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1997 NAICS

Sector 54--Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services

The Sector as a Whole

The Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services sector comprises establishments that specialize in performing professional, scientific, and technical activities for others. These activities require a high degree of expertise and training. The establishments in this sector specialize according to expertise and provide these services to clients in a variety of industries and, in some cases, to households. Activities performed include: legal advice and representation; accounting, bookkeeping, and payroll services; architectural, engineering, and specialized design services; computer services; consulting services; research services; advertising services; photographic services; translation and interpretation services; veterinary services; and other professional, scientific, and technical services.

This sector excludes establishments primarily engaged in providing a range of day-to-day office administrative services, such as financial planning, billing and recordkeeping, personnel, and physical distribution and logistics. These establishments are classified in Sector 56, Administrative and Support and Waste Management and Remediation Services.

541 Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services

Industries in the Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services subsector group establishments engaged in processes where human capital is the major input. These establishments make available the knowledge and skills of their employees, often on an assignment basis, where an individual or team is responsible for the delivery of services to the client. The individual industries of this subsector are defined on the basis of the particular expertise and training of the services provider.

The distinguishing feature of the Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services subsector is the fact that most of the industries grouped in it have production processes that are almost wholly dependent on worker skills. In most of these industries, equipment and materials are not of major importance, unlike health care, for example, where "high tech" machines and materials are important collaborating inputs to labor skills in the production of health care. Thus, the establishments classified in this subsector sell expertise. Much of the expertise requires degrees, though not in every case.

5411 Legal Services

54111 Offices of Lawyers

See industry description for 541110 below.

541110 Offices of Lawyers

This industry comprises offices of legal practitioners known as lawyers or attorneys (i.e., counselors-at-law) primarily engaged in the practice of law. Establishments in this industry may provide expertise in a range or in specific areas of law, such as criminal law, corporate law, family and estate law, patent law, real estate law, or tax law.

Cross-References.

Establishments of legal practitioners (except lawyers or attorneys) primarily engaged in providing specialized legal or paralegal services are classified in Industry 54119, Other Legal Services.

54112 Offices of Notaries

See industry description for 541120 below.

541120 Offices of Notaries

This industry comprises establishments (except offices of lawyers and attorneys) primarily engaged in drafting, approving, and executing legal documents, such as real estate transactions, wills, and contracts; and in receiving, indexing, and storing such documents.

Cross-References.

  • Establishments of lawyers and attorneys primarily engaged in the practice of law are classified in Industry 541110, Offices of Lawyers; and
  • Establishments of notaries public engaged in activities, such as administering oaths and taking affidavits and depositions, witnessing and certifying signatures on documents, but not empowered to draw and approve legal documents and contracts, are classified in U.S. Industry 541199, All Other Legal Services.

54119 Other Legal Services

This industry comprises establishments of legal practitioners (except lawyers and attorneys) primarily engaged in providing specialized legal or paralegal services.

Illustrative Examples:

Notary public services
Paralegal services
Patent agent services (i.e., patent filing and searching services)
Process serving services
Real estate settlement offices
Real estate title abstract companies

Cross-References.

  • Establishments of lawyers and attorneys primarily engaged in the practice of law are classified in Industry 54111, Offices of Lawyers; and
  • Establishments (except offices of lawyers, attorneys, and paralegals) primarily engaged in providing arbitration and conciliation services are classified in Industry 54199, All Other Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services.

541191 Title Abstract and Settlement OfficesUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments (except offices of lawyers and attorneys) primarily engaged in one or more of the following activities: (1) researching public land records to gather information relating to real estate titles; (2) preparing documents necessary for the transfer of the title, financing, and settlement; (3) conducting final real estate settlements and closings; and (4) filing legal and other documents relating to the sale of real estate. Real estate settlement offices, title abstract companies, and title search companies are included in this industry.

Cross-References.

Establishments of lawyers and attorneys primarily engaged in the practice of law are classified in Industry 541110, Offices of Lawyers.

