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1997 NAICS

Sector 11--Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting

The Sector as a Whole

The Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting sector comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, harvesting timber, and harvesting fish and other animals from a farm, ranch, or their natural habitats.

The establishments in this sector are often described as farms, ranches, dairies, greenhouses, nurseries, orchards, or hatcheries. A farm may consist of a single tract of land or a number of separate tracts which may be held under different tenures. For example, one tract may be owned by the farm operator and another rented. It may be operated by the operator alone or with the assistance of members of the household or hired employees, or it may be operated by a partnership, corporation, or other type of organization. When a landowner has one or more tenants, renters, croppers, or managers, the land operated by each is considered a farm.

The sector distinguishes two basic activities: agricultural production and agricultural support activities. Agricultural production includes establishments performing the complete farm or ranch operation, such as farm owner-operators, tenant farm operators, and sharecroppers. Agricultural support activities include establishments that perform one or more activities associated with farm operation, such as soil preparation, planting, harvesting, and management, on a contract or fee basis.

Excluded from the Agriculture, Forestry, Hunting and Fishing sector are establishments primarily engaged in agricultural research and establishments primarily engaged in administering programs for regulating and conserving land, mineral, wildlife, and forest use. These establishments are classified in Industry 54171, Research and Development in the Physical, Engineering, and Life Sciences; and Industry 92412, Administration of Conservation Programs, respectively.

111 Crop Production

Industries in the Crop Production subsector grow crops mainly for food and fiber. The subsector comprises establishments, such as farms, orchards, groves, greenhouses, and nurseries, primarily engaged in growing crops, plants, vines, or trees and their seeds.

The industries in this subsector are grouped by similarity of production activity, including biological and physiological characteristics and economic requirements, the length of growing season, degree of crop rotation, extent of input specialization, labor requirements, and capital demands. The production process is typically completed when the raw product or commodity grown reaches the "farm gate" for market, that is, at the point of first sale or price determination.

Establishments are classified to the crop production subsector when crop production (i.e., value of crops for market) accounts for one-half or more of the establishment's total agricultural production. Within the subsector, establishments are classified to a specific industry when a product or industry family of products (i.e., oilseed and grain farming, vegetable and melon farming, fruit and tree nut farming) account for one-half or more of the establishment's agricultural production. Establishments with one-half or more crop production with no one product or family of products of an industry accounting for one-half of the establishment's agricultural production are treated as general combination crop farming and are classified in Industry 11199, All Other Crop Farming.

Industries in the Crop Production subsector include establishments that own, operate, and manage and those that operate and manage. Those that manage only are classified in Subsector 115, Support Activities for Agriculture and Forestry.

1111 Oilseed and Grain Farming

This industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) growing oilseed and/or grain crops and/or (2) producing oilseed and grain seeds. These crops have an annual life cycle and are typically grown in open fields.

11111 Soybean Farming

See industry description for 111110 below.

111110 Soybean Farming

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing soybeans and/or producing soybean seeds.

Cross-References.

Establishments engaged in growing soybeans in combination with grain(s) with the soybeans or grain(s) not accounting for one-half of the establishment's agricultural production (value of crops for market) are classified in U.S. Industry 111191, Oilseed and Grain Combination Farming.

11112 Oilseed (except Soybean) Farming

See industry description for 111120 below.

111120 Oilseed (except Soybean) Farming

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing fibrous oilseed producing plants and/or producing oilseed seeds, such as sunflower, safflower, flax, rape, canola, and sesame.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Growing soybeans--are classified in Industry 111110, Soybean Farming; and
  • Growing oilseed(s) in combination with grain(s) with no one oilseed (or family of oilseeds) or grain(s) (or family of grains) accounting for one-half of the establishment's agricultural production (value of crops for market)--are classified in U.S. Industry 111191, Oilseed and Grain Combination Farming.

11113 Dry Pea and Bean Farming

See industry description for 111130 below.

111130 Dry Pea and Bean Farming

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing dried peas, beans, and/or lentils.

Cross-References.

Establishments primarily engaged in growing fresh green beans and peas are classified in U.S. Industry 111219, Other Vegetable (except Potato) and Melon Farming.

11114 Wheat Farming

See industry description for 111140 below.

111140 Wheat Farming

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing wheat and/or producing wheat seeds.

Cross-References.

Establishments growing wheat in combination with oilseed(s) with the wheat or oilseed(s) not accounting for one-half of the establishment's agricultural production (value of crops for market) are classified in U.S. Industry 111191, Oilseed and Grain Combination Farming.

11115 Corn Farming

See industry description for 111150 below.

111150 Corn Farming

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing corn (except sweet corn) and/or producing corn seeds.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Growing sweet corn--are classified in U.S. Industry 111219, Other Vegetable (except Potato) and Melon Farming; and
  • Growing corn in combination with oilseed(s) with the corn or oilseed(s) not accounting for one-half of the establishment's production (value of crops for market)--are classified in U.S. Industry 111191, Oilseed and Grain Combination Farming.

11116 Rice Farming

See industry description for 111160 below.

111160 Rice Farming

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing rice (except wild rice) and/or producing rice seeds.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Growing wild rice--are classified in U.S. Industry 111199, All Other Grain Farming; and
  • Engaged in growing rice in combination with oilseed(s) with the rice or oilseed(s) not accounting for one-half of the establishment's agricultural production (value of crops for market)--are classified in U.S. Industry 111191, Oilseed and Grain Combination Farming.

