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1997 NAICS

Sector 51--Information

The Sector as a Whole

The Information sector comprises establishments engaged in the following processes: (a) producing and distributing information and cultural products, (b) providing the means to transmit or distribute these products as well as data or communications, and (c) processing data.

The main components of this sector are the publishing industries, including software publishing, the motion picture and sound recording industries, the broadcasting and telecommunications industries, and the information services and data processing industries.

The expressions "information age" and "global information economy" are used with considerable frequency today. The general idea of an "information economy" includes both the notion of industries primarily producing, processing, and distributing information, as well as the idea that every industry is using available information and information technology to reorganize and make themselves more productive.

For the purpose of developing NAICS, it is the transformation of information into a commodity that is produced and distributed by a number of growing industries that is at issue. The Information sector groups three types of establishments: (1) those engaged in producing and distributing information and cultural products; (2) those that provide the means to transmit or distribute these products as well as data or communications; and (3) those that process data. Cultural products are those that directly express attitudes, opinions, ideas, values, and artistic creativity; provide entertainment; or offer information and analysis concerning the past and present. Included in this definition are popular, mass-produced, products as well as cultural products that normally have a more limited audience, such as poetry books, literary magazines, or classical records. These activities were formerly classified throughout the existing national classifications. Traditional publishing is in manufacturing; broadcasting in communications; software production in business services; film production in amusement services; and so forth.

The unique characteristics of information and cultural products, and of the processes involved in their production and distribution, distinguish the Information sector from the goods-producing and service-producing sectors. Some of these characteristics are:

  1. Unlike traditional goods, an "information or cultural product," such as a newspaper on-line or television program, does not necessarily have tangible qualities, nor is it necessarily associated with a particular form. A movie can be shown at a movie theater, on a television broadcast, through video-on-demand or rented at a local video store. A sound recording can be aired on radio, embedded in multimedia products, or sold at a record store.
  2. Unlike traditional services, the delivery of these products does not require direct contact between the supplier and the consumer.
  3. The value of these products to the consumer lies in their informational, educational, cultural, or entertainment content, not in the format in which they are distributed. Most of these products are protected from unlawful reproduction by copyright laws.
  4. The intangible property aspect of information and cultural products makes the processes involved in their production and distribution very different from goods and services. Only those possessing the rights to these works are authorized to reproduce, alter, improve, and distribute them. Acquiring and using these rights often involves significant costs. In addition, technology is revolutionizing the distribution of these products. It is possible to distribute them in a physical form, via broadcast, or on-line.
  5. Distributors of information and cultural products can easily add value to the products they distribute. For instance, broadcasters add advertising not contained in the original product. This capacity means that unlike traditional distributors, they derive revenue not from sale of the distributed product to the final consumer, but from those who pay for the privilege of adding information to the original product. Similarly, a database publisher can acquire the rights to thousands of previously published newspaper and periodical articles and add new value by providing search and software and organizing the information in a way that facilitates research and retrieval. These products often command a much higher price than the original information.
The distribution modes for information commodities may either eliminate the necessity for traditional manufacture, or reverse the conventional order of manufacture-distribute: A newspaper distributed on-line, for example, can be printed locally or by the final consumer. Similarly, it is anticipated that packaged software, which today is mainly bought through the traditional retail channels, will soon be available mainly on-line. The NAICS Information sector is designed to make such economic changes transparent as they occur, or to facilitate designing surveys that will monitor the new phenomena and provide data to analyze the changes.

Many of the industries in the NAICS Information sector are engaged in producing products protected by copyright law, or in distributing them (other than distribution by traditional wholesale and retail methods). Examples are traditional publishing industries, software and database publishing industries, and film and sound industries. Broadcasting and telecommunications industries and information providers and processors are also included in the Information sector, because their technologies are so closely linked to other industries in the Information sector.

511 Publishing Industries

Industries in the Publishing Industries subsector group establishments engaged in the publishing of newspapers, magazines, other periodicals, and books, as well as database and software publishing. In general, these establishments, which are known as publishers, issue copies of works for which they usually possess copyright. Works may be in one or more formats including traditional print form, CD-ROM, or on-line. Publishers may publish works originally created by others for which they have obtained the rights and/or works that they have created in-house. Software publishing is included here because the activity, creation of a copyrighted product and bringing it to market, is equivalent to the creation process for other types of intellectual products.

