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1997 NAICS

Sector 48-49--Transportation and Warehousing

The Sector as a Whole

The Transportation and Warehousing sector includes industries providing transportation of passengers and cargo, warehousing and storage for goods, scenic and sightseeing transportation, and support activities related to modes of transportation. Establishments in these industries use transportation equipment or transportation related facilities as a productive asset. The type of equipment depends on the mode of transportation. The modes of transportation are air, rail, water, road, and pipeline.

The Transportation and Warehousing sector distinguishes three basic types of activities: subsectors for each mode of transportation, a subsector for warehousing and storage, and a subsector for establishments providing support activities for transportation. In addition, there are subsectors for establishments that provide passenger transportation for scenic and sightseeing purposes, postal services, and courier services.

A separate subsector for support activities is established in the sector because, first, support activities for transportation are inherently multimodal, such as freight transportation arrangement, or have multimodal aspects. Secondly, there are production process similarities among the support activity industries.

One of the support activities identified in the support activity subsector is the routine repair and maintenance of transportation equipment (e.g., aircraft at an airport, railroad rolling stock at a railroad terminal, or ships at a harbor or port facility). Such establishments do not perform complete overhauling or rebuilding of transportation equipment (i.e., periodic restoration of transportation equipment to original design specifications) or transportation equipment conversion (i.e., major modification to systems). An establishment that primarily performs factory (or shipyard) overhauls, rebuilding, or conversions of aircraft, railroad rolling stock, or a ship is classified in Subsector 336, Transportation Equipment Manufacturing according to the type of equipment.

Many of the establishments in this sector often operate on networks, with physical facilities, labor forces, and equipment spread over an extensive geographic area.

Warehousing establishments in this sector are distinguished from merchant wholesaling in that the warehouse establishments do not sell the goods.

Excluded from this sector are establishments primarily engaged in providing travel agent services that support transportation and other establishments, such as hotels, businesses, and government agencies. These establishments are classified in Sector 56, Administrative and Support, Waste Management, and Remediation Services. Also, establishments primarily engaged in providing rental and leasing of transportation equipment without operator are classified in Subsector 532, Rental and Leasing Services.

481 Air Transportation

Industries in the Air Transportation subsector provide air transportation of passengers and/or cargo using aircraft, such as airplanes and helicopters. The subsector distinguishes scheduled from nonscheduled air transportation. Scheduled air carriers fly regular routes on regular schedules and operate even if flights are only partially loaded. Nonscheduled carriers often operate during nonpeak time slots at busy airports. These establishments have more flexibility with respect to choice of airport, hours of operation, load factors, and similar operational characteristics. Nonscheduled carriers provide chartered air transportation of passengers, cargo, or specialty flying services. Specialty flying services establishments use general purpose aircraft to provide a variety of specialized flying services.

Scenic and sightseeing air transportation and air courier services are not included in this subsector but are included in Subsector 487, Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation and in Subsector 492, Couriers and Messengers. Although these activities may use aircraft, they are different from the activities included in air transportation. Air sightseeing does not usually involve place-to-place transportation; the passenger's flight (e.g., balloon ride, aerial sightseeing) typically starts and ends at the same location. Courier services (individual package or cargo delivery) includes more than air transportation; road transportation is usually required to deliver the cargo to the intended recipient.

4811 Scheduled Air Transportation

48111 Scheduled Air Transportation

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing air transportation of passengers and/or cargo over regular routes and on regular schedules. Establishments in this industry operate flights even if partially loaded. Establishments primarily engaged in providing scheduled air transportation of mail on a contract basis are included in this industry.

Illustrative Examples:

Air commuter carriers, scheduled
Scheduled air cargo carriers (except air couriers)
Scheduled air passenger carriers
Scheduled helicopter passenger carriers

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing air courier services--are classified in Industry 49211, Couriers;
  • Providing air transportation of passengers, cargo, or specialty flying services with no regular routes and regular schedules--are classified in Industry 48121, Nonscheduled Air Transportation; and
  • Providing helicopter rides for scenic and sightseeing transportation--are classified in Industry 48799, Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Other.

481111 Scheduled Passenger Air TransportationUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing air transportation of passengers or passengers and freight over regular routes and on regular schedules. Establishments in this industry operate flights even if partially loaded. Scheduled air passenger carriers including commuter and helicopter carriers (except scenic and sightseeing) are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing air transportation of passengers or passengers and cargo with no regular routes and regular schedules--are classified in U.S. Industry 481211; Nonscheduled Chartered Passenger Air Transportation;
  • Providing helicopter rides for scenic and sightseeing transportation--are classified in Industry 487990, Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Other; and
  • Providing air transportation of cargo (without transporting passengers) over regular routes and on regular schedules--are classified in U.S. Industry 481112, Scheduled Freight Air Transportation.

481112 Scheduled Freight Air TransportationUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing air transportation of cargo without transporting passengers over regular routes and on regular schedules. Establishments in this industry operate flights even if partially loaded. Establishments primarily engaged in providing scheduled air transportation of mail on a contract basis are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing air courier services--are classified in Industry 492110, Couriers;
  • Providing air transportation of cargo with no regular routes and regular schedules--are classified in U.S. Industry 481212, Nonscheduled Chartered Freight Air Transportation; and
  • Providing air transportation of passengers or passengers and cargo over regular routes and on regular schedules--are classified in U.S. Industry 481112, Scheduled Passenger Air Transportation.

4812 Nonscheduled Air Transportation

48121 Nonscheduled Air Transportation

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) providing air transportation of passengers and/or cargo with no regular routes and regular schedules or (2) providing specialty flying services with no regular routes and regular schedules using general purpose aircraft. These establishments have more flexibility with respect to choice of airports, hours of operation, load factors, and similar operational characteristics.

Illustrative Examples:

Air taxi services
Aircraft charter services
Nonscheduled air freight transportation services
Nonscheduled air passenger transportation services

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Crop dusting using specialized aircraft--are classified in Industry 11511, Support Activities for Crop Production;
  • Fighting forest fires using specialized water bombers--are classified in Industry 11531, Support Activities for Forestry;
  • Providing air transportation of passengers and/or cargo over regular routes and on regular schedules--are classified in Industry 48111, Scheduled Air Transportation;
  • Providing specialized air sightseeing services--are classified in Industry 48799, Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Other;
  • Aerial gathering of geophysical data--are classified in Industry 54136, Geophysical Surveying and Mapping Services;
  • Providing aerial and/or other surveying and mapping services--are classified in Industry 54137, Surveying and Mapping (except Geophysical) Services;
  • Providing air ambulance services using specialized equipment--are classified in Industry 62191, Ambulance Services;
  • Operating specialized flying schools, including all training for commercial pilots--are classified in Industry 61151, Technical and Trade Schools;
  • Operating recreation aviation clubs--are classified in Industry 71399, All Other Amusement and Recreation Industries;
  • Operating advocacy aviation clubs--are classified in U.S. Industry 81331, Social Advocacy Organizations; and
  • Providing air courier services--are classified in Industry 49211, Couriers.