11119 Other Grain Farming

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) growing grain(s) and/or producing grain seeds (except wheat, corn, and rice) or (2) growing a combination of grain(s) and oilseed(s) with no one grain (or family of grains) or oilseed (or family of oilseeds) accounting for one-half of the establishment's agriculture production (value of crops for market). Combination grain(s) and oilseed(s) establishments may produce oilseed(s) and grain(s) seeds and/or grow oilseed(s) and grain(s).

Illustrative Examples:

Barley farming
Milo farming
Oat farming
Oilseed and grain combination farming
Rye farming
Sorghum farming
Wild rice farming

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Growing wheat--are classified in U.S. Industry 11114, Wheat Farming;
  • Growing corn (except sweet corn)--are classified in U.S. Industry 11115, Corn Farming;
  • Growing sweet corn--are classified in U.S. Industry 11121, Vegetable and Melon Farming; and
  • Growing rice (except wild rice)--are classified in U.S. Industry 11116, Rice Farming.

111191 Oilseed and Grain Combination FarmingUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments engaged in growing a combination of oilseed(s) and grain(s) with no one oilseed (or family of oilseeds) or grain (or family of grains) accounting for one-half of the establishment's agricultural production (value of crops for market). These establishments may produce oilseed(s) and grain(s) seeds and/or grow oilseed(s) and grain(s).

Cross-References.

Establishments engaged in growing one grain (or family of grains) or oilseed (or family of oilseeds) accounting for one-half of the establishment's agriculture production (value of crops for market) are classified in Industry Group 1111, Oilseed and Grain Farming accordingly by the prominent grain(s) or oilseed(s) grown.

111199 All Other Grain FarmingUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing grains and/or producing grain(s) seeds (except wheat, corn, rice, and oilseed(s) and grain(s) combinations).

Illustrative Examples:

Barley farming
Oat farming
Rye farming
Sorghum farming
Wild rice farming

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Growing wheat--are classified in Industry 111140, Wheat Farming;
  • Growing corn--are classified in Industry 111150, Corn Farming;
  • Growing rice (except wild rice)--are classified in Industry 111160, Rice Farming;
  • Growing sweet corn--are classified in U.S. Industry 111219, Other Vegetable (except Potato) and Melon Farming; and
  • Growing a combination of grain(s) and oilseed(s) with no one grain (or family of grains) or oilseed (or family of oilseeds) accounting for one-half of the establishment's agricultural production (value of crops for market)--are classified in U.S. Industry 111191, Oilseed and Grain Combination Farming.

1112 Vegetable and Melon Farming

This industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing root and tuber crops (except sugar beets and peanuts) or edible plants and/or producing root and tuber or edible plant seeds. The crops included in this group have an annual growth cycle and are grown in open fields. Climate and cultural practices limit producing areas but often permit the growing of a combination of crops in a year.

11121 Vegetable and Melon Farming

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) growing vegetable and/or melon crops; (2) producing vegetable and melon seeds; and (3) growing vegetable and/or melon bedding plants.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Growing sugar beets--are classified in Industry 11199, All Other Crop Farming;
  • Growing vegetables and melons under glass or protective cover--are classified in Industry 11141, Food Crops Grown Under Cover;
  • Growing dry peas and beans--are classified in Industry 11113, Dry Pea and Bean Farming;
  • Growing corn (except sweet corn)--are classified in Industry 11115, Corn Farming;
  • Canning, pickling, and/or drying (artificially) vegetables--are classified in Industry 31142, Fruit and Vegetable Canning, Pickling and Drying; and
  • Growing fruit on trees and other fruit-bearing plants (except melons)--are classified in Industry Group 1113, Fruit and Tree Nut Farming.

111211 Potato FarmingCAN

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing potatoes and/or producing seed potatoes (except sweet potatoes).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Growing sweet potatoes, cassava, and yams--are classified in U.S. Industry 111219, Other Vegetable (except Potato) and Melon Farming; and
  • Canning or drying potatoes--are classified in Industry 31142, Fruit and Vegetable Canning, Pickling and Drying.

111219 Other Vegetable (except Potato) and Melon FarmingCAN

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) growing melons and/or vegetables (except potatoes; dry peas; dry beans; field, silage, or seed corn; and sugar beets); (2) producing vegetable and/or melon seeds; and (3) growing vegetable and/or melon bedding plants.

Illustrative Examples:

Carrot farming
Green bean farming
Melon farming (e.g., cantaloupe, casaba, honeydew, watermelon)
Pepper farming (e.g., bell, chili, green, red, sweet peppers)
Squash farming
Sweet potato farming
Tomato farming
Vegetable (except potato) and melon farming
Watermelon farming

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Growing potatoes--are classified in U.S. Industry 111211, Potato Farming;
  • Growing sugar beets--are classified in U.S. Industry 111991, Sugar Beet Farming;
  • Growing vegetables and melons under glass or protective cover--are classified in U.S. Industry 111419, Other Food Crops Grown Under Cover;
  • Growing dry peas and beans--are classified in Industry 111130, Dry Pea and Bean Farming;
  • Growing corn (except sweet corn)--are classified in Industry 111150, Corn Farming;
  • Canning, pickling, and/or drying (artificially) vegetables--are classified in Industry 31142, Fruit and Vegetable Canning, Pickling and Drying; and
  • Growing fruit on trees and other fruit-bearing plants (except melons)--are classified in Industry Group 1113, Fruit and Tree Nut Farming.

1113 Fruit and Tree Nut Farming

This industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing fruit and/or tree nut crops. The crops included in this industry group are generally not grown from seeds and have a perennial life cycle.

11131 Orange Groves

See industry description for 111310 below.

111310 Orange Groves

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing oranges.

11132 Citrus (except Orange) Groves

See industry description for 111320 below.

111320 Citrus (except Orange) Groves

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing citrus fruits (except oranges).