In NAICS, publishing, the reporting, writing, editing, and other processes that are required to create an edition of a newspaper, is treated as a major economic activity in its own right, rather than as a subsidiary activity to a manufacturing activity, printing. Thus, publishing is classified in the Information sector; whereas, printing remains in the NAICS Manufacturing sector. In part, the NAICS classification reflects the fact that publishing increasingly takes place in establishments that are physically separate from the associated printing establishments. More crucially, the NAICS classification of book and newspaper publishing is intended to portray their roles in a modern economy, in which they do not resemble manufacturing activities.

Music publishers are not included in the Publishing Industries subsector, but are included in the Motion Picture and Sound Recording Industries subsector. Reproduction of prepackaged software is treated in NAICS as a manufacturing activity; on-line distribution of software products is in the Information sector, and custom design of software to client specifications is included in the Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services sector. These distinctions arise because of the different ways that software is created, reproduced, and distributed.

The Information sector does not include products, such as manifold business forms. Information is not the essential component of these items. Establishments producing these items are included in Subsector 323, Printing and Related Support Activities.

5111 Newspaper, Periodical, Book, and Database Publishers

This industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in publishing newspapers, magazines, other periodicals, books, databases, and other works, such as calendars, greeting cards, and maps. These works are characterized by the intellectual creativity required in their development and are usually protected by copyright. Publishers distribute or arrange for the distribution of these works.

Publishing establishments may create the works in-house, contract for, purchase, or compile works that were originally created by others. These works may be published in one or more formats, such as print and/or electronic form, including on-line. Establishments in this industry may print, reproduce, or offer direct access to the works themselves or may arrange with others to carry out such functions.

Establishments that both print and publish may fill excess capacity with commercial or job printing. However, the publishing activity is still considered to be the primary activity of these establishments.

51111 Newspaper Publishers

See industry description for 511110 below.

511110 Newspaper Publishers

This industry comprises establishments known as newspaper publishers. Establishments in this industry carry out operations necessary for producing and distributing newspapers, including gathering news; writing news columns, feature stories, and editorials; and selling and preparing advertisements. These establishments may publish newspapers in print or electronic form.

Cross-References.

  • Establishments primarily engaged in printing newspapers without publishing are classified in Industry 32311, Printing;
  • Establishments, such as trade associations, schools and universities, and social welfare organizations that publish newsletters for distribution to their membership, but that are not commonly known as newspaper publishers, are classified according to their primary activity designation;
  • Establishments primarily engaged in supplying the news media with information, such as news, reports, and pictures, are classified in Industry 514110, News Syndicates; and
  • Establishments of independent representatives primarily engaged in selling advertising space are classified in Industry 541840, Media Representatives.

51112 Periodical Publishers

See industry description for 511120 below.

511120 Periodical Publishers

This industry comprises establishments known as magazine or periodical publishers. These establishments carry out the operations necessary for producing and distributing magazines and other periodicals, such as gathering, writing, and editing articles, and selling and preparing advertisements. These establishments may publish magazines and other periodicals in print or electronic form.

Illustrative Examples:

Comic book publishers
Magazine publishers
Newsletter publishers
Radio and television guide publishers
Scholarly journal publishers
Trade journal publishers

Cross-References.

  • Establishments primarily engaged in printing periodicals without publishing are classified in Industry 32311, Printing;
  • Establishments, such as trade associations, schools and universities, and social welfare organizations, that publish magazines and periodicals for distribution to their membership, but that are not commonly known as periodical publishers, are classified according to their primary activity designation;
  • Establishments primarily engaged in publishing databases and directories are classified in Industry 511140, Database and Directory Publishers; and
  • Establishments of independent representatives primarily engaged in selling advertising space are classified in Industry 541840, Media Representatives.

51113 Book Publishers

See industry description for 511130 below.

511130 Book Publishers

This industry comprises establishments known as book publishers. Establishments in this industry carry out design, editing, and marketing activities necessary for producing and distributing books. These establishments may publish books in print, electronic, or audio form.

Illustrative Examples:

Book publishers
Encyclopedia publishers
Religious book publishers
School textbook publishers
Technical manual publishers
Travel guide book publishers

Cross-References.

  • Establishments primarily engaged in printing books without publishing are classified in Industry 32311, Printing;
  • Establishments known as music publishers are classified in Industry 512230, Music Publishers;
  • Establishments, such as trade associations, schools and universities, and social welfare organizations, that publish books for distribution to their membership, that are not commonly known as book publishers, are classified according to their primary activity designation; and
  • Book clubs primarily engaged in direct sales activities without publishing are classified in Industry 454390, Other Direct Selling Establishments.

51114 Database and Directory Publishers

See industry description for 511140 below.

511140 Database and Directory Publishers

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in publishing compilations and collections of information or facts that are logically organized to facilitate their use. These collections may be published in print or electronic form. Electronic versions may be provided directly to customers by the establishment or offered through on-line services or third-party vendors.