541199 All Other Legal ServicesUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments of legal practitioners (except offices of lawyers and attorneys, settlement offices, and title abstract offices). These establishments are primarily engaged in providing specialized legal or paralegal services.

Illustrative Examples:

Notary public services
Paralegal services
Patent agent services (i.e., patent filing and searching services)
Process serving services

Cross-References.

  • Establishments of lawyers and attorneys primarily engaged in the practice of law are classified in Industry 541110, Offices of Lawyers;
  • Establishments (except offices of lawyers and attorneys) primarily engaged in researching public land records for ownership or title; preparing documents necessary for the transfer of the title, financing, and settlement; conducting final real estate settlements and closings; and/or filing legal and other documents relating to the sale of real estate are classified in U.S. Industry 541191, Title Abstract and Settlement Offices; and
  • Establishments (except offices of lawyers, attorneys, and paralegals) primarily engaged in providing arbitration and conciliation services are classified in Industry 541990, All Other Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services.

5412 Accounting, Tax Preparation, Bookkeeping, and Payroll Services

54121 Accounting, Tax Preparation, Bookkeeping, and Payroll Services

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing services, such as auditing of accounting records, designing accounting systems, preparing financial statements, developing budgets, preparing tax returns, processing payrolls, bookkeeping, and billing.

Illustrative Examples:

Accountants' offices
Auditing services, (CPA)
Bookkeeping services
Payroll processing services
Tax return preparation services

541211 Offices of Certified Public AccountantsUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments of accountants that are certified to audit the accounting records of public and private organizations and to attest to compliance with generally accepted accounting practices. Offices of certified public accountants (CPAs) may provide one or more of the following accounting services: (1) auditing financial statements; (2) designing accounting systems; (3) preparing financial statements; (4) developing budgets; and (5) providing advice on matters related to accounting. These establishments may also provide related services, such as bookkeeping, tax return preparation, and payroll processing.

Cross-References. Establishments of non-CPAs engaged in--

  • Providing tax return preparation services only--are classified in U.S. Industry 541213, Tax Preparation Services;
  • Providing payroll processing services only--are classified in U.S. industry 541214, Payroll Services; and
  • Providing accounting, bookkeeping, and billing services--are classified in U.S. Industry 541219, Other Accounting Services.

541213 Tax Preparation ServicesCAN

This U.S. industry comprises establishments (except offices of CPAs) engaged in providing tax return preparation services without also providing accounting, bookkeeping, billing, or payroll processing services. Basic knowledge of tax law and filing requirements is required.

Cross-References.

  • Establishments of CPAs are classified in U.S. Industry 541211, Offices of Certified Public Accountants;
  • Establishments of non-CPAs providing payroll services along with tax return preparation services are classified in U.S. Industry 541214, Payroll Services;
  • Establishments of non-CPAs providing accounting, bookkeeping, or billing services along with tax return preparation services are classified in U.S. Industry 541219, Other Accounting Services; and
  • Establishments providing computer data processing services at their own facility for others are classified in Industry 514210, Data Processing Services.

541214 Payroll ServicesUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments (except offices of CPAs) engaged in the following without also providing accounting, bookkeeping, or billing services: (1) collecting information on hours worked, pay rates, deductions, and other payroll-related data from their clients and (2) using that information to generate paychecks, payroll reports, and tax filings. These establishments may use data processing and tabulating techniques as part of providing their services.

Cross-References.

  • Establishments of CPAs are classified in U.S. Industry 541211, Offices of Certified Public Accountants;
  • Establishments of non-CPAs providing tax return preparation services only are classified in U.S. Industry 541213, Tax Preparation Services; and
  • Establishments of non-CPAs providing accounting, bookkeeping, or billing services along with payroll services are classified in U.S. Industry 541219, Other Accounting Services.