481211 Nonscheduled Chartered Passenger Air TransportationUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing air transportation of passengers or passengers and cargo with no regular routes and regular schedules.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing specialty air transportation or flying services with no regular routes and regular schedules using general purpose aircraft--are classified in U.S. Industry 481219, Other Nonscheduled Air Transportation;
  • Providing specialized air sightseeing services--are classified in Industry 487990, Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Other;
  • Providing air transportation of passengers or passengers and cargo over regular routes and on regular schedules--are classified in U.S. Industry 481111, Scheduled Passenger Air Transportation; and
  • Providing air transportation of cargo (without transporting passengers) with no regular routes and schedules--are classified in U.S. Industry 481212, Nonscheduled Chartered Freight Air Transportation.

481212 Nonscheduled Chartered Freight Air TransportationUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing air transportation of cargo without transporting passengers with no regular routes and regular schedules.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing specialty air transportation or flying services with no regular routes and regular schedules using general purpose aircraft--are classified in U.S. Industry 481219, Other Nonscheduled Air Transportation;
  • Providing air courier services--are classified in Industry 492110, Couriers;
  • Providing air transportation of cargo without transporting passengers over regular routes and on regular schedules--are classified in U.S. Industry 481112, Scheduled Freight Air Transportation; and
  • Providing air transportation of cargo and passengers with no regular routes and schedules--are classified in U.S. Industry 481211, Nonscheduled Chartered Passenger Air Transportation.

481219 Other Nonscheduled Air TransportationUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing air transportation with no regular routes and regular schedules (except nonscheduled chartered passenger and/or cargo air transportation). These establishments provide a variety of specialty air transportation or flying services based on individual customer needs using general purpose aircraft.

Illustrative Examples:

Aircraft charter services (i.e., general purpose aircraft used for a variety of specialty air and flying services)
Aviation clubs providing a variety of air transportation activities to the general public

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing air transportation of passengers or passengers and cargo with no regular routes and regular schedules--are classified in U.S. Industry 481211, Nonscheduled Chartered Passenger Air Transportation;
  • Providing air transportation of cargo without transporting passengers with no regular routes and regular schedules--are classified in U.S. Industry 481212, Nonscheduled Chartered Freight Air Transportation;
  • Crop dusting using specialized aircraft--are classified in U.S. Industry 115112, Soil Preparation, Planting, and Cultivating;
  • Fighting forest fires using specialized water bombers--are classified in Industry 115310, Support Activities for Forestry;
  • Providing specialized air sightseeing services--are classified in Industry 487990, Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Other;
  • Operating specialized flying schools, including all training for commercial pilots--are classified in U.S. Industry 611512, Flight Training;
  • Providing specialized air ambulance services using specialized equipment--are classified in U.S. Industry 621999, All Other Miscellaneous Ambulatory Health Care Services;
  • Operating recreation aviation clubs--are classified in Industry 713990, All Other Amusement and Recreation Industries;
  • Operating advocacy aviation clubs--are classified in U.S. Industry 813319, Other Social Advocacy Organizations;
  • Aerial gathering of geophysical data for surveying and mapping--are classified in Industry 541360, Geophysical Surveying and Mapping Services; and
  • Providing aerial and/or other surveying and mapping services--are classified in Industry 541370, Surveying and Mapping (except Geophysical) Services.

482 Rail Transportation

Industries in the Rail Transportation subsector provide rail transportation of passengers and/or cargo using railroad rolling stock. The railroads in this subsector primarily either operate on networks, with physical facilities, labor force, and equipment spread over an extensive geographic area, or operate over a short distance on a local rail line.

Scenic and sightseeing rail transportation and street railroads, commuter rail, and rapid transit are not included in this subsector but are included in Subsector 487, Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, and Subsector 485, Transit and Ground Passenger Transportation, respectively. Although these activities use railroad rolling stock, they are different from the activities included in rail transportation. Sightseeing and scenic railroads do not usually involve place-to-place transportation; the passenger's trip typically starts and ends at the same location. Commuter railroads operate in a manner more consistent with local and urban transit and are often part of integrated transit systems.

4821 Rail Transportation

48211 Rail Transportation

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating railroads (except street railroads, commuter rail, urban rapid transit, and scenic and sightseeing trains). Line-haul railroads and short line railroads are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Operating street railroads, commuter rail, and urban rapid transit systems--are classified in Industry Group 4851, Urban Transit Systems;
  • Operating scenic and sightseeing trains--are classified in Industry 48711, Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Land; and
  • Operating switching and terminal facilities as separate establishments--are classified in Industry 48821, Support Activities for Rail Transportation.

482111 Line-Haul RailroadsUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments known as line-haul railroads primarily engaged in operating railroads for the transport of passengers and/or cargo over a long distance within a rail network. These establishments provide for the intercity movement of trains between the terminals and stations on main and branch lines of a line-haul rail network (except for local switching services).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Operating switching and terminal facilities as separate establishments--are classified in Industry 488210, Support Activities for Rail Transportation;
  • Operating railroads over a short distance on local rail lines--are classified in U.S. Industry 482112, Short Line Railroads; and
  • Operating commuter rail systems--are classified in U.S. Industry 485112, Commuter Rail Systems.

482112 Short Line RailroadsCAN

This U.S. industry comprises establishments known as short line railroads primarily engaged in operating railroads for the transport of cargo over a short distance on local rail lines not part of a rail network.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Operating street railroads, commuter rail, and urban rapid transit systems--are classified in Industry Group 4851, Urban Transit Systems;
  • Operating scenic and sightseeing trains--are classified in Industry 487110, Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Land;
  • Operating switching and terminal facilities as separate establishments--are classified in Industry 488210, Support Activities for Rail Transportation; and
  • Operating railroads for the transport of passengers and/or cargo over a long distance--are classified in U.S. Industry 482111, Line-Haul Railroads.

483 Water Transportation

Industries in the Water Transportation subsector provide water transportation of passengers and cargo using watercraft, such as ships, barges, and boats.

The subsector is composed of two industry groups: (1) one for deep sea, coastal, and Great Lakes; and (2) one for inland water transportation. This split typically reflects the difference in equipment used.

Scenic and sightseeing water transportation services are not included in this subsector but are included in Subsector 487, Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation. Although these activities use watercraft, they are different from the activities included in water transportation. Water sightseeing does not usually involve place-to-place transportation; the passenger's trip starts and ends at the same location.

4831 Deep Sea, Coastal, and Great Lakes Water Transportation

48311 Deep Sea, Coastal, and Great Lakes Water Transportation

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing deep sea, coastal, Great Lakes, and St. Lawrence Seaway water transportation. Marine transportation establishments using the facilities of the St. Lawrence Seaway Authority Commission are considered to be using the Great Lakes Water Transportation System.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing inland water transportation on lakes, rivers, or intracoastal waterways (except on the Great Lakes System)--are classified in Industry 48321, Inland Water Transportation;
  • Providing scenic and sightseeing water transportation, such as harbor cruises,--are classified in Industry 48721, Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Water; and
  • Operating floating casinos (i.e., gambling cruises, riverboat gambling casinos)--are classified in Industry 71321, Casinos (except Casino Hotels).

483111 Deep Sea Freight TransportationUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing deep sea transportation of cargo to or from foreign ports.

Cross-References.

Establishments primarily engaged in providing deep sea transportation of cargo to and from domestic ports are classified in U.S. Industry 483113, Coastal and Great Lakes Freight Transportation.

483112 Deep Sea Passenger TransportationUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing deep sea transportation of passengers to or from foreign ports.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing deep sea transportation of passengers to and from domestic ports--are classified in U.S. Industry 483114, Coastal and Great Lakes Passenger Transportation; and
  • Operating floating casinos (i.e., gambling cruises)--are classified in Industry 713210, Casinos (except Casino Hotels).