Illustrative Examples:

Citrus groves (except oranges)
Grapefruit groves
Lemon groves
Mandarin groves
Tangelo groves
Tangerine groves

Cross-References.

Establishments primarily engaged in growing oranges are classified in Industry 111310, Orange Groves.

11133 Noncitrus Fruit and Tree Nut Farming

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) growing noncitrus fruits (e.g., apples, grapes, berries, peaches); (2) growing tree nuts (e.g., pecans, almonds, pistachios); or (3) growing a combination of fruit(s) and tree nut(s) with no one fruit (or family of fruit) or family of tree nuts accounting for one-half of the establishment's agriculture production (value of crops for market).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Harvesting berries or nuts from native and noncultivated plants--are classified in Industry 11321, Forest Nurseries and Gathering of Forest Products; and
  • Canning and/or drying (artificially) fruit--are classified in Industry 31142, Fruit and Vegetable Canning, Pickling and Drying.

111331 Apple OrchardsUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing apples.

Cross-References.

Establishments engaged in growing apples in combination with tree nut(s) with the apples or family of tree nuts not accounting for one-half of the establishment's agriculture production (i.e., value of crops for market) are classified in U.S. Industry 111336, Fruit and Tree Nut Combination Farming.

111332 Grape VineyardsUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing grapes and/or growing grapes to sun dry into raisins.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Drying grapes artificially--are classified in U.S. Industry 311423, Dried and Dehydrated Food Manufacturing; and
  • Growing grapes in combination with tree nut(s) with the grapes or family of tree nuts not accounting for one-half of the establishment's agriculture production (i.e., value of crops for market)--are classified in U.S. Industry 111336, Fruit and Tree Nut Combination Farming.

111333 Strawberry FarmingUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing strawberries.

Cross-References.

Establishments engaged in growing strawberries in combination with tree nut(s) with the strawberries or family of tree nuts not accounting for one-half of the establishment's agriculture production (i.e., value of crops for market) are classified in U.S. Industry 111336, Fruit and Tree Nut Combination Farming.

111334 Berry (except Strawberry) FarmingUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing berries.

Illustrative Examples:

Berry (except strawberries) farming
Blackberry farming
Blueberry farming
Cranberry farming
Currant farming
Raspberry farming

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Growing strawberries--are classified in U.S. Industry 111333, Strawberry Farming;
  • Harvesting berries from native and noncultivated bushes or vines--are classified in Industry 113210, Forest Nurseries and Gathering of Forest Products; and
  • Growing berries in combination with tree nut(s) with the berries or family of tree nuts not accounting for one-half of the establishment's agriculture production (i.e., value of crops for market)--are classified in U.S. Industry 111336, Fruit and Tree Nut Combination Farming.

111335 Tree Nut Farming US

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing tree nuts.

Illustrative Examples:

Almond farming
Filbert farming
Macadamia farming
Pecan farming
Pistachio farming
Tree nut farming
Walnut farming

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Growing coconut and coffee--are classified in U.S. Industry 111339, Other Noncitrus Fruit Farming; and
  • Growing tree nut(s) in combination with fruit(s) with no one fruit (or family of fruit or of tree nuts) accounting for one-half of the establishment's agriculture production (i.e., value of crops for market)--are classified in U.S. Industry 111336, Fruit and Tree Nut Combination Farming.

111336 Fruit and Tree Nut Combination FarmingUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing a combination of fruit(s) and tree nut(s) with no one fruit (or family of fruit) or family of tree nuts accounting for one-half of the establishment's agriculture production (i.e., value of crops for market).

Cross-References.

Establishments engaged in growing fruit(s) or the family of tree nut(s) accounting for one-half of the establishment's agriculture production (i.e., value of crops for market) are classified in Industry Group 1113, Fruit and Tree Nut Farming accordingly by the prominent fruit(s) or tree nut(s) grown.

111339 Other Noncitrus Fruit FarmingUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing noncitrus fruits (except apples, grapes, berries, and fruit(s) and tree nut(s) combinations).

Illustrative Examples:

Apricot farming
Banana farming
Cherry farming
Coffee farming
Date farming
Fig farming
Noncitrus fruit farming
Peach farming
Pineapple farming
Prune farming

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Growing apples--are classified in U.S. Industry 111331, Apple Orchards;
  • Growing grapes including sun drying of grapes into raisins--are classified in U.S. Industry 111332, Grape Vineyards;
  • Growing strawberries--are classified in U.S. Industry 111333, Strawberry Farming;
  • Growing berries (except strawberries)--are classified in U.S. Industry 111334, Berry (except Strawberry) Farming;
  • Drying fruit artificially--are classified in U.S. Industry 311423, Dried and Dehydrated Food Manufacturing; and
  • Growing noncitrus fruit(s) in combination with tree nut(s) with no one fruit (or family of fruits) or family of tree nuts accounting for one-half of the establishment's agriculture production (i.e., value of crops for market)--are classified in U.S. Industry 111336, Fruit and Tree Nut Combination Farming.

1114 Greenhouse, Nursery, and Floriculture Production

This industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing crops of any kind under cover and/or growing nursery stock and flowers. "Under cover" is generally defined as greenhouses, cold frames, cloth houses, and lath houses. The crops grown are removed at various stages of maturity and have annual and perennial life cycles. The nursery stock includes short rotation woody crops that have growth cycles of 10 years or less.

11141 Food Crops Grown Under Cover

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing food crops (e.g., fruits, melons, tomatoes) under glass or protective cover.

Cross-References.

Establishments primarily engaged in growing vegetable and melon bedding plants are classified in Industry 11121, Vegetable and Melon Farming.