Illustrative Examples:

Business directory publishers
Database and directory publishers
Mailing list publishers
Telephone directory publishers

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Printing without publishing databases and directories--are classified in Industry 32311, Printing;
  • Publishing encyclopedias--are classified in Industry 511130, Book Publishers;
  • Direct access to databases developed by others--are classified in U.S. Industry 514191, On-Line Information Services; and
  • Publishing computer software--are classified in Industry 511210, Software Publishers.

51119 Other Publishers

This industry comprises establishments known as publishers (except newspaper, magazine, book, directory, database, and music publishers). These establishments may publish works in print or electronic form.

Illustrative Examples:

Art print publishers
Atlas publishers
Calendar publishers
Greeting card publishers
Map publishers

Cross-References.

  • Establishments known as newspaper publishers are classified in Industry 51111, Newspaper Publishers;
  • Establishments known as magazine and other periodical publishers are classified in Industry 51112, Periodical Publishers;
  • Establishments known as book publishers are classified in Industry 51113, Book Publishers;
  • Establishments primarily engaged in directory and database publishing are classified in Industry 51114, Database and Directory Publishers;
  • Establishments known as music publishers are classified in Industry 51223, Music Publishers; and
  • Establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing manifold business forms are classified in Industry 32311, Printing.

511191 Greeting Card PublishersUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in publishing greeting cards.

Cross-References.

Establishments primarily engaged in printing greeting cards without publishing are classified in Industry 32311, Printing.

511199 All Other PublishersUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments generally known as publishers (except newspaper, magazine, book, directory, database, music, and greeting card publishers). These establishment may publish works in print or electronic form.

Illustrative Examples:

Art print publishers
Atlas publishers
Calendar publishers
Map publishers
Street map guide publishers

Cross-References.

  • Establishments known as newspaper publishers are classified in Industry 511110, Newspaper Publishers;
  • Establishments known as magazine or other periodical publishers are classified in Industry 511120, Magazine Publishers;
  • Establishments known as book publishers are classified in Industry 511130, Book Publishers;
  • Establishments primarily engaged in directory and database publishing are classified Industry 511140, Database and Directory Publishers;
  • Establishments primarily engaged in greeting card publishing are classified in U.S. Industry 511191, Greeting Card Publishers;
  • Establishments known as music publishers are classified in Industry 512230, Music Publishers;
  • Establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing manifold business forms are classified in U.S. Industry 323116, Manifold Business Forms Printing; and
  • Establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing day schedulers are classified in U.S. Industry 323118, Blankbooks, Looseleaf Binders and Devices Manufacturing.

5112 Software Publishers

51121 Software Publishers

See industry description for 511210 below.

511210 Software Publishers

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in computer software publishing or publishing and reproduction. Establishments in this industry carry out operations necessary for producing and distributing computer software, such as designing, providing documentation, assisting in installation, and providing support services to software purchasers. These establishments may design, develop, and publish, or publish only.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Reselling packaged software--are classified in Sector 42, Wholesale Trade or Sector 44-45, Retail Trade;
  • Designing software to meet the needs of specific users--are classified in U.S. Industry 541511, Custom Computer Programming Services; and
  • Mass duplication of software--are classified in U.S. Industry 334611, Software Reproducing.

512 Motion Picture and Sound Recording Industries

Industries in the Motion Picture and Sound Recording Industries subsector group establishments involved in the production and distribution of motion pictures and sound recordings. While producers and distributors of motion pictures and sound recordings issue works for sale as traditional publishers do, the processes are sufficiently different to warrant placing establishments engaged in these activities in a separate subsector. Production is typically a complex process that involves several distinct types of establishments that are engaged in activities, such as contracting with performers, creating the film or sound content, and providing technical postproduction services. Film distribution is often to exhibitors, such as theaters and broadcasters, rather than through the wholesale and retail distribution chain. When the product is in a mass-produced form, NAICS treats production and distribution as the major economic activity as it does in the Publishing Industries subsector, rather than as a subsidiary activity to the manufacture of such products.

This subsector does not include establishments primarily engaged in the wholesale distribution of video cassettes and sound recordings, such as compact discs and audio tapes; these establishments are included in the Wholesale Trade sector. Reproduction of video cassettes and sound recordings that is carried out separately from establishments engaged in production and distribution is treated in NAICS as a manufacturing activity.

5121 Motion Picture and Video Industries

This industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in the production and/or distribution of motion pictures, videos, television programs, or commercials; in the exhibition of motion pictures; or in the provision of postproduction and related services.