483113 Coastal and Great Lakes Freight TransportationUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing water transportation of cargo in coastal waters, on the Great Lakes System, or deep seas between ports of the United States, Puerto Rico, and United States island possessions or protectorates. Marine transportation establishments using the facilities of the St. Lawrence Seaway Authority Commission are considered to be using the Great Lakes Water Transportation System. Establishments primarily engaged in providing coastal and/or Great Lakes barge transportation services are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing deep sea transportation of cargo to or from foreign ports--are classified in U.S. Industry 483111, Deep Sea Freight Transportation; and
  • Providing inland water transportation of cargo on lakes, rivers, or intracoastal waterways (except on the Great Lakes System)--are classified in U.S. Industry 483211, Inland Water Freight Transportation.

483114 Coastal and Great Lakes Passenger TransportationUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing water transportation of passengers in coastal waters, the Great Lakes System, or deep seas between ports of the United States, Puerto Rico, and United States island possessions and protectorates. Marine transportation establishments using the facilities of the St. Lawrence Seaway Authority Commission are considered to be using the Great Lakes Water Transportation System.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing inland water transportation of passengers on lakes, rivers or intracoastal waterways (except on the Great Lakes System)--are classified in U.S. Industry 483212, Inland Water Passenger Transportation;
  • Providing scenic and sightseeing water transportation, such as harbor cruises,--are classified in Industry 487210, Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Water; and
  • Operating floating casinos (i.e., gambling cruises)--are classified in Industry 713210, Casinos (except Casino Hotels).

4832 Inland Water Transportation

48321 Inland Water Transportation

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing inland water transportation of passengers and/or cargo on lakes, rivers, or intracoastal waterways (except on the Great Lakes System).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing water transportation in deep sea, coastal, or on the Great Lakes System--are classified in Industry Group 4831, Deep Sea, Coastal and Great Lakes Water Transportation;
  • Providing scenic and sightseeing water transportation, such as harbor cruises,--are classified in Industry 48721, Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Water; and
  • Operating floating casinos (i.e., gambling cruises, riverboat gambling casinos)--are classified in Industry 71321, Casinos (except Casino Hotels).

483211 Inland Water Freight TransportationUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing inland water transportation of cargo on lakes, rivers, or intracoastal waterways (except on the Great Lakes System).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing deep sea transportation of cargo to and from foreign ports--are classified in U.S. Industry 483111, Deep Sea Freight Transportation; and
  • Providing water transportation of cargo in coastal waters or on the Great Lakes System--are classified in U.S. Industry 483113, Coastal and Great Lakes Freight Transportation.

483212 Inland Water Passenger TransportationUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing inland water transportation of passengers on lakes, rivers, or intracoastal waterways (except on the Great Lakes System).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing deep sea transportation of passengers to and from foreign ports--are classified in U.S. Industry 483112, Deep Sea Passenger Transportation;
  • Operating cruise ships or ferries in coastal waters or on the Great Lakes System--are classified in U.S. Industry 483114, Coastal and Great Lakes Passenger Transportation; and
  • Providing scenic and sightseeing water transportation, such as harbor cruises,--are classified in Industry 487210, Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Water.

484 Truck Transportation

Industries in the Truck Transportation subsector provide over-the-road transportation of cargo using motor vehicles, such as trucks and tractor trailers. The subsector is subdivided into general freight trucking and specialized freight trucking. This distinction reflects differences in equipment used, type of load carried, scheduling, terminal, and other networking services. General freight transportation establishments handle a wide variety of general commodities, generally palletized, and transported in a container or van trailer. Specialized freight transportation is the transportation of cargo that, because of size, weight, shape, or other inherent characteristics require specialized equipment for transportation.

Each of these industry groups is further subdivided based on distance traveled. Local trucking establishments primarily carry goods within a single metropolitan area and its adjacent nonurban areas. Long distance trucking establishments carry goods between metropolitan areas.

The Specialized Freight Trucking industry group includes a separate industry for Used Household and Office Goods Moving. The household and office goods movers are separated because of the substantial network of establishments that has developed to deal with local and long-distance moving and the associated storage. In this area, the same establishment provides both local and long-distance services, while other specialized freight establishments generally limit their services to either local or long-distance hauling.

4841 General Freight Trucking

This industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing general freight trucking. General freight establishments handle a wide variety of commodities, generally palletized, and transported in a container or van trailer. The establishments of this industry group provide a combination of the following network activities: local pickup, local sorting and terminal operations, line-haul, destination sorting and terminal operations, and local delivery.

48411 General Freight Trucking, Local

See industry description for 484110 below.

484110 General Freight Trucking, Local

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing local general freight trucking. General freight establishments handle a wide variety of commodities, generally palletized and transported in a container or van trailer. Local general freight trucking establishments usually provide trucking within a metropolitan area which may cross state lines. Generally the trips are same-day return.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Operating independent trucking terminals--are classified in Industry 488490, Other Support Activities for Road Transportation; and
  • Providing general freight long-distance trucking including all North American international travel--are classified in Industry 48412, General Freight Trucking, Long-Distance.

48412 General Freight Trucking, Long-Distance

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing long-distance general freight trucking. General freight establishments handle a wide variety of commodities, generally palletized and transported in a container or van trailer. Long-distance general freight trucking establishments usually provide trucking between metropolitan areas which may cross North American country borders. Included in this industry are establishments operating as truckload (TL) or less than truckload (LTL) carriers.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing courier services--are classified in Industry 49211, Couriers;
  • Providing warehousing services of general freight--are classified in Industry 49311, General Warehousing and Storage;
  • Providing specialized freight trucking--are classified in Industry Group 4842, Specialized Freight Trucking;
  • Operating independent trucking terminals--are classified in Industry 48849, Other Support Activities for Road Transportation; and
  • Providing local general freight trucking services--are classified in Industry 48411, General Freight Trucking, Local.

484121 General Freight Trucking, Long-Distance, TruckloadCAN

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing long-distance general freight truckload (TL) trucking. These long-distance general freight truckload carrier establishments provide full truck movement of freight from origin to destination. The shipment of freight on a truck is characterized as a full single load not combined with other shipments.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing general freight long-distance, less than truckload trucking--are classified in U.S. Industry 484122, General Freight Trucking, Long-Distance, Less Than Truckload;
  • Providing specialized freight trucking--are classified in Industry Group 4842, Specialized Freight Trucking;
  • Operating independent trucking terminals--are classified in Industry 488490, Other Support Activities for Road Transportation; and
  • Providing local general freight trucking services--are classified in Industry 484110, General Freight Trucking, Local.

484122 General Freight Trucking, Long-Distance, Less Than TruckloadCAN

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing long-distance, general freight, less than truckload (LTL) trucking. LTL carriage is characterized as multiple shipments combined onto a single truck for multiple deliveries within a network. These establishments are generally characterized by the following network activities: local pickup, local sorting and terminal operations, line-haul, destination sorting and terminal operations, and local delivery.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing courier services--are classified in Industry 492110, Couriers;
  • Providing warehousing services of general freight--are classified in Industry 493110, General Warehousing and Storage;
  • Providing specialized freight trucking--are classified in Industry Group 4842, Specialized Freight Trucking;
  • Operating independent trucking terminals--are classified in Industry 488490, Other Support Activities for Road Transportation;
  • Providing general freight long-distance truckload trucking--are classified in U.S. Industry 484121, General Freight Trucking, Long-Distance, Truckload; and
  • Providing local general freight trucking services--are classified in Industry 484110, General Freight Trucking, Local.