541219 Other Accounting ServicesUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments (except offices of CPAs) engaged in providing accounting services (except tax return preparation services only or payroll services only). These establishments may also provide tax return preparation or payroll services. Accountant (except CPA) offices, bookkeeper offices, and billing offices are included in this industry.

Cross-References.

  • Establishments of CPAs are classified in U.S. Industry 541211, Offices of Certified Public Accountants;
  • Establishments of non-CPAs engaged in providing tax return preparation services only are classified in U.S. Industry 541213, Tax Preparation Services; and
  • Establishments of non-CPAs engaged in providing payroll services only are classified in U.S. Industry 541214, Payroll Services.

5413 Architectural, Engineering, and Related Services

54131 Architectural Services

See industry description for 541310 below.

541310 Architectural Services

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in planning and designing residential, institutional, leisure, commercial, and industrial buildings and structures by applying knowledge of design, construction procedures, zoning regulations, building codes, and building materials.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Planning and designing the development of land areas--are classified in Industry 541320, Landscape Architectural Services; and
  • Both the design and construction of buildings, highways, or other structures or in managing construction projects--are classified Sector 23, Construction, according to the type of project.

54132 Landscape Architectural Services

See industry description for 541320 below.

541320 Landscape Architectural Services

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in planning and designing the development of land areas for projects, such as parks and other recreational areas; airports; highways; hospitals; schools; land subdivisions; and commercial, industrial, and residential areas, by applying knowledge of land characteristics, location of buildings and structures, use of land areas, and design of landscape projects.

Illustrative Examples:

Garden planning services
Golf course or ski area design services
Horticultural or landscape consulting services
Industrial land use planning services
Landscape architects' offices
Landscape design services

Cross-References.

Establishments primarily engaged in providing landscape care and maintenance services and/or installing trees, shrubs, plants, lawns, or gardens along with the design of landscape plans are classified in Industry 561730, Landscaping Services.

54133 Engineering Services

See industry description for 541330 below.

541330 Engineering Services

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in applying physical laws and principles of engineering in the design, development, and utilization of machines, materials, instruments, structures, processes, and systems. The assignments undertaken by these establishments may involve any of the following activities: provision of advice, preparation of feasibility studies, preparation of preliminary and final plans and designs, provision of technical services during the construction or installation phase, inspection and evaluation of engineering projects, and related services.

Illustrative Examples:

Civil engineering services
Construction engineering services
Engineers' offices
Environmental engineering services
Mechanical engineering services

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Planning and designing computer systems that integrate computer hardware, software, and communication technologies--are classified in U.S. Industry 541512, Computer Systems Design Services;
  • Performing surveying and mapping services of the surface of the earth, including the sea floor,--are classified in Industry 541370, Surveying and Mapping (except Geophysical) Services;
  • Gathering, interpreting, and mapping geophysical data--are classified in Industry 541360, Geophysical Surveying and Mapping Services;
  • Creating and developing designs and specifications that optimize the use, value, and appearance of products--are classified in Industry 541420, Industrial Design Services;
  • Providing advice and assistance to others on environmental issues, such as the control of environmental contamination from pollutants, toxic substances, and hazardous materials-- are classified in Industry 541620, Environmental Consulting Services; and
  • Both the design and construction of buildings, highways, and other structures or in managing construction projects--are classified in Sector 23, Construction, according to the type of project.

54134 Drafting Services

See industry description for 541340 below.

541340 Drafting Services

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in drawing detailed layouts, plans, and illustrations of buildings, structures, systems, or components from engineering and architectural specifications.

54135 Building Inspection Services

See industry description for 541350 below.

541350 Building Inspection Services

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing building inspection services. These establishments typically evaluate all aspects of the building structure and component systems and prepare a report on the physical condition of the property, generally for buyers or others involved in real estate transactions. Building inspection bureaus and establishments providing home inspection services are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Inspecting buildings for termites and other pests--are classified in Industry 561710, Exterminating and Pest Control Services;
  • Inspecting buildings for hazardous materials--are classified in Industry 541620, Environmental Consulting Services; and
  • Conducting inspections and enforcing public building codes and standards--are classified in Industry 925110, Administration of Housing Programs.