51211 Motion Picture and Video Production

See industry description for 512110 below.

512110 Motion Picture and Video Production

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in producing, or producing and distributing motion pictures, videos, television programs, or television and video commercials.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Producing motion pictures and videos on contract as independent producers--are classified in Industry 711510, Independent Artists, Writers, and Performers;
  • Providing teleproduction and other postproduction services--are classified in U.S. Industry 512191, Teleproduction and Other Postproduction Services;
  • Providing video taping of weddings, special events, and/or business inventories--are classified in Industry 54192, Photographic Services;
  • Providing motion picture laboratory services--are classified in U.S. Industry 512199, Other Motion Picture and Video Industries;
  • Providing mass duplication and packaging of video tapes--are classified in U.S. Industry 334612, Prerecorded Compact Disc (except Software), Tape, and Record Reproducing; and
  • Acquiring distribution rights and distributing motion pictures and videos--are classified in Industry 512120, Motion Picture and Video Distribution.

51212 Motion Picture and Video Distribution

See industry description for 512120 below.

512120 Motion Picture and Video Distribution

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in acquiring distribution rights and distributing film and video productions to motion picture theaters, television networks and stations, and exhibitors.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Producing and distributing motion pictures and videos--are classified in Industry 512110, Motion Picture and Video Production;
  • Wholesaling video cassette tapes and discs--are classified in Industry 421690, Other Electronic Parts and Equipment Wholesalers;
  • Providing mass duplication and packaging of video tapes--are classified in U.S. Industry 334612, Prerecorded Compact Disc (except Software), Tape, and Record Reproducing;
  • Providing motion picture footage (via film libraries) to producers--are classified in U.S. Industry 512199, Other Motion Picture and Video Industries;
  • Renting video tapes and discs to the general public--are classified in Industry 532230, Video Tape and Disc Rental; and
  • Selling video cassettes and discs to the general public--are classified in Industry 451220, Prerecorded Tape, Compact Disc and Record Stores.

51213 Motion Picture and Video Exhibition

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating motion picture theaters and/or exhibiting motion pictures or videos at film festivals, and so forth.

512131 Motion Picture Theaters (except Drive-Ins)US

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating motion picture theaters (except drive-ins) and/or exhibiting motion pictures or videos at film festivals, and so forth.

512132 Drive-In Motion Picture TheatersUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating drive-in motion picture theaters.

51219 Postproduction Services and Other Motion Picture and Video Industries

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing postproduction services and other services to the motion picture industry, including specialized motion picture or video postproduction services, such as editing, film/tape transfers, subtitling, credits, closed captioning, and computer-produced graphics, animation and special effects, as well as developing and processing motion picture film.

Illustrative Examples:

Motion picture film laboratories
Postproduction facilities
Stock footage film libraries
Teleproduction services

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Mass duplicating video tapes and film--are classified in Industry 33461, Manufacturing and Reproducing Magnetic and Optical Media;
  • Providing audio services for film, television, and video productions--are classified in Industry 51224, Sound Recording Studios;
  • Renting wardrobes and costumes for motion picture production--are classified in Industry 53222, Formal Wear and Costume Rental;
  • Renting studio equipment--are classified in Industry 53249, Other Commercial and Industrial Machinery and Equipment Rental and Leasing; and
  • Casting actors and actresses with production companies--are classified in Industry 56131, Employment Placement Agencies.

512191 Teleproduction and Other Postproduction ServicesUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing specialized motion picture or video postproduction services, such as editing, film/tape transfers, subtitling, credits, closed captioning, and animation and special effects.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Mass duplicating video tapes and film--are classified in Industry 33461, Manufacturing and Reproducing Magnetic and Optical Media;
  • Developing and processing motion picture film--are classified in U.S. Industry 512199, Other Motion Picture and Video Industries;
  • Providing audio services for film, television, and video productions--are classified in Industry 512240, Sound Recording Studios; and
  • Acquiring distribution rights and distributing film and video productions to motion picture theaters, television networks and stations, and exhibitors--are classified in Industry 512120, Motion Picture and Video Distribution.

512199 Other Motion Picture and Video IndustriesUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing motion picture and video services (except motion picture and video production, distribution, exhibition, and teleproduction and other postproduction services).