111411 Mushroom ProductionCAN

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing mushrooms under cover in mines underground, or in other controlled environments.

111419 Other Food Crops Grown Under CoverCAN

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing food crops (except mushrooms) under glass or protective cover.

Illustrative Examples:

Alfalfa sprout farming, grown under cover
Fruit farming, grown under cover
Hydroponic crop farming
Melon farming, grown under cover
Vegetable farming, grown under cover

Cross-References.

Establishments primarily engaged in growing mushrooms under cover are classified in U.S. Industry 111411, Mushroom Production.

11142 Nursery and Floriculture Production

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) growing nursery and floriculture products (e.g., nursery stock, shrubbery, cut flowers, flower seeds, foliage plants) under cover or in open fields and/or (2) growing short rotation woody trees with a growing and harvesting cycle of 10 years or less for pulp or tree stock (e.g., cut Christmas trees, cottonwoods).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Growing vegetable and melon bedding plants--are classified in Industry 11121, Vegetable and Melon Farming;
  • Operating timber tracts (i.e., growing cycle greater than 10 years)--are classified in Industry 11311, Timber Tract Operations; and
  • Retailing nursery, tree stock, and floriculture products primarily purchased from others--are classified in Industry 44422, Nursery and Garden Centers.

111421 Nursery and Tree ProductionCAN

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) growing nursery products, nursery stock, shrubbery, bulbs, fruit stock, sod, and so forth, under cover or in open fields and/or (2) growing short rotation woody trees with a growth and harvest cycle of 10 years or less for pulp or tree stock.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Growing vegetable and melon bedding plants--are classified in Industry 11121, Vegetable and Melon Farming;
  • Operating timber tracts (i.e., growing cycle greater than 10 years)--are classified in Industry 113110, Timber Tract Operations; and
  • Retailing nursery, tree stock, and floriculture products primarily purchased from others--are classified in Industry 444220, Nursery and Garden Centers.

111422 Floriculture ProductionCAN

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing and/or producing floriculture products (e.g., cut flowers and roses, cut cultivated greens, potted flowering and foliage plants, and flower seeds) under cover and in open fields.

Cross-References.

Establishments primarily engaged in retailing floriculture products primarily purchased from others are classified in Industry 444220, Nursery and Garden Centers.

1119 Other Crop Farming

This industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) growing crops (except oilseed and/or grain; vegetable and/or melon; fruit and tree nut; and greenhouse, nursery, and/or floriculture products). These establishments grow crops, such as tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, hay, sugar beets, peanuts, agave, herbs and spices, and hay and grass seeds; or (2) growing a combination of crops (except a combination of oilseed(s) and grain(s) and a combination of fruit(s) and tree nut(s)).

11191 Tobacco Farming

See industry description for 111910 below.

111910 Tobacco Farming

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing tobacco.

11192 Cotton Farming

See industry description for 111920 below.

111920 Cotton Farming

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing cotton.

Cross-References.

Establishments primarily engaged in ginning cotton are classified in U.S. Industry 115111, Cotton Ginning.

11193 Sugarcane Farming

See industry description for 111930 below.

111930 Sugarcane Farming

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing sugarcane.

11194 Hay Farming

See industry description for 111940 below

111940 Hay Farming

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing hay, alfalfa, clover, and/or mixed hay

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Growing grain hay--are classified in Industry Group 1111, Oilseed and Grain Farming; and
  • Growing grass and hay seeds--are classified in U.S. Industry 111998, All Other Miscellaneous Crop Farming.

11199 All Other Crop Farming

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) growing crops (except oilseeds and/or grains; vegetables and/or melons; fruits and/or tree nuts; greenhouse, nursery and/or floriculture products; tobacco; cotton; sugarcane; or hay) or (2) growing a combination of crops (except a combination of oilseed(s) and grain(s); and a combination of fruit(s) and tree nut(s)) with no one crop or family of crops accounting for one-half of the establishment's agricultural production (i.e., value of crops for market).

Illustrative Examples:

Agave farming
Algae farming
General combination crop farming (except oilseed and grain; vegetables and melons; fruit and nut combinations)
Grass seed farming
Hay seed farming
Maple sap gathering
Peanut farming
Spice farming
Sugar beet farming
Tea farming

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Growing oilseeds and/or wheat, corn, rice, or other grains--are classified in Industry Group 1111, Oilseed and Grain Farming;
  • Growing vegetables and/or melons--are classified in Industry Group 1112, Vegetable and Melon Farming;
  • Growing fruits and/or tree nuts--are classified in Industry Group 1113, Fruit and Tree Nut Farming;
  • Growing greenhouse, nursery, and/or floriculture products--are classified in Industry Group 1114, Greenhouse, Nursery, and Floriculture Production;
  • Growing tobacco--are classified in Industry 11191, Tobacco Farming;
  • Growing cotton--are classified in Industry 11192, Cotton Farming;
  • Growing sugarcane--are classified in Industry 11193, Sugarcane Farming; and
  • Growing hay--are classified in Industry 11194, Hay Farming.

111991 Sugar Beet FarmingUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing sugar beets.

Cross-References.

Establishments primarily engaged in growing beets (except sugar beets) are classified in U.S. Industry 111219, Other Vegetable (except Potato) and Melon Farming.

111992 Peanut FarmingUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing peanuts.

111998 All Other Miscellaneous Crop FarmingUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one of the following: (1) growing crops (except oilseeds and/or grains; vegetables and/or melons; fruits and/or tree nuts; greenhouse, nursery and/or floriculture products; tobacco; cotton; sugarcane; hay; sugar beets; or peanuts); (2) growing a combination of crops (except a combination of oilseed(s) and grain(s); and a combination of fruit(s) and tree nut(s)) with no one crop or family of crop(s) accounting for one-half of the establishment's agricultural production (i.e., value of crops for market); or (3) gathering tea or maple sap.