54136 Geophysical Surveying and Mapping Services

See industry description for 541360 below.

541360 Geophysical Surveying and Mapping Services

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in gathering, interpreting, and mapping geophysical data. Establishments in this industry often specialize in locating and measuring the extent of subsurface resources, such as oil, gas, and minerals, but they may also conduct surveys for engineering purposes. Establishments in this industry use a variety of surveying techniques depending on the purpose of the survey, including magnetic surveys, gravity surveys, seismic surveys, or electrical and electromagnetic surveys.

Cross-References.

Establishments primarily engaged in taking core samples, drilling test wells, or other mine development activities (except geophysical surveying and mapping) on a contract basis for others are classified in Industry 21311, Support Activities for Mining.

54137 Surveying and Mapping (except Geophysical) Services

See industry description for 541370 below.

541370 Surveying and Mapping (except Geophysical) Services

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in performing surveying and mapping services of the surface of the earth, including the sea floor. These services may include surveying and mapping of areas above or below the surface of the earth, such as the creation of view easements or segregating rights in parcels of land by creating underground utility easements.

Illustrative Examples:

Cadastral surveying services
Cartographic surveying services
Geodetic surveying services
Mapping (except geophysical) services
Topographic surveying services

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing geophysical surveying and mapping services--are classified in Industry 541360, Geophysical Surveying and Mapping Services; and
  • Publishing atlases and maps--are classified in U.S. Industry 511199, All Other Publishers.

54138 Testing Laboratories

See industry description for 541380 below.

541380 Testing Laboratories

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in performing physical, chemical, and other analytical testing services, such as acoustics or vibration testing, assaying, biological testing (except medical and veterinary), calibration testing, electrical and electronic testing, geotechnical testing, mechanical testing, nondestructive testing, or thermal testing. The testing may occur in a laboratory or on-site.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Laboratory testing for the medical profession--are classified in Industry 62151, Medical and Diagnostic Laboratories;
  • Veterinary testing services--are classified in Industry 541940, Veterinary Services; and
  • Auto emissions testing--are classified in U.S. Industry 811198, All Other Automotive Repair and Maintenance.

5414 Specialized Design Services

This industry group comprises establishments providing specialized design services (except architectural, engineering, and computer systems design).

54141 Interior Design Services

See industry description for 541410 below.

541410 Interior Design Services

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in planning, designing, and administering projects in interior spaces to meet the physical and aesthetic needs of people using them, taking into consideration building codes, health and safety regulations, traffic patterns and floor planning, mechanical and electrical needs, and interior fittings and furniture. Interior designers and interior design consultants work in areas, such as hospitality design, health care design, institutional design, commercial and corporate design, and residential design. This industry also includes interior decorating consultants engaged exclusively in providing aesthetic services associated with interior spaces.

54142 Industrial Design Services

See industry description for 541420 below.

541420 Industrial Design Services

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in creating and developing designs and specifications that optimize the use, value, and appearance of their products. These services can include the determination of the materials, construction, mechanisms, shape, color, and surface finishes of the product, taking into consideration human characteristics and needs, safety, market appeal, and efficiency in production, distribution, use, and maintenance. Establishments providing automobile or furniture industrial design services or industrial design consulting services are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Applying physical laws and principles of engineering in the design, development, and utilization of machines, materials, instruments, structures, processes, and systems--are classified in Industry 541330, Engineering Services; and
  • Designing clothing, shoes, or jewelry--are classified in Industry 541490, Other Specialized Design Services.

54143 Graphic Design Services

See industry description for 541430 below.