4842 Specialized Freight Trucking

This industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing local or long-distance specialized freight trucking. The establishments of this industry are primarily engaged in the transportation of freight which, because of size, weight, shape, or other inherent characteristics, requires specialized equipment, such as flatbeds, tankers, or refrigerated trailers. This industry includes the transportation of used household, institutional, and commercial furniture and equipment.

48421 Used Household and Office Goods Moving

See industry description for 484210 below.

484210 Used Household and Office Goods Moving

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing local or long-distance trucking of used household, used institutional, or used commercial furniture and equipment. Incidental packing and storage activities are often provided by these establishments.

48422 Specialized Freight (except Used Goods) Trucking, Local

See industry description for 484220 below.

484220 Specialized Freight (except Used Goods) Trucking, Local

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing local, specialized trucking. Local trucking establishments provide trucking within a metropolitan area that may cross state lines. Generally the trips are same-day return.

Illustrative Examples:

Local agricultural products trucking
Local boat hauling
Local bulk liquids trucking
Local dump trucking (e.g., gravel, sand, top-soil)
Local livestock trucking

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing long-distance specialized freight (except used goods) trucking including all North American international travel--are classified in Industry 48423, Specialized Freight (except Used Goods) Trucking, Long-Distance;
  • Providing local general freight trucking--are classified in U.S. Industry 484110, General Freight Trucking, Local;
  • Providing trucking of used household and office goods--are classified in Industry 484210, Used Household and Office Goods Moving; and
  • Providing waste collection--are classified in Industry Group 5621, Waste Collection.

48423 Specialized Freight (except Used Goods) Trucking, Long-Distance

See industry description for 484230 below.

484230 Specialized Freight (except Used Goods) Trucking, Long-Distance

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing long-distance specialized trucking. These establishments provide trucking between metropolitan areas that may cross North American country borders.

Illustrative Examples:

Long-distance automobile carrier trucking
Long-distance hazardous material trucking
Long-distance bulk liquid trucking
Long-distance refrigerated product trucking

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing local specialized freight trucking (except used goods)--are classified in Industry 484220, Specialized Freight (except Used Goods) Trucking, Local;
  • Providing long-distance general freight trucking including all North American international travel--are classified in Industry 48412, General Freight Trucking, Long-Distance; and
  • Providing trucking of used household and office goods--are classified in Industry 484210, Used Household and Office Goods Moving.

485 Transit and Ground Passenger Transportation

Industries in the Transit and Ground Passenger Transportation subsector include a variety of passenger transportation activities, such as urban transit systems; chartered bus, school bus, and interurban bus transportation; and taxis. These activities are distinguished based primarily on such production process factors as vehicle types, routes, and schedules.

In this subsector, the principal splits identify scheduled transportation as separate from nonscheduled transportation. The scheduled transportation industry groups are Urban Transit Systems, Interurban and Rural Bus Transportation, and School and Employee Bus Transportation. The nonscheduled industry groups are the Charter Bus Industry and Taxi and Limousine Service. The Other Transit and Ground Passenger Transportation Industry group includes both scheduled and nonscheduled transportation.

Scenic and sightseeing ground transportation services are not included in this subsector but are included in Subsector 487, Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation. Sightseeing does not usually involve place-to-place transportation; the passenger's trip starts and ends at the same location.

4851 Urban Transit Systems

48511 Urban Transit Systems

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating local and suburban passenger transit systems over regular routes and on regular schedules within a metropolitan area and its adjacent nonurban areas. Such transportation systems involve the use of one or more modes of transport including light rail, commuter rail, subways, streetcars, as well as buses and other motor vehicles.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Operating local and suburban passenger transit systems using only one mode of transportation--are classified according to the mode of transport;
  • Providing scenic and sightseeing transportation--are classified in Industry 48711, Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Land;
  • Providing support services to transit and ground transportation--are classified in Industry Group 4884, Support Activities for Road Transportation; and
  • Providing interurban and rural bus transportation--are classified in Industry 48521, Interurban and Rural Bus Transportation.

485111 Mixed Mode Transit SystemsUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating local and suburban ground passenger transit systems using more than one mode of transport over regular routes and on regular schedules within a metropolitan area and its adjacent nonurban areas.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Operating local and suburban passenger transit systems using only one mode of transportation--are classified according to the mode of transport; and
  • Providing support services to transit and ground passenger transportation--are classified in Industry Group 4884, Support Activities for Road Transportation.

485112 Commuter Rail SystemsUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating local and suburban commuter rail systems over regular routes and on a regular schedule within a metropolitan area and its adjacent nonurban areas. Commuter rail is usually characterized by reduced fares, multiple ride, and commutation tickets and mostly used by passengers during the morning and evening peak periods.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Operating local and suburban mass passenger transit systems using both commuter rail and another mode of transport--are classified in U.S. Industry 485111, Mixed Mode Transit Systems;
  • Operating a subway system--are classified in U.S. Industry 485119, Other Urban Transit Systems; and
  • Providing scenic and sightseeing transportation on land--are classified in Industry 487110, Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Land.

485113 Bus and Other Motor Vehicle Transit SystemsUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating local and suburban passenger transportation systems using buses or other motor vehicles over regular routes and on regular schedules within a metropolitan area and its adjacent nonurban areas.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Operating local and suburban passenger transportation systems using both a bus or other motor vehicle and another mode of transport--are classified in U.S. Industry 485111, Mixed Mode Transit Systems;
  • Providing interurban and rural bus transportation--are classified in Industry 485210, Interurban and Rural Bus Transportation; and
  • Providing scenic and sightseeing transportation using buses or other motor vehicles--are classified in Industry 487110, Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Land.

485119 Other Urban Transit SystemsUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating local and suburban ground passenger transit systems (except mixed mode transit systems, commuter rail systems, and buses and other motor vehicles) over regular routes and on regular schedules within a metropolitan area and its adjacent nonurban areas.

Illustrative Examples:

Commuter cable car systems (i.e., stand-alone)
Commuter tramway systems (i.e., stand-alone)
Commuter trolley systems (i.e., stand-alone)
Light rail systems (i.e., stand-alone)
Monorail transit systems (i.e., stand-alone)

Cross-References. Establishment primarily engaged in--

  • Operating local and suburban ground passenger transit systems using more than one mode of transport--are classified in U.S. Industry 485111, Mixed Mode Transit Systems;
  • Providing local and suburban passenger transportation using commuter rail systems--are classified in U.S. Industry 485112, Commuter Rail Systems; and
  • Operating local and suburban bus transit systems--are classified in U.S. Industry 485113, Bus and Other Motor Vehicle Transit Systems.

4852 Interurban and Rural Bus Transportation

48521 Interurban and Rural Bus Transportation

See industry description for 485210 below.

