 763-3316 | csd.sbo@census.gov Last Revised: May 19, 2014