541430 Graphic Design Services

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in planning, designing, and managing the production of visual communication in order to convey specific messages or concepts, clarify complex information, or project visual identities. These services can include the design of printed materials, packaging, advertising, signage systems, and corporate identification (logos). This industry also includes commercial artists engaged exclusively in generating drawings and illustrations requiring technical accuracy or interpretative skills.

Illustrative Examples:

Commercial art studios
Corporate identification (i.e., logo) design services
Graphic design consulting services
Independent commercial or graphic artists
Medical art or illustration services

Cross-References.

  • Establishments primarily engaged in creating and/or placing public display advertising material are classified in Industry 541850, Display Advertising; and
  • Independent artists primarily engaged in creating and selling visual artwork for noncommercial use and independent cartoonists are classified in Industry 711510, Independent Artists, Writers, and Performers.

54149 Other Specialized Design Services

See industry description for 541490 below.

541490 Other Specialized Design Services

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing professional design services (except architectural, landscape architecture, engineering, interior, industrial, graphic, and computer system design).

Illustrative Examples:

Costume design services (except independent theatrical costume designers)
Fashion design services
Float design services
Fur design services
Jewelry design services
Shoe design services
Textile design services

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing architectural design services--are classified in Industry 541310, Architectural Services;
  • Providing landscape architecture design services--are classified in Industry 541320, Landscape Architectural Services;
  • Providing engineering design services--are classified in Industry 541330, Engineering Services;
  • Providing interior design services--are classified in Industry 541410, Interior Design Services;
  • Providing industrial design services--are classified in Industry 541420, Industrial Design Services;
  • Providing graphic design services--are classified in Industry 541430, Graphic Design Services;
  • Providing computer systems design services--are classified in U.S. Industry 541512, Computer Systems Design Services; and
  • Operating as independent theatrical designers--are classified in Industry 711510, Independent Artists, Writers, and Performers.

5415 Computer Systems Design and Related Services

See industry description for 54151 below.

54151 Computer Systems Design and Related Services

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing expertise in the field of information technologies through one or more of the following activities: (1) writing, modifying, testing, and supporting software to meet the needs of a particular customer; (2) planning and designing computer systems that integrate computer hardware, software, and communication technologies; (3) on-site management and operation of clients' computer systems and/or data processing facilities; and (4) other professional and technical computer-related advice and services.

Illustrative Examples:

Computer facilities management services
Computer hardware or software consulting services
Computer systems integration design services
Custom computer programming services
Software installation services

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Selling computer hardware or software products from retail-like locations and providing supporting services, such as customized assembly of personal computers,--are classified in Industry 44312, Computer and Software Stores;
  • Wholesaling computer hardware or software products and providing supporting services, such as customized assembly of personal computers,--are classified in Industry 42143, Computer and Computer Peripheral Equipment and Software Wholesalers;
  • Publishing packaged software--are classified in Industry 51121, Software Publishers; and
  • Providing computer data processing services at their own facility for others--are classified in Industry 51421, Data Processing Services.

541511 Custom Computer Programming ServicesUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in writing, modifying, testing, and supporting software to meet the needs of a particular customer.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Publishing packaged software--are classified in Industry 511210, Software Publishers; and
  • Planning and designing computer systems that integrate computer hardware, software, and communication technologies, even though such establishments may provide custom software as an integral part of their services,--are classified in U.S. Industry 541512, Computer Systems Design Services.

541512 Computer Systems Design ServicesUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in planning and designing computer systems that integrate computer hardware, software, and communication technologies. The hardware and software components of the system may be provided by this establishment or company as part of integrated services or may be provided by third parties or vendors. These establishments often install the system and train and support users of the system.

Illustrative Examples:

Computer systems integration design consulting services
Information management computer systems integration design services
Local area network (LAN) computer systems integration design services
Office automation computer systems integration design services

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Selling computer hardware or software products and systems from retail-like locations, and providing supporting services, such as customized assembly of personal computers--are classified in Industry 443120, Computer and Software Stores; and
  • Wholesaling computer hardware or software products and providing supporting services, such as customized assembly of personal computers,--are classified in Industry 421430, Computer and Computer Peripheral Equipment and Software Wholesalers.