Illustrative Examples:

Motion picture film laboratories
Stock footage film libraries

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Renting wardrobes and costumes for motion picture production--are classified in Industry 532220, Formal Wear and Costume Rental;
  • Renting studio equipment--are classified in Industry 532490, Other Commercial and Industrial Machinery and Equipment Rental and Leasing;
  • Casting actors and actresses with production companies--are classified in Industry 561310, Employment Placement Agencies;
  • Motion picture and video production--are classified in Industry 512110, Motion Picture and Video Production;
  • Motion picture and video distribution--are classified in Industry 512120, Motion Picture and Video Distribution;
  • Teleproduction and other postproduction services--are classified in U.S. Industry 512191, Teleproduction and Other Postproduction Services; and
  • Motion picture and video exhibition--are classified in Industry 51213, Motion Picture and Video Exhibition.

5122 Sound Recording Industries

This industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in producing and distributing musical recordings, in publishing music, or in providing sound recording and related services.

51221 Record Production

See industry description for 512210 below.

512210 Record Production

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in record production (e.g., tapes, CDs). These establishments contract with artists and arrange and finance the production of original master recordings. Establishments in this industry hold the copyright to the master recording and derive most of their revenues from the sales, leasing, and licensing of master recordings. Establishments in this industry do not have their own duplication or distribution capabilities.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Releasing, promoting, and distributing recordings--are classified in Industry 512220, Integrated Record Production/Distribution;
  • Promoting and authorizing the use of musical works in various media--are classified in Industry 512230, Music Publishers;
  • Mass duplication services--are classified in U.S. Industry 334612, Prerecorded Compact Disc (except Software), Tape, and Record Reproducing;
  • Wholesaling music recordings--are classified in Industry 421690, Other Electronic Parts and Equipment Wholesalers;
  • Managing the careers of artists--are classified in Industry 711410, Agents and Managers for Artists, Athletes, Entertainers and Other Public Figures;
  • Providing facilities and technical expertise for recording musical performances--are classified in Industry 512240, Sound Recording Studios; and
  • Producing albums on contract as independent producers--are classified in Industry 711510, Independent Artists, Writers, and Performers.

51222 Integrated Record Production/Distribution

See industry description for 512220 below.

512220 Integrated Record Production/Distribution

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in releasing, promoting, and distributing sound recordings. These establishments manufacture or arrange for the manufacture of recordings, such as audio tapes/cassettes and compact discs, and promote and distribute these products to wholesalers, retailers, or directly to the public. Establishments in this industry produce master recordings themselves, or obtain reproduction and distribution rights to master recordings produced by record production companies or other integrated record companies.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Contracting with musical artists, arranging for the production of master recordings, and marketing the reproduction rights--are classified in Industry 512210, Record Production;
  • Providing facilities and technical expertise for recording musical performances--are classified in Industry 512240, Sound Recording Studios;
  • Mass duplication of recorded products--are classified in U.S. Industry 334612, Prerecorded Compact Disc (except Software), Tape, and Record Reproducing;
  • Wholesaling records, tapes, and compact discs without producing recordings--are classified in Sector 42, Wholesale Trade; and
  • Retailing records, tapes, and compact discs without producing recordings--are classified in Sector 44-45, Retail Trade.

51223 Music Publishers

See industry description for 512230 below.

512230 Music Publishers

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in acquiring and registering copyrights for musical compositions in accordance with law and promoting and authorizing the use of these compositions in recordings, radio, television, motion pictures, live performances, print, or other media. Establishments in this industry represent the interests of the songwriter or other owners of musical compositions to produce revenues from the use of such works, generally through licensing agreements. These establishments may own the copyright or act as administrator of the music copyrights on behalf of copyright owners.

Cross-References.

Establishments primarily engaged as independent songwriters who act as their own publishers are classified in Industry 711510, Independent Artists, Writers, and Performers.

51224 Sound Recording Studios

See industry description for 512240 below.

512240 Sound Recording Studios

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing the facilities and technical expertise for sound recording in a studio. Establishments in this industry may provide audio production or postproduction services for producing master recordings, and may provide audio services for film, television, and video productions.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Releasing, promoting, and distributing sound recordings--are classified in Industry 512220, Integrated Record Production/Distribution;
  • Providing mass duplication of recorded products--are classified in U.S. Industry 334612, Prerecorded Compact Disc (except Software), Tape, and Record Reproducing; and
  • Contracting with musical artists, arranging for the production of master recordings, and marketing the reproduction rights--are classified in Industry 512210, Record Production.

51229 Other Sound Recording Industries

See industry description for 512290 below.