Illustrative Examples:

Agave farming
Algae farming
General combination crop farming (except oilseed and grain; vegetables and melons; fruit and tree nut combinations)
Grass seed farming
Hay seed farming
Hop farming
Mint farming
Spice farming

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Growing oilseeds and/or wheat, corn, rice, or other grains--are classified in Industry Group 1111, Oilseed and Grain Farming;
  • Growing vegetables and/or melons--are classified in Industry Group 1112, Vegetable and Melon Farming;
  • Growing fruits and/or tree nuts--are classified in Industry Group 1113, Fruit and Tree Nut Farming;
  • Growing greenhouse, nursery and/or floriculture products--are classified in Industry Group 1114, Greenhouse, Nursery, and Floriculture Production;
  • Growing tobacco--are classified in Industry 111910, Tobacco Farming;
  • Growing cotton--are classified in Industry 111920, Cotton Farming;
  • Growing sugarcane--are classified in Industry 111930, sugarcane Farming;
  • Growing hay--are classified in Industry 111940, Hay Farming;
  • Growing sugar beets--are classified in U.S. Industry 111991, Sugar Beet Farming; and
  • Growing peanuts--are classified in U.S. Industry 111992, Peanut Farming.

112 Animal Production

Industries in the Animal Production subsector raise or fatten animals for the sale of animals or animal products. The subsector comprises establishments, such as ranches, farms, and feedlots primarily engaged in keeping, grazing, breeding, or feeding animals. These animals are kept for the products they produce or for eventual sale. The animals are generally raised in various environments, from total confinement or captivity to feeding on an open range pasture.

The industries in this subsector are grouped by important factors, such as suitable grazing or pasture land, specialized buildings, type of equipment, and the amount and types of labor required. Establishments are classified to the Animal Production subsector when animal production (i.e., value of animals for market) accounts for one-half or more of the establishment's total agricultural production. Establishments with one-half or more animal production with no one animal product or family of animal products of an industry accounting for one-half of the establishment's agricultural production are treated as combination animal farming classified to Industry 11299, All Other Animal Production.

1121 Cattle Ranching and Farming

This industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in raising cattle, milking dairy cattle, or feeding cattle for fattening.

11211 Beef Cattle Ranching and Farming, including Feedlots

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in raising cattle (including cattle for dairy herd replacements), or feeding cattle for fattening.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Milking dairy cattle--are classified in Industry 11212, Dairy Cattle and Milk Production; and
  • Operating stockyards for transportation and not buying, selling, or auctioning livestock--are classified in Industry 48899, Other Support Activities for Transportation.

112111 Beef Cattle Ranching and FarmingUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in raising cattle (including cattle for dairy herd replacements).

Cross-References.

Establishments primarily engaged in milking dairy cattle are classified in Industry 112120, Dairy Cattle and Milk Production.

112112 Cattle FeedlotsUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in feeding cattle for fattening.

Cross-References.

Establishments primarily engaged in operating stockyards for transportation and not buying, selling, or auctioning livestock are classified in U.S. Industry 488999, All Other Support Activities for Transportation.

11212 Dairy Cattle and Milk Production

See industry description for 112120 below.

112120 Dairy Cattle and Milk Production

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in milking dairy cattle.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Raising dairy herd replacements--are classified in U.S. Industry 112111, Beef Cattle Ranching and Farming; and
  • Milking goats--are classified in Industry 112420, Goat Farming.

11213 Dual-Purpose Cattle Ranching and Farming

See industry description for 112130 below.

112130 Dual-Purpose Cattle Ranching and Farming

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in raising cattle for both milking and meat production.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Milking dairy cattle--are classified in Industry 11212, Dairy Cattle and Milk Production;
  • Raising cattle or feeding cattle for fattening--are classified in Industry 11211, Beef Cattle Ranching and Farming, including Feedlots; and
  • Operating stockyards for transportation and not buying, selling, or auctioning livestock--are classified in U.S. Industry 48899, All Other Support Activities for Transportation.

1122 Hog and Pig Farming

11221 Hog and Pig Farming

See industry description for 112210 below.

112210 Hog and Pig Farming

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in raising hogs and pigs. These establishments may include farming activities, such as breeding, farrowing, and the raising of weanling pigs, feeder pigs, or market size hogs.

Cross-References.

Establishments primarily engaged in operating stockyards for transportation and not buying, selling, or auctioning livestock are classified in U.S. Industry 488999, All Other Support Activities for Transportation.

1123 Poultry and Egg Production

This industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in breeding, hatching, and raising poultry for meat or egg production.

11231 Chicken Egg Production

See industry description for 112310 below.

112310 Chicken Egg Production

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in raising chickens for egg production. The eggs produced may be for use as table eggs or hatching eggs.

Cross-References.

Establishments primarily engaged in raising chickens for the production of meat are classified in Industry 112320, Broilers and Other Meat Type Chicken Production.

11232 Broilers and Other Meat Type Chicken Production

See industry description for 112320 below.

112320 Broilers and Other Meat Type Chicken Production

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in raising broilers, fryers, roasters, and other meat type chickens.

Cross-References.

Establishments primarily engaged in raising chickens for egg production are classified in Industry 112310, Chicken Egg Production.

11233 Turkey Production

See industry description for 112330 below.

112330 Turkey Production

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in raising turkeys for meat or egg production.

11234 Poultry Hatcheries

See industry description for 112340 below.