485210 Interurban and Rural Bus Transportation

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing bus passenger transportation over regular routes and on regular schedules, principally outside a single metropolitan area and its adjacent nonurban areas.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing scenic and sightseeing transportation using buses--are classified in Industry 487110, Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Land;
  • Providing buses for charter--are classified in Industry 485510, Charter Bus Industry;
  • Operating local and suburban bus transit systems--are classified in U.S. Industry 485113, Bus and Other Motor Vehicle Transit Systems; and
  • Operating independent bus terminals--are classified in Industry 488490, Other Support Activities for Road Transportation.

4853 Taxi and Limousine Service

48531 Taxi Service

See industry description for 485310 below.

485310 Taxi Service

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing passenger transportation by automobile or van, not operated over regular routes and on regular schedules. Establishments of taxicab owner/operator, taxicab fleet operators, or taxicab organizations are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing special needs transportation services (except to and from school or work) for the infirm, elderly, or handicapped--are classified in U.S. Industry 485991, Special Needs Transportation;
  • Providing limousine services--are classified in Industry 485320, Limousine Service; and
  • Providing scheduled shuttle services between hotels, airports, or other destination points--are classified in U.S. Industry 485999, All Other Transit and Ground Passenger Transportation.

48532 Limousine Service

See industry description for 485320 below.

485320 Limousine Service

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing an array of specialty and luxury passenger transportation services via limousine or luxury sedans generally on a reserved basis. These establishments do not operate over regular routes and on regular schedules.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing taxi services--are classified in Industry 485310, Taxi Service; and
  • Providing scheduled shuttle services between hotels, airports, or other destination points--are classified in U.S. Industry 485999, All Other Transit and Ground Passenger Transportation.

4854 School and Employee Bus Transportation

48541 School and Employee Bus Transportation

See industry description for 485410 below.

485410 School and Employee Bus Transportation

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing buses and other motor vehicles to transport pupils to and from school or employees to and from work.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Operating local and suburban bus transit systems--are classified in U.S. Industry, 485113 Bus and Other Motor Vehicle Transit Systems;
  • Providing interurban and rural bus transportation--are classified in Industry 485210, Interurban and Rural Bus Transportation; and
  • Providing buses for charter--are classified in Industry 485510, Charter Bus Industry.

4855 Charter Bus Industry

48551 Charter Bus Industry

See industry description for 485510 below.

485510 Charter Bus Industry

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing buses for charter. These establishments provide bus services to meet customers' road transportation needs and generally do not operate over fixed routes and on regular schedules.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing scenic and local sightseeing transportation using buses--are classified in Industry 487110, Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Land; and
  • Providing interurban and rural bus transportation--are classified in Industry 485210, Interurban and Rural Bus Transportation.

4859 Other Transit and Ground Passenger Transportation

48599 Other Transit and Ground Passenger Transportation

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing other transit and ground passenger transportation (except urban transit systems, interurban and rural bus transportation, taxi services, school and employee bus transportation, charter bus services, and limousine services (except shuttle services)). Shuttle services (except employee bus) and special needs transportation services are included in this industry. Shuttle services establishments generally travel within a metropolitan area and its adjacent nonurban areas on regular routes, on regular schedules and provide services between hotels, airports, or other destination points. Special needs transportation establishments provide passenger transportation to the infirm, elderly, or handicapped. These establishments may use specially equipped vehicles to provide passenger transportation.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing school or employee bus transportation for the infirm, elderly, or handicapped--are classified in Industry 48541, School and Employee Bus Transportation;
  • Providing ambulance services for emergency and medical purposes--are classified in Industry 62191, Ambulance Services;
  • Operating urban transit systems--are classified in Industry Group 4851, Urban Transit Systems;
  • Providing interurban and rural bus transportation--are classified in Industry 48521, Interurban and Rural Bus Transportation;
  • Providing taxi services and/or limousine services (except shuttle services)--are classified in Industry Group 4853; Taxi and Limousine Service; and
  • Providing buses for charter--are classified in Industry 48551, Charter Bus Industry.

485991 Special Needs TransportationUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing special needs transportation (except to and from school or work) to the infirm, elderly, or handicapped. These establishments may use specially equipped vehicles to provide passenger transportation.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing school or employee bus transportation for the infirm, elderly, or handicapped--are classified in Industry 485410, School and Employee Bus Transportation; and
  • Providing ambulance services for emergency and medical purposes--are classified in Industry 62191, Ambulance Services.

485999 All Other Transit and Ground Passenger TransportationUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing ground passenger transportation (except urban transit systems; interurban and rural bus transportation, taxi and/or limousine services (except shuttle services), school and employee bus transportation, charter bus services, and special needs transportation). Establishments primarily engaged in operating shuttle services and vanpools are included in this industry. Shuttle services establishments generally provide travel on regular routes and on regular schedules between hotels, airports, or other destination points.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing urban transit systems--are classified in Industry Group 4851, Urban Transit Systems;
  • Providing interurban and rural bus transportation--are classified in Industry 485210, Interurban and Rural Bus Transportation;
  • Providing taxi and/or limousine services (except shuttle services)--are classified in Industry Group 4853, Taxi and Limousine Service;
  • Providing school and employee bus transportation (including for the infirm, elderly, or handicapped)--are classified in Industry 485410, School and Employee Bus Transportation;
  • Providing buses for charter--are classified in Industry 485510, Charter Bus Industry;
  • Providing special needs transportation (except to and from school or work) for the infirm, elderly, or handicapped--are classified in Industry 485991, Special Needs Transportation; and
  • Providing ambulance services for emergency and medical purposes--are classified in Industry 621910, Ambulance Services.

486 Pipeline Transportation

Industries in the Pipeline Transportation subsector use transmission pipelines to transport products, such as crude oil, natural gas, refined petroleum products, and slurry. Industries are identified based on the products transported (i.e., pipeline transportation of crude oil, natural gas, refined petroleum products, and other products).

The Pipeline Transportation of Natural Gas industry includes the storage of natural gas because the storage is usually done by the pipeline establishment and because a pipeline is inherently a network in which all the nodes are interdependent.

4861 Pipeline Transportation of Crude Oil

48611 Pipeline Transportation of Crude Oil

See industry description for 486110 below.

486110 Pipeline Transportation of Crude Oil

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the pipeline transportation of crude oil.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing the pipeline transportation of natural gas--are classified in Industry 486210, Pipeline Transportation of Natural Gas; and
  • Providing the pipeline transportation of refined petroleum products--are classified in Industry 486910, Pipeline Transportation of Refined Petroleum Products.

4862 Pipeline Transportation of Natural Gas

48621 Pipeline Transportation of Natural Gas

See industry description for 486210 below.

486210 Pipeline Transportation of Natural Gas

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the pipeline transportation of natural gas from processing plants to local distribution systems.

Cross-References.

Establishments primarily engaged in providing natural gas to the end consumer are classified in Industry 221210, Natural Gas Distribution.

4869 Other Pipeline Transportation

This industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in the pipeline transportation of products (except crude oil and natural gas).

48691 Pipeline Transportation of Refined Petroleum Products

See industry description for 486910 below.

486910 Pipeline Transportation of Refined Petroleum Products

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the pipeline transportation of refined petroleum products.

48699 All Other Pipeline Transportation

See industry description for 486990 below.