512290 Other Sound Recording Industries

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing sound recording services (except record production, distribution, music publishing, and sound recording in a studio). Establishments in this industry provide services, such as the audio recording of meetings and conferences.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Producing records, including contracting with musical artists, arranging and financing the production of master recordings, and marketing the reproduction rights--are classified in Industry 512210, Record Production;
  • Releasing, promoting, and distributing sound recordings--are classified in Industry 512220, Integrated Record Production/Distribution;
  • Promoting and authorizing the use of musical works in various media--are classified in Industry 512230, Music Publishers;
  • Providing facilities and expertise for recording musical performance--are classified in Industry 512240, Sound Recording Studios;
  • Providing mass duplication of recorded products--are classified in U.S. Industry 334612, Prerecorded Compact Disc (except Software), Tape, and Record Reproducing; and
  • Organizing and promoting the presentation of performing arts productions--are classified in Industry Group 7113, Promoters of Performing Arts, Sports and Similar Events.

513 Broadcasting and Telecommunications

Industries in the Broadcasting and Telecommunications subsector include establishments providing point-to-point communications and the services related to that activity. The industry groups (Radio and Television Broadcasting, Cable Networks and Program Distribution, and Telecommunications) are based on differences in the methods of communication and in the nature of services provided. The Radio and Television Broadcasting industry group includes establishments that operate broadcasting studios and facilities for over the air or satellite delivery of radio and television programs of entertainment, news, talk, and the like. These establishments are often engaged in the production and purchase of programs and generating revenues from the sale of air time to advertisers and from donations, subsidies, and/or the sale of programs. The Cable Networks and Program Distribution industry group includes two types of establishments. Those in the Cable Networks industry operate studios and facilities for the broadcasting of programs that are typically narrowcast in nature (limited format, such as news, sports, education, and youth-oriented programming). The services of these establishments are typically sold on a subscription or fee basis. Delivery of the programs to customers is handled by other establishments, in the Cable and Other Program Distribution industry, that operate cable systems, direct-to-home satellite systems, or other similar systems. The Telecommunications industry group is primarily engaged in operating, maintaining, and/or providing access to facilities for the transmission of voice, data, text, sound, and full motion picture video between network termination points. A transmission facility may be based on a single technology or a combination of technologies. Establishments primarily engaged as independent contractors in the maintenance and installation of broadcasting and telecommunications systems are classified in Sector 23, Construction.

5131 Radio and Television Broadcasting

This industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating broadcast studios and facilities for over-the-air or satellite delivery of radio and television programs. These establishments are often engaged in the production or purchase of programs or generate revenues from the sale of air time to advertisers, from donations and subsidies, or from the sale of programs.

51311 Radio Broadcasting

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in broadcasting audio signals. These establishments operate radio broadcasting studios and facilities for the transmission of aural programming by radio to the public, to affiliates, or to subscribers. The radio programs may include entertainment, news, talk shows, business data, or religious services.

Cross-References.

Establishments primarily engaged in producing taped radio programming are classified in Industry 51229, Other Sound Recording Industries.

513111 Radio NetworksUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in assembling and transmitting aural programming to their affiliates or subscribers via over-the-air broadcasts, cable, or satellite. The programming covers a wide variety of material, such as news services, religious programming, weather, sports, or music.

Cross-References.

Establishments primarily engaged in producing taped radio programming are classified in Industry 512290, Other Sound Recording Industries.

513112 Radio StationsUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in broadcasting aural programs by radio to the public. Programming may originate in their own studios, from an affiliated network, or from external sources.

51312 Television Broadcasting

See industry description for 513120 below.

513120 Television Broadcasting

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in broadcasting images together with sound. These establishments operate television broadcasting studios and facilities for the programming and transmission of programs to the public. These establishments also produce or transmit visual programming to affiliated broadcast television stations, which in turn broadcast the programs to the public on a predetermined schedule. Programming may originate in their own studios, from an affiliated network, or from external sources.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Producing taped television program materials--are classified in Industry 512110, Motion Picture and Video Production;
  • Furnishing cable and other pay television services--are classified in Industry 513220, Cable and Other Program Distribution; and
  • Producing and broadcasting television programs for cable and satellite television systems--are classified in Industry 513210, Cable Networks.

5132 Cable Networks and Program Distribution

This industry group comprises establishments that primarily assemble program material and transmit television programs for cable and satellite systems, or that operate these systems.

51321 Cable Networks

See industry description for 513210 below.

513210 Cable Networks

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating studios and facilities for the broadcasting of programs on a subscription or fee basis. The broadcast programming is typically narrowcast in nature (e.g., limited format, such as news, sports, education, or youth-oriented). These establishments produce programming in their own facilities or acquire programming from external sources. The programming material is usually delivered to a third party, such as cable systems or direct-to-home satellite systems, for transmission to viewers.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Producing taped television program material--are classified in Industry 512110, Motion Picture and Video Production;
  • Producing and transmitting television programs to affiliated stations--are classified in Industry 513120, Television Broadcasting;
  • Furnishing cable and other pay television services--are classified in Industry 513220, Cable and Other Program Distribution; and
  • Retailing merchandise by electronic media, such as television,--are classified in Industry 454110, Electronic Shopping and Mail-Order Houses.