112340 Poultry Hatcheries

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in hatching poultry of any kind.

11239 Other Poultry Production

See industry description for 112390 below.

112390 Other Poultry Production

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in raising poultry (except chickens for meat or egg production and turkeys).

Illustrative Examples:

Duck production
Emu production
Geese production
Ostrich production
Pheasant production
Quail production

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Raising aviary birds, such as parakeets, canaries, and love birds,--are classified in Industry 112990, All Other Animal Production;
  • Raising chickens for egg production--are classified in Industry 112310, Chicken Egg Production;
  • Raising broilers and other meat type chickens--are classified in Industry 112320, Broilers and Other Meat Type Chicken Production;
  • Raising turkeys--are classified in Industry 112330, Turkey Production; and
  • Raising swans, peacocks, flamingos or other "adornment birds"--are classified in Industry 112990, All Other Animal Production.

1124 Sheep and Goat Farming

This industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in raising sheep, lambs, and goats, or feeding lambs for fattening.

11241 Sheep Farming

See industry description for 112410 below.

112410 Sheep Farming

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in raising sheep and lambs, or feeding lambs for fattening. The sheep or lambs may be raised for sale or wool production.

Cross-References.

Establishments primarily engaged in operating stockyards for transportation and not buying, selling, or auctioning livestock are classified in U.S. Industry 488999, All Other Support Activities for Transportation.

11242 Goat Farming

See industry description for 112420 below.

112420 Goat Farming

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in raising goats.

1125 Animal Aquaculture

11251 Animal Aquaculture

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the farm raising of finfish, shellfish, or any other kind of animal aquaculture. These establishments use some form of intervention in the rearing process to enhance production, such as holding in captivity, regular stocking, feeding, and protecting from predators.

Cross-References.

Establishments primarily engaged in the catching or taking of fish and other aquatic animals from their natural habitat are classified in Industry 11411, Fishing.

112511 Finfish Farming and Fish HatcheriesUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) farm raising finfish (e.g., catfish, trout, goldfish, tropical fish, minnows) and/or (2) hatching fish of any kind.

Cross-References.

Establishments primarily engaged in the catching or taking of finfish from their natural habitat are classified in U.S. Industry 114111, Finfish Fishing.

112512 Shellfish FarmingUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in farm raising shellfish (e.g., crayfish, shrimp, oysters, clams, mollusks).

Cross-References.

Establishments primarily engaged in the catching or taking of shellfish from their natural habitat are classified in U.S. Industry 114112, Shellfish Fishing.

112519 Other Animal AquacultureUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in farm raising animal aquaculture (except finfish and shellfish). Alligator, frog, or turtle production is included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Miscellaneous fishing activities, such as catching or taking of terrapins, turtles, and frogs in their natural habitat,--are classified in U.S. Industry 114119, Other Marine Fishing;
  • Farm raising finfish--are classified in U.S. Industry 112511, Finfish Farming and Fish Hatcheries; and
  • Farm raising shellfish--are classified in U.S. Industry 112512, Shellfish Farming.

1129 Other Animal Production

This industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in raising animals and insects (except cattle, hogs and pigs, poultry, sheep and goats, animal aquaculture) for sale or product production. These establishments are primarily engaged in raising one of the following: bees, horses and other equines, rabbits and other fur-bearing animals, and so forth, and producing products, such as honey and other bee products. Establishments primarily engaged in raising a combination of animals with no one animal or family of animals accounting for one-half of the establishment's agricultural production (i.e., value of animals for market) are included in this industry group.

11291 Apiculture

See industry description for 112910 below

112910 Apiculture

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in raising bees. These establishments may collect and gather honey; and/or sell queen bees, packages of bees, royal jelly, bees' wax, propolis, venom, and/or other bee products.

11292 Horses and Other Equine Production

See industry description for 112920 below.

112920 Horses and Other Equine Production

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in raising horses, mules, donkeys, and other equines.

Cross-References.

  • Establishments primarily engaged in equine boarding are classified in Industry 115210, Support Activities for Animal Production; and
  • Equine owners entering horses in racing or other spectator sporting events are classified in U.S. Industry 711219, Other Spectator Sports.

11293 Fur-Bearing Animal and Rabbit Production

See industry description for 112930 below.

112930 Fur-Bearing Animal and Rabbit Production

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in raising fur-bearing animals including rabbits. These animals may be raised for sale or for their pelt production.

Cross-References.

Establishments primarily engaged in the trapping or hunting of wild fur-bearing animals are classified in Industry 114210, Hunting and Trapping.

11299 All Other Animal Production

See industry description for 112990 below.

112990 All Other Animal Production

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in: (1) raising animals (except cattle, hogs and pigs, poultry, sheep and goats, animal aquaculture, apiculture, horses and other equines; and fur-bearing animals including rabbits) or (2) raising a combination of animals, with no one animal or family of animals accounting for one-half of the establishment's agricultural production (i.e., value of animals for market) are included in this industry.

Illustrative Examples:

Bird production (e.g., canaries, parakeets, parrots)
Combination animal farming (except dairy, poultry)
Companion animals production (e.g., cats, dogs)
Deer production
Laboratory animal production (e.g., rats, mice, guinea pigs)
Llama production
Worm production

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Raising cattle, dairy cattle or feeding cattle for fattening--are classified in Industry Group 1121, Cattle Ranching and Farming;
  • Raising hogs and pigs--are classified in Industry Group 1122, Hog and Pig Farming;
  • Raising poultry and raising poultry for egg production--are classified in Industry Group 1123, Poultry and Egg Production;
  • Raising sheep and goats--are classified in Industry Group 1124, Sheep and Goat Farming;
  • Raising animal aquaculture--are classified in Industry Group 1125, Animal Aquaculture;
  • Raising bees--are classified in Industry 112910, Apiculture;
  • Raising horses and other equines--are classified in Industry 112920, Horses and Other Equine Production; and
  • Raising fur-bearing animals including rabbits--are classified in Industry 112930, Fur-Bearing Animals and Rabbit Production.