486990 All Other Pipeline Transportation

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the pipeline transportation of products except crude oil, natural gas, and refined petroleum products.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing pipeline transportation of crude oil--are classified in Industry 486110, Pipeline Transportation of Crude Oil;
  • Providing pipeline transportation of natural gas--are classified in Industry 486210, Pipeline Transportation of Natural Gas;
  • Providing pipeline transportation of refined petroleum products--are classified in Industry 486910, Pipeline Transportation of Refined Petroleum Products; and
  • Providing pipeline transportation of water--are classified in Industry 221310, Water Supply and Irrigation Systems.

487 Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation

Industries in the Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation subsector utilize transportation equipment to provide recreation and entertainment. These activities have a production process distinct from passenger transportation carried out for the purpose of other types of for-hire transportation. This process does not emphasize efficient transportation; in fact, such activities often use obsolete vehicles, such as steam trains, to provide some extra ambience. The activity is local in nature, usually involving a same-day return to the point of departure.

The Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation subsector is separated into three industries based on the mode: land, water, and other.

Activities that are recreational in nature and involve participation by the customer, such as white-water rafting, are generally excluded from this subsector, unless they impose an impact on part of the transportation system. Charter boat fishing, for example, is included in the Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Water industry.

4871 Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Land

48711 Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Land

See industry description for 487110 below.

487110 Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Land

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing scenic and sightseeing transportation on land, such as sightseeing buses and trolleys, steam train excursions, and horse-drawn sightseeing rides. The services provided are usually local and involve same-day return to place of origin.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Operating aerial trams or aerial cable cars--are classified in Industry 487990, Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Other;
  • Providing sporting services, such as pack trains,--are classified in Industry 713990, All Other Recreation and Amusement Industries;
  • Providing intercity and rural bus transportation--are classified in Industry 485210, Interurban and Rural Bus Transportation;
  • Providing buses for charter--are classified in Industry 485510, Charter Bus Industry;
  • Operating local and suburban passenger transit systems--are classified in Industry 48511, Urban Transit Systems; and
  • Providing passenger travel arrangements and tours--are classified in Industry Group 5615, Travel Arrangement and Reservation Services.

4872 Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Water

48721 Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Water

See industry description for 487210 below.

487210 Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Water

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing scenic and sightseeing transportation on water. The services provided are usually local and involve same-day return to place of origin.

Illustrative Examples:

Airboat (i.e., swamp buggy) operation
Charter fishing boat services
Dinner cruises
Excursion boat operation
Harbor sightseeing tours

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing recreation services, such as fishing guides, white-water rafting, parasailing, and water skiing--are classified in Industry 713990, All Other Amusement and Recreation Industries;
  • Providing water taxi services--are classified in Industry 48321, Inland Water Transportation;
  • Providing water transportation of passengers--are classified in Subsector 483, Water Transportation;
  • Operating floating casinos (i.e., gambling cruises or riverboat casinos)--are classified in Industry 713210, Casinos (except Casino Hotels); and
  • Providing boat rental without operators--are classified in U.S. Industry 532292, Recreational Goods Rental.

4879 Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Other

48799 Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Other

See industry description for 487990 below.

487990 Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Other

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing scenic and sightseeing transportation (except on land and water). The services provided are usually local and involve same-day return to place of departure.

Illustrative Examples:

Aerial tramways, scenic and sightseeing operation
Aerial cablecars, scenic and sightseeing operation
Glider excursions
Helicopter rides, scenic and sightseeing operation
Hot air balloon rides, scenic and sightseeing operation

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing recreational activities, such as hang gliding,--are classified in Industry 713990, All Other Amusement and Recreation Industries; and
  • Providing scheduled or nonscheduled air transportation of passengers or specialty flying services--are classified in Subsector 481, Air Transportation.

488 Support Activities for Transportation

Industries in the Support Activities for Transportation subsector provide services which support transportation. These services may be provided to transportation carrier establishments or to the general public. This subsector includes a wide array of establishments, including air traffic control services, marine cargo handling, and motor vehicle towing.

The Support Activities for Transportation subsector includes services to transportation but is separated by type of mode serviced. The Support Activities for Rail Transportation industry includes services to the rail industry (e.g., railroad switching and terminal establishments).

Ship repair and maintenance not done in a shipyard are included in Other Support Activities for Water Transportation. An example would be a floating drydock services in a harbor.

Excluded from this subsector are establishments primarily engaged in providing factory conversion and overhaul of transportation equipment, which are classified in Subsector 336, Transportation Equipment Manufacturing. Also, establishments primarily engaged in providing rental and leasing of transportation equipment without operator are classified in Subsector 532, Rental and Leasing Services.

4881 Support Activities for Air Transportation

This industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing services to the air transportation industry. These services include airport operation, servicing, repairing (except factory conversion and overhaul of aircraft), maintaining and storing aircraft, and ferrying aircraft.

48811 Airport Operations

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) operating international, national, or civil airports or public flying field or (2) supporting airport operations (except special food services contractors), such as rental of hangar space, air traffic control services, baggage handling services, and cargo handling services.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing factory conversion, overhaul, and rebuilding of aircraft--are classified in Industry 33641, Aerospace Product and Parts Manufacturing;
  • Wholesaling fuel at airports--are classified in Industry 42272, Petroleum and Petroleum Products Wholesalers (except Bulk Stations and Terminals);
  • Providing airport janitorial services--are classified in Industry 56172, Janitorial Services; and
  • Providing food services at airports on a contractual arrangement (i.e., food service contractors)--are classified in Industry 72231, Food Service Contractors.

488111 Air Traffic ControlCAN

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing air traffic control services to regulate the flow of air traffic.

488119 Other Airport Operations CAN

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) operating international, national, or civil airports, or public flying field or (2) supporting airport operations, such as rental of hangar space, and providing baggage handling and/or cargo handling services.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing air traffic control services--are classified in U.S. Industry 488111, Air Traffic Control;
  • Providing factory conversion, overhaul, and rebuilding of aircraft--are classified in Industry 33641, Aerospace Product and Parts Manufacturing;
  • Wholesaling fuel at airports--are classified in Industry 422720, Petroleum and Petroleum Products Wholesalers (except Bulk Stations and Terminals);
  • Providing airport janitorial services--are classified in Industry 561720, Janitorial Services; and
  • Providing food services at airports on a contractual arrangement--are classified in Industry 722310, Food Service Contractors.

48819 Other Support Activities for Air Transportation

See industry description for 488190 below.

488190 Other Support Activities for Air Transportation

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing specialized services for air transportation (except air traffic control and other airport operations).

Illustrative Examples:

Aircraft services
Aircraft maintenance and repair services (except factory conversions, overhauls, rebuilding)
Aircraft testing services

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Wholesaling fuel at airports--are classified in Industry 422720, Petroleum and Petroleum Products Wholesalers (except Bulk Stations and Terminals);
  • Providing aircraft janitorial services--are classified in Industry 561720, Janitorial Services;
  • Providing air traffic control services--are classified in U.S. Industry 488111, Air Traffic Control;
  • Providing airport operations (except air traffic control)--are classified in U.S. Industry 488119, Other Airport Operations (except Air Traffic Control);
  • Providing factory conversion, overhaul, and rebuilding of aircraft--are classified in Industry 33641, Aerospace Product and Parts Manufacturing; and
  • Providing food services to airlines on a contractual arrangement--are classified in Industry 722310, Food Service Contractors.

4882 Support Activities for Rail Transportation

48821 Support Activities for Rail Transportation

See industry description for 488210 below.