51322 Cable and Other Program Distribution

See industry description for 513220 below.

513220 Cable and Other Program Distribution

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged as third-party distribution systems for broadcast programming. The establishments of this industry deliver visual, aural, or textual programming received from cable networks, local television stations, or radio networks to consumers via cable or direct-to-home satellite systems on a subscription or fee basis. These establishments do not generally originate programming material.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Producing and broadcasting television programs for cable and satellite television systems--are classified in Industry 513210, Cable Networks; and
  • Maintenance and installation of cable systems as independent contractors--are classified in Sector 23, Construction.

5133 Telecommunications

This industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating, maintaining or providing access to facilities for the transmission of voice, data, text, and full motion picture video between network termination points and telecommunications reselling. Transmission facilities may be based on a single technology or a combination of technologies.

51331 Wired Telecommunications Carriers

See industry description for 513310 below.

513310 Wired Telecommunications Carriers

This industry comprises establishments engaged in (1) operating and maintaining switching and transmission facilities to provide direct communications via landlines, microwave, or a combination of landlines and satellite linkups or (2) furnishing telegraph and other nonvocal communications using their own facilities.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Broadcasting scheduled television programs via cable or satellite facilities on a subscription or fee basis--are classified in Industry 513220, Cable and Other Program Distribution;
  • Providing coin-operated pay telephones--are classified in Industry 812990, All Other Personal Services;
  • Operating and maintaining wireless networks--are classified in Industry 51332, Wireless Telecommunications Carriers (except Satellite);
  • Reselling telecommunications, without operating a network--are classified in Industry 513330, Telecommunications Resellers;
  • Publishing telephone directories--are classified in Industry 511140, Database and Directory Publishers; and
  • Maintaining and installing wired telecommunication systems as independent contractors--are classified in Sector 23, Construction.

51332 Wireless Telecommunications Carriers (except Satellite)

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating and maintaining switching and transmission facilities that provide direct communications via airwaves. Included in this industry are establishments providing wireless telecommunications network services, such as cellular telephone or paging services.

Cross-References.

Establishments primarily engaged in providing telephone answering services using pagers are classified in Industry 56142, Telephone Call Centers.

513321 PagingUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating paging networks. The establishments of this industry may also supply and maintain equipment used to receive signals.

Cross-References.

Establishments primarily engaged in providing telephone answering services using pagers are classified in U.S. Industry 561421, Telephone Answering Services.

513322 Cellular and Other Wireless TelecommunicationsUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating cellular telecommunications and other wireless telecommunications networks (except paging).

Cross-References.

Establishments primarily engaged in operating paging networks are classified in U.S. Industry 513321, Paging.

51333 Telecommunications Resellers

See industry description for 513330 below.

513330 Telecommunications Resellers

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in purchasing access and network capacity from owners and operators of the networks and reselling wired and wireless telecommunications services to businesses and households. Establishments in this industry resell telecommunications; they do not operate and maintain telecommunications switching and transmission facilities.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Operating and maintaining wired telecommunications networks--are classified in Industry 513310, Wired Telecommunications Carriers;
  • Reselling satellite telecommunications services--are classified in Industry 513340, Satellite Telecommunications; and
  • Operating and maintaining wireless telecommunications--are classified in Industry 51332, Wireless Telecommunications Carriers (except Satellite).

51334 Satellite Telecommunications

See industry description for 513340 below.

513340 Satellite Telecommunications

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing point-to-point telecommunications services to other establishments in the telecommunications and broadcasting industries by forwarding and receiving communications signals via a system of satellites or reselling satellite telecommunications.

Cross-References.

Establishments primarily engaged in providing direct-to-home satellite television systems to individual households or consumers are classified in Industry 513220, Cable and Other Program Distribution.

51339 Other Telecommunications

See industry description for 513390 below.

513390 Other Telecommunications

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) providing specialized telecommunications applications, such as satellite tracking, communications telemetry, and radar station operations or (2) providing satellite terminal stations and associated facilities operationally connected with one or more terrestrial communications systems and capable of transmitting telecommunications to or receiving telecommunications from satellite systems.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing satellite telecommunications--are classified in Industry 513340, Satellite Telecommunications; and
  • Providing custom design, programming, or facilities management services for integrated computer and telecommunications systems or operations--are classified in Industry 54151, Computer Systems Design and Related Services.