113 Forestry and Logging

Industries in the Forestry and Logging subsector grow and harvest timber on a long production cycle (i.e., of 10 years or more). Long production cycles use different production processes than short production cycles, which require more horticultural interventions prior to harvest, resulting in processes more similar to those found in the Crop Production subsector. Consequently, Christmas tree production and other production involving production cycles of less than 10 years, are classified in the Crop Production subsector.

Industries in this subsector specialize in different stages of the production cycle. Reforestation requires production of seedlings in specialized nurseries. Timber production requires natural forest or suitable areas of land that are available for a long duration. The maturation time for timber depends upon the species of tree, the climatic conditions of the region, and the intended purpose of the timber. The harvesting of timber (except when done on an extremely small scale) requires specialized machinery unique to the industry. Establishments gathering forest products, such as gums, barks, balsam needles, rhizomes, fibers, Spanish moss, and ginseng and truffles, are also included in this subsector.

1131 Timber Tract Operations

11311 Timber Tract Operations

See industry description for 113110 below.

113110 Timber Tract Operations

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the operation of timber tracts for the purpose of selling standing timber.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Acting as lessors of land with trees as real estate property--are classified in Industry 53119, Lessors of Other Real Estate Property;
  • Growing short rotation woody trees (i.e., growing and harvesting cycle is 10 years or less)--are classified in U.S. Industry 111421, Nursery and Tree Production; and
  • Cutting timber--are classified in Industry 113310, Logging.

1132 Forest Nurseries and Gathering of Forest Products

11321 Forest Nurseries and Gathering of Forest Products

See industry description for 113210 below.

113210 Forest Nurseries and Gathering of Forest Products

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) growing trees for reforestation and/or (2) gathering forest products, such as gums, barks, balsam needles, rhizomes, fibers, Spanish moss, ginseng, and truffles.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Gathering tea and maple sap--are classified in U.S. Industry 111998, All Other Miscellaneous Crop Farming; and
  • Processing maple syrup into other products--are classified in Industry 31199, All Other Food Manufacturing.

1133 Logging

11331 Logging

See industry description for 113310 below.

113310 Logging

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) cutting timber; (2) cutting and transporting timber; and (3) producing wood chips in the field.

Cross-References.

Establishments primarily engaged in trucking timber are classified in Industry 484220, Specialized Freight (except used Goods) Trucking, Local.

114 Fishing, Hunting and Trapping

Industries in the Fishing, Hunting, and Trapping subsector harvest fish and other wild animals from their natural habitats and are dependent upon a continued supply of the natural resource. The harvesting of fish is the predominant economic activity of this subsector and it usually requires specialized vessels that, by the nature of their size, configuration and equipment, are not suitable for any other type of production, such as transportation.

Hunting and trapping activities utilize a wide variety of production processes and are classified in the same subsector as fishing because the availability of resources and the constraints imposed, such as conservation requirements and proper habitat maintenance, are similar.

1141 Fishing

11411 Fishing

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the commercial catching or taking of finfish, shellfish, or miscellaneous marine products from a natural habitat, such as the catching of bluefish, eels, salmon, tuna, clams, crabs, lobsters, mussels, oysters, shrimp, frogs, sea urchins, and turtles.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Farm raising finfish, shellfish or other marine animals--are classified in Industry 11251, Animal Aquaculture; and
  • Gathering and processing (known as "floating factory ships") seafood into canned seafood products--are classified in Industry 31171, Seafood Product Preparation and Packaging.

114111 Finfish FishingUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the commercial catching or taking of finfish (e.g., bluefish, salmon, trout, tuna) from their natural habitat.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Farm raising finfish--are classified in U.S. Industry 112511, Finfish Farming and Fish Hatcheries; and
  • Gathering and processing (known as "floating factory ships") seafood into canned seafood products--are classified in U.S. Industry 311711, Seafood canning.

114112 Shellfish FishingUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the commercial catching or taking of shellfish (e.g., clams, crabs, lobsters, mussels, oysters, sea urchins, shrimp) from their natural habitat.

Cross-References.

Establishments primarily engaged in farm raising shellfish are classified in U.S. Industry 112512, Shellfish Farming.

114119 Other Marine FishingUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the commercial catching or taking of marine animals (except finfish and shellfish).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Raising animal aquaculture (except finfish and shellfish)--are classified in U.S. Industry 112519, Other Animal Aquaculture;
  • The commercial catching or taking of finfish from their natural habitat--are classified in U.S. Industry 114111, Finfish Fishing; and
  • The commercial catching or taking of shellfish from their natural habitat--are classified in U.S. Industry 114112, Shellfish Fishing.

1142 Hunting and Trapping

11421 Hunting and Trapping

See industry description for 114210 below.

114210 Hunting and Trapping

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) commercial hunting and trapping; (2) operating commercial game preserves, such as game retreats; and (3) operating hunting preserves.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Operating nature preserves--are classified in Industry 712190, Nature Parks and Other Similar Institutions; and
  • Farm raising rabbits and other fur-bearing animals--are classified in Industry 112930, Fur-Bearing Animal and Rabbit Production.

115 Support Activities for Agriculture and Forestry

Industries in the Support Activities for Agriculture and Forestry subsector provide support services that are an essential part of agricultural and forestry production. These support activities may be performed by the agriculture or forestry producing establishment or conducted independently as an alternative source of inputs required for the production process for a given crop, animal, or forestry industry. Establishments that primarily perform these activities independent of the agriculture or forestry producing establishment are in this subsector.