488210 Support Activities for Rail Transportation

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing specialized services for railroad transportation including servicing, routine repairing (except factory conversion, overhaul or rebuilding of rolling stock), and maintaining rail cars; loading and unloading rail cars; and operating independent terminals.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing railroad car rental--are classified in U.S. Industry 532411, Commercial Air, Rail, and Water Transportation Equipment Rental and Leasing;
  • Factory conversion, overhaul, or rebuilding of railroad rolling stock--are classified in Industry 336510, Railroad Rolling Stock Manufacturing;
  • Providing rail car janitorial services--are classified in Industry 561720, Janitorial Services; and
  • Providing dredging services--are classified in Industry 234990, All Other Heavy Construction.

4883 Support Activities for Water Transportation

48831 Port and Harbor Operations

See industry description for 488310 below.

488310 Port and Harbor Operations

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating ports, harbors (including docking and pier facilities), or canals.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing stevedoring and other marine cargo handling services--are classified in Industry 488320, Marine Cargo Handling;
  • Providing navigational services to shipping--are classified in Industry 488330, Navigational Services to Shipping; and
  • Operating docking and/or storage facilities and commonly known as marinas--are classified in Industry 713930, Marinas.

48832 Marine Cargo Handling

See industry description for 488320 below.

488320 Marine Cargo Handling

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing stevedoring and other marine cargo handling services (except warehousing).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Preparing freight for transportation--are classified in U.S. Industry 488991, Packing and Crating;
  • Operating general merchandise, refrigerated, or other warehousing and storage facilities--are classified in Subsector 493, Warehousing and Storage; and
  • Operating docking and pier facilities--are classified in Industry 488310, Port and Harbor Operations.

48833 Navigational Services to Shipping

See industry description for 488330 below.

488330 Navigational Services to Shipping

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing navigational services to shipping. Marine salvage establishments are included in this industry.

Illustrative Examples:

Docking and undocking marine vessel services
Marine vessel traffic reporting services
Piloting services, water transportation
Tugboat services, harbor operation

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing water transportation of barges (except coastal or Great Lake barge transportation services)--are classified in U.S. Industry 483211, Inland Water Freight Transportation; and
  • Providing coastal and/or Great Lakes barge transportation services--are classified in U.S. Industry 483113, Coastal and Great Lakes Freight Transportation.

48839 Other Support Activities for Water Transportation

See industry description for 488390 below.

488390 Other Support Activities for Water Transportation

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing services to water transportation (except port and harbor operations; marine cargo handling services; and navigational services to shipping).

Illustrative Examples:

Floating drydocks (i.e., maintenance and routine repairs for ships and boats)
Marine cargo checkers and surveyors
Ship scaling services

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Ship painting--are classified in Industry 235210, Painting and Wall Covering Contractors;
  • Providing ship janitorial services--are classified in Industry 561720, Janitorial Services;
  • Operating port, harbor, or canal facilities--are classified in Industry 488310, Port and Harbor Operations;
  • Providing stevedoring and other marine cargo handling services--are classified in Industry 488320, Marine Cargo Handling;
  • Providing navigational services to shipping--are classified in Industry 488330, Navigational Services to Shipping; and
  • Providing ship overhauling or repairs in a shipyard--are classified in U.S. Industry 336611, Ship Building and Repairing.

4884 Support Activities for Road Transportation

48841 Motor Vehicle Towing

See industry description for 488410 below.

488410 Motor Vehicle Towing

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in towing light or heavy motor vehicles, both local and long distance. These establishments may provide incidental services, such as storage and emergency road repair services.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Operating gasoline stations--are classified in Industry Group 4471, Gasoline Stations;
  • Providing automotive repair and maintenance--are classified in Industry Group 8111, Automotive Repair and Maintenance; and
  • Both retailing automotive parts and accessories, and repairing automobiles and known as automotive supply stores--are classified Industry 441310, Automotive Parts and Accessories Stores.

48849 Other Support Activities for Road Transportation

See industry description for 488490 below.

488490 Other Support Activities for Road Transportation

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing services (except motor vehicle towing) to road network users.

Illustrative Examples:

Bridge, tunnel, and highway operations
Driving services (e.g., automobile, truck delivery)
Pilot car services (i.e., wide load warning services)
Truck or weighing station operations

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing automotive repair and maintenance--are classified in Industry Group 8111, Automotive Repair and Maintenance;
  • Providing towing services to motor vehicles--are classified in Industry 488410, Motor Vehicle Towing;
  • Providing a network for busing in combination with providing terminal services--are classified in Industry 485210, Interurban and Rural Bus Transportation; and
  • Providing a network for trucking in combination with providing terminal services--are classified in Subsector 484, Truck Transportation.

4885 Freight Transportation Arrangement

48851 Freight Transportation Arrangement

See industry description for 488510 below.

488510 Freight Transportation Arrangement

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in arranging transportation of freight between shippers and carriers. These establishments are usually known as freight forwarders, marine shipping agents, or customs brokers and offer a combination of services spanning transportation modes.

Cross-References.

Establishments primarily engaged in tariff and freight rate consulting services are classified in U.S. Industry 541614, Process, Physical Distribution, and Logistics Consulting Services.

4889 Other Support Activities for Transportation

48899 Other Support Activities for Transportation

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing support activities to transportation (except for air transportation; rail transportation; water transportation; road transportation; and freight transportation arrangement).

Illustrative Examples:

Arrangement of vanpools or carpools
Independent pipeline terminal facilities
Stockyards (i.e., not for fattening or selling livestock)

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing support activities for air transportation--are classified in Industry Group 4881, Support Activities for Air Transportation;
  • Providing support activities for rail transportation--are classified in Industry Group 4882, Support Activities for Rail Transportation;
  • Providing support activities for water transportation--are classified in Industry Group 4883, Support Activities for Water Transportation;
  • Providing support activities for road transportation--are classified in Industry Group 4884, Support Activities for Road Transportation;
  • Arranging transportation of freight between shippers and carriers--are classified in Industry 48851, Freight Transportation Arrangement;
  • Providing tariff and freight rate consulting services--are classified in Industry 54161, Management Consulting Services;
  • Operating stockyards for fattening livestock--are classified in Subsector 112, Animal Production; and
  • Providing packaging and labeling services--are classified in Industry 56191, Packaging and Labeling Services.

488991 Packing and CratingUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in packing, crating, and otherwise preparing goods for transportation.

Cross-References.

Establishments primarily engaged in providing packaging and labeling services are classified in Industry 561910, Packaging and Labeling Services.

488999 All Other Support Activities for TransportationUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing support activities to transportation (except for air transportation; rail transportation; water transportation; road transportation; freight transportation arrangement; and packing and crating).

Illustrative Examples:

Arrangement of vanpools or carpools
Independent pipeline terminal facilities
Stockyards (i.e., not for fattening or selling livestock)

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Operating stockyards for fattening livestock--are classified in Subsector 112, Animal Production;
  • Providing tariff and freight rate consulting services--are classified in U.S. Industry 541614, Process, Physical Distribution, and Logistics Consulting Services;
  • Providing packing and crating services for transportation--are classified in U.S. Industry 488991, Packing and Crating;
  • Providing support activities for air transportation--are classified in Industry Group 4881, Support Activities for Air Transportation;
  • Providing support activities for rail transportation--are classified in Industry 488210, Support Activities for Rail Transportation;
  • Providing support activities for water transportation--are classified in Industry Group 4883, Support Activities for Water Transportation;
  • Providing support activities for road transportation--are classified in Industry Group 4884, Support Activities for Road Transportation; and
  • Arranging transportation of freight between shippers and carriers--are classified in Industry 488510, Freight Transportation Arrangement.