514 Information Services and Data Processing Services

Industries in the Information Services and Data Processing Services subsector group establishments providing information, storing information, providing access to information, and processing information. The main components of the subsector are news syndicates, libraries, archives, on-line information service providers, and data processors.

5141 Information Services

This industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing information, storing information, and/or providing access to information.

51411 News Syndicates

See industry description for 514110 below.

514110 News Syndicates

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in supplying information, such as news reports, articles, pictures, and features, to the news media.

Cross-References.

Independent writers and journalists (including photojournalists) are classified in Industry 711510, Independent Artists, Writers, and Performers.

51412 Libraries and Archives

See industry description for 514120 below.

514120 Libraries and Archives

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing library or archive services. These establishments are engaged in maintaining collections of documents (e.g., books, journals, newspapers, and music) and facilitating the use of such documents (recorded information regardless of its physical form and characteristics) as are required to meet the informational, research, educational, or recreational needs of their user. These establishments may also acquire, research, store, preserve, and generally make accessible to the public historical documents, photographs, maps, audio material, audiovisual material, and other archival material of historical interest. All or portions of these collections may be accessible electronically.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing stock footage (via motion picture and video tape libraries) to the media, multimedia, and advertising industries--are classified in Industry 512199, Other Motion Picture and Video Industries; and
  • Distributing film and video productions to motion picture theaters, television networks and stations, and exhibitors--are classified in Industry 512120, Motion Picture and Video Distribution.

51419 Other Information Services

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing information services (except news syndicates, libraries, and archives). Included in this industry are Internet service providers, on-line information access services, and telephone-based (i.e., toll call) information services. On-line information services establishments are engaged in the provision of direct access to computer-held information published by others via telecommunications networks. These establishments often provide electronic mail services, bulletin boards, browsers, and search routines.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Publishing or compiling and offer direct on-line access to information that they publish or compile--are classified in Subsector 511, Publishing Industries, according to activity;
  • Supplying information to the news media--are classified in Industry 514110, News Syndicates; and
  • Operating libraries and archives--are classified in Industry 514120, Libraries and Archives.

514191 On-Line Information ServicesCAN

This U.S. industry comprises Internet access providers, Internet service providers, and similar establishments primarily engaged in providing direct access through telecommunications networks to computer-held information compiled or published by others.

Illustrative Examples:

Information access services, on-line
Internet access providers
Internet service providers

Cross-References.

Establishments primarily engaged in publishing or compiling information and offering direct on-line access to the information that they publish or compile are classified in Subsector 511, Publishing Industries, according to activity.

514199 All Other Information ServicesCAN

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing information services (except news syndicates, libraries, archives, and on-line information access). Activities performed by establishments in this industry include telephone-based information recordings and information search services on a contract basis.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Publishing or compiling and offer direct on-line access to information that they publish or compile--are classified in Subsector 511, Publishing Industries, according to activity;
  • Supplying information to the news media--are classified in Industry 514110, News Syndicates;
  • Operating libraries and archives--are classified in Industry 514120, Libraries and Archives; and
  • Providing on-line information services--are classified in U.S. Industry 514191, On-Line Information Services.

5142 Data Processing Services

51421 Data Processing Services

See industry description for 514210 below.

514210 Data Processing Services

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing electronic data processing services. These establishments may provide complete processing and preparation of reports from data supplied by customers; specialized services, such as automated data entry services; or may make data processing resources available to clients on an hourly or timesharing basis.

Illustrative Examples:

Computer input preparation services
Computer time rental
Electronic data processing services
Optical scanning services

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing text processing and desktop publishing services--are classified in Industry 561410, Document Preparation Services;
  • Providing on-site management and operation of a client's data-processing facilities--are classified in U.S. Industry 541513, Computer Facilities Management Services;
  • Providing on-line access to information and services developed by others--are classified in U.S. Industry 514191, On-Line Information Services;
  • Providing access to microcomputers and office equipment, as well as other office support services--are classified in Industry 56143, Business Service Centers;
  • Processing financial transactions, such as credit card transactions,--are classified in Industry 522320, Financial Transactions Processing, Reserve, and Clearinghouse Activities; and
  • Providing payroll processing services using data processing techniques--are classified in U.S. Industry 541214, Payroll Services.

US—United States industry only. CAN—United States and Canadian industries are comparable.
When neither US nor CAN appears, Canadian, Mexican, and United States industries are comparable.

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Source: U.S. Census Bureau | North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) | (888) 756-2427 | naics@census.gov | Last Revised: September 13, 2013