1151 Support Activities for Crop Production

11511 Support Activities for Crop Production

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing support activities for growing crops.

Illustrative Examples:

Aerial dusting or spraying (i.e., using specialized or dedicated aircraft)
Cotton ginning
Cultivating services
Farm management services
Planting crops
Vineyard cultivation services

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Performing crop production that are generally known as farms, orchards, groves, or vineyards (including sharecroppers and tenant farms),--are classified in the appropriate crop industry within Subsector 111, Crop Production;
  • Providing support activities for forestry--are classified in Industry 11531, Support Activities for Forestry;
  • Landscaping and horticultural services, such as lawn and maintenance care and ornamental shrub and tree services,--are classified in Industry 56173, Landscaping Services;
  • Land clearing, land leveling, and earth moving for terracing, ponds, and irrigation--are classified in Industry 23499, All Other Heavy Construction;
  • Artificially drying and dehydrating fruits and vegetables--are classified in Industry 31142, Fruit and Vegetable canning, Pickling and Drying
  • Stemming and redrying tobacco--are classified in Industry 31221, Tobacco Stemming and Redrying;
  • Providing water for irrigation--are classified in Industry 22131, Water Supply and Irrigation Systems; and
  • Buying farm products, such as fruits or vegetables, for resale to other wholesalers or retailers, and preparing them for market or further processing--are classified in Industry 42248, Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Wholesalers.

115111 Cotton GinningUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in ginning cotton.

115112 Soil Preparation, Planting, and CultivatingUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in performing a soil preparation activity or crop production service, such as plowing, fertilizing, seed bed preparation, planting, cultivating, and crop protecting services.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Land clearing, land leveling, and earth moving for terracing, ponds, and irrigation--are classified in Industry 234990, All Other Heavy Construction; and
  • Providing water for irrigation--are classified in Industry 221310, Water Supply and Irrigation Systems.

115113 Crop Harvesting, Primarily by MachineUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in mechanical harvesting, picking, and combining of crops, and related activities. The machinery used is provided by the servicing establishment.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing personnel for manual harvesting--are classified in U.S. Industry 115115, Farm Labor Contractors and Crew Leaders; and
  • Providing farm management services (i.e., a contract or fee basis) and arranging or contracting crop mechanical or manual harvesting operations for the farm(s) it manages--are classified in U.S. Industry 115116, Farm Management Services.

115114 Postharvest Crop Activities (except Cotton Ginning)US

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in performing services on crops, subsequent to their harvest, with the intent of preparing them for market or further processing. These establishments provide postharvest activities, such as crop cleaning, sun drying, shelling, fumigating, curing, sorting, grading, packing, and cooling.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Ginning cotton--are classified in U.S. Industry 115111, Cotton Ginning;
  • Artificially drying and dehydrating fruits and vegetables--are classified in U.S. Industry 311423, Dried and Dehydrated Food Manufacturing;
  • Stemming and redrying tobacco--are classified in Industry 312210, Tobacco Stemming and Redrying;
  • Buying farm products for resale to other wholesalers or retailers and preparing them for market or further processing--are classified in Industry 422480, Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Wholesalers; and
  • Providing farm management services (i.e., a contract or fee basis) and arranging or contracting postharvesting crop activities for the farm(s) it manages--are classified in U.S. Industry 115116, Farm Management Services.

115115 Farm Labor Contractors and Crew LeadersUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in supplying labor for agricultural production or harvesting.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing machine harvesting--are classified in U.S. Industry 115113, Crop Harvesting, Primarily by Machine; and
  • Providing farm management services (i.e., a contract or fee basis) and arranging or contracting farm labor for the farm(s) it manages--are classified in U.S. Industry 115116, Farm Management Services.

115116 Farm Management ServicesUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing farm management services on a contract or fee basis usually to citrus groves, orchards, or vineyards. These establishments always provide management and may arrange or contract for the partial or the complete operations of the farm establishment(s) it manages. Operational activities may include cultivating, harvesting, and/or other specialized agricultural support activities.

Cross-References.

Establishments primarily engaged in crop production that are generally known as farms, orchards, groves, or vineyards (including share croppers and tenant farms), are classified in the appropriate crop industry within Subsector 111, Crop Production.

1152 Support Activities for Animal Production

11521 Support Activities for Animal Production

See industry description for 115210 below.

115210 Support Activities for Animal Production

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in performing support activities related to raising livestock (e.g., cattle, goats, hogs, horses, poultry, sheep). These establishments may perform one or more of the following: (1) breeding services for animals, including companion animals (e.g., cats, dogs, pet birds); (2) pedigree record services; (3) boarding horses; (4) dairy herd improvement activities; (5) livestock spraying; and (6) sheep dipping and shearing.

1153 Support Activities for Forestry

11531 Support Activities for Forestry

See industry description for 115310 below.

115310 Support Activities for Forestry

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in performing particular support activities related to timber production, wood technology, forestry economics and marketing, and forest protection. These establishments may provide support activities for forestry, such as estimating timber, forest firefighting, forest pest control, and consulting on wood attributes and reforestation.

Cross-References.

Establishments primarily engaged in the public administration and conservation of forest lands are classified in Industry 924120, Administration of Conservation Programs.


US—United States industry only. CAN—United States and Canadian industries are comparable.
When neither US nor CAN appears, Canadian, Mexican, and United States industries are comparable.

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Source: U.S. Census Bureau | North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) | (888) 756-2427 | naics@census.gov | Last Revised: September 13, 2013