491 Postal Service

The Postal Service subsector includes the activities of the National Post Office and its subcontractors in delivering letters and small parcels, normally without pick-up at the senders' location. These articles can be described as those that can be handled by one person without using special equipment. This allows the collection, pick-up, and delivery operations to be done with limited labor costs and minimal equipment. Sorting and transportation activities, where necessary, are generally mechanized. The restriction to small parcels distinguishes these establishments from those in the transportation industries.

The traditional activity of the National Postal Service is described in this subsector. Subcontractors include rural Post Offices on contract to the Postal Service.

Bulk transportation of mail on contract to the Postal Service is not included here, because it is usually done by transportation establishments that carry other customers' cargo as well.

4911 Postal Service

49111 Postal Service

See industry description for 491110 below.

491110 Postal Service

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating the National Postal Service. Establishments primarily engaged in performing one or more postal service, such as sorting, routing, and/or delivery, on a contract basis (except the bulk transportation of mail) are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing bulk transportation of mail on a contract basis to and from postal service establishments--are classified in Industry Group 4841, General Freight Trucking;
  • Providing courier services--are classified in Industry 492110, Couriers;
  • Providing mailbox services along with other business services--are classified in U.S. Industry 561431, Private Mail Centers; and
  • Providing local messenger and delivery services--are classified in Industry 492210, Local Messengers and Local Delivery.

492 Couriers and Messengers

Industries in the Couriers and Messengers subsector provide intercity and/or local delivery of parcels. These articles can be described as those that may be handled by one person without using special equipment. This allows the collection, pick-up, and delivery operations to be done with limited labor costs and minimal equipment. Sorting and transportation activities, where necessary, are generally mechanized. The restriction to small parcels partly distinguishes these establishments from those in the transportation industries. The complete network of courier services establishments also distinguishes these transportation services from local messenger and delivery establishments in this subsector. This includes the establishments that perform intercity transportation as well as establishments that, under contract to them, perform local pick-up and delivery. Messengers, which usually deliver within a metropolitan or single urban area, may use bicycle, foot, small truck, or van.

4921 Couriers

49211 Couriers

See industry description for 492110 below.

492110 Couriers

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing air, surface, or combined courier delivery services of parcels generally between metropolitan areas or urban centers. The establishments of this industry form a network including courier local pick-up and delivery to serve their customers' needs.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing messenger and delivery services within a metropolitan area or within an urban center--are classified in Industry 492210, Local Messengers and Local Delivery; and
  • Providing the truck transportation of palletized general freight--are classified in Industry Group 4841, General Freight Trucking.

4922 Local Messengers and Local Delivery

49221 Local Messengers and Local Delivery

See industry description for 492210 below.

492210 Local Messengers and Local Delivery

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing local messenger and delivery services of small items within a single metropolitan or within an urban center. These establishments generally provide point-to-point pickup and delivery and do not operate as part of an intercity courier network.

Illustrative Examples:

Alcoholic beverages delivery services
Grocery delivery services (i.e., independent service from grocery store)
Letters, documents, or small parcel local delivery services
Restaurant meals delivery services (i.e., independent service from restaurant)

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing local letter and parcel delivery services as part of an intercity courier network--are classified in Industry 492110, Couriers;
  • Operating the National Postal Service or providing postal services on a contract basis (except the bulk transportation of mail)--are classified in Industry 491110, Postal Service; and
  • Providing the bulk transportation of mail on a contract basis to and from Postal Service establishments--are classified in Industry Group 4841, General Freight Trucking.

493 Warehousing and Storage

Industries in the Warehousing and Storage subsector are primarily engaged in operating warehousing and storage facilities for general merchandise, refrigerated goods, and other warehouse products. These establishments provide facilities to store goods. They do not sell the goods they handle. These establishments take responsibility for storing the goods and keeping them secure. They may also provide a range of services, often referred to as logistics services, related to the distribution of goods. Logistics services can include labeling, breaking bulk, inventory control and management, light assembly, order entry and fulfillment, packaging, pick and pack, price marking and ticketing, and transportation arrangement. However, establishments in this industry group always provide warehousing or storage services in addition to any logistic services. Furthermore, the warehousing or storage of goods must be more than incidental to the performance of services, such as price marking.

Bonded warehousing and storage services and warehouses located in free trade zones are included in the industries of this subsector.

4931 Warehousing and Storage

49311 General Warehousing and Storage

See industry description for 493110 below.

493110 General Warehousing and Storage

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating merchandise warehousing and storage facilities. These establishments generally handle goods in containers, such as boxes, barrels, and/or drums, using equipment, such as forklifts, pallets, and racks. They are not specialized in handling bulk products of any particular type, size, or quantity of goods or products.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Renting or leasing space for self storage--are classified in Industry 531130, Lessors of Miniwarehouses and Self-Storage Units; and
  • Selling in combination with handling and/or distributing goods to other wholesale or retail establishments--are classified in Sector 42, Wholesale Trade.

49312 Refrigerated Warehousing and Storage

See industry description for 493120 below.

493120 Refrigerated Warehousing and Storage

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating refrigerated warehousing and storage facilities. Establishments primarily engaged in the storage of furs for the trade are included in this industry. The services provided by these establishments include blast freezing, tempering, and modified atmosphere storage services.

Cross-References.

Establishments primarily engaged in storing furs (except for the trade) and garments are classified in Industry 812320, Drycleaning and Laundry Services (except Coin-Operated).

49313 Farm Product Warehousing and Storage

See industry description for 493130 below.

493130 Farm Product Warehousing and Storage

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating bulk farm product warehousing and storage facilities (except refrigerated). Grain elevators primarily engaged in storage are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Operating refrigerated warehousing and storage facilities--are classified in Industry 493120, Refrigerated Warehousing and Storage; and
  • Storing grains and field beans (i.e., grain elevators) as an incidental activity to sales--are classified in Industry 42251, Grain and Field Bean Wholesalers.

49319 Other Warehousing and Storage

See industry description for 493190 below.

493190 Other Warehousing and Storage

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating warehousing and storage facilities (except general merchandise, refrigerated, and farm product warehousing and storage).

Illustrative Examples:

Bulk petroleum storage
Lumber storage terminals
Whiskey warehousing

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Renting or leasing space for self storage--are classified in Industry 531130, Lessors of Miniwarehouses and Self-Storage Units;
  • Storing hazardous materials for treatment and disposal--are classified in U.S. Industry 562211, Hazardous Waste Treatment and Disposal;
  • Operating general warehousing and storage facilities--are classified in Industry 493110, General Warehousing and Storage;
  • Operating refrigerated warehousing and storage facilities--are classified in Industry 493120, Refrigerated Warehousing and Storage; and
  • Operating farm product warehousing and storage facilities--are classified in Industry 493130, Farm Product Warehousing and Storage.

US—United States industry only. CAN—United States and Canadian industries are comparable.
When neither US nor CAN appears, Canadian, Mexican, and United States industries are comparable.

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Source: U.S. Census Bureau | North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) | (888) 756-2427 | naics@census.gov | Last Revised: September 13, 2013