541513 Computer Facilities Management ServicesUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing on-site management and operation of clients' computer systems and/or data processing facilities. Establishments providing computer systems or data processing facilities support services are included in this industry.

Cross-References.

Establishments primarily engaged in providing computer data processing services at their own facility for others are classified in Industry 514210, Data Processing Services.

541519 Other Computer Related ServicesUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing computer related services (except custom programming, systems integration design, and facilities management services). Establishments providing computer disaster recovery services or software installation services are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing custom computer programming services--are classified in U.S. Industry 541511, Custom Computer Programming Services;
  • Providing computer systems integration design services--are classified in U.S. Industry 541512, Computer Systems Design Services; and
  • Providing computer systems and/or data processing facilities management services--are classified in U.S. Industry 541513, Computer Facilities Management Services.

5416 Management, Scientific, and Technical Consulting Services

54161 Management Consulting Services

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing advice and assistance to businesses and other organizations on management issues, such as strategic and organizational planning; financial planning and budgeting; marketing objectives and policies; human resource policies, practices, and planning; production scheduling; and control planning.

Illustrative Examples:

Actuarial, benefit, and compensation consulting services
Administrative and general management consulting services
Human resources and executive search consulting services
Marketing consulting services
Process, physical distribution, and logistics consulting services

Cross-References.

  • Establishments primarily engaged in providing a range of day-to-day office administrative services, such as financial planning, billing and recordkeeping, personnel, and physical distribution and logistics, are classified in Industry 56111, Office Administrative Services;
  • Establishments primarily engaged in administering, overseeing, and managing other establishments of the company or enterprise (except government establishments) are classified in Industry 55111, Management of Companies and Enterprises;
  • Government establishments primarily engaged in administering, overseeing, and managing governmental programs are classified in Sector 92, Public Administration;
  • Establishments primarily engaged in professional and management development training are classified in Industry 61143, Professional and Management Development Training;
  • Establishments primarily engaged in listing employment vacancies and in selecting, referring, and placing applicants in employment are classified in Industry 56131, Employment Placement Agencies;
  • Establishments primarily engaged in developing and implementing public relations plans are classified in Industry 54182, Public Relations Agencies;
  • Establishments primarily engaged in developing and conducting marketing research or public opinion polling are classified in Industry 54191, Market Research and Public Opinion Polling;
  • Establishments primarily engaged in planning and designing industrial processes and systems are classified in Industry 54133, Engineering Services;
  • Establishments primarily engaged in planning and designing computer systems are classified in Industry 54151, Computer Systems Design and Related Services; and
  • Establishments primarily engaged in providing financial investment advice services are classified in Industry 52393, Investment Advice.

541611 Administrative Management and General Management Consulting ServicesCAN

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing operating advice and assistance to businesses and other organizations on administrative management issues, such as financial planning and budgeting, equity and asset management, records management, office planning, strategic and organizational planning, site selection, new business startup, and business process improvement. This industry also includes establishments of general management consultants that provide a full range of administrative; human resource; marketing; process, physical distribution, and logistics; or other management consulting services to clients.

Illustrative Examples:

Administrative management consulting services
Financial management (except investment advice) consulting services
General management consulting services
Site selection consulting services
Strategic planning consulting services

Cross-References.

  • Establishments primarily engaged in providing a range of day-to-day office administrative services, such as financial planning, billing and recordkeeping, personnel, and physical distribution and logistics, are classified in Industry 561110, Office Administrative Services;
  • Establishments primarily engaged in administering, overseeing, and managing other establishments of the company or enterprise (except government establishments) are classified in U.S. Industry 551114, Corporate, Subsidiary, and Regional Managing Offices;
  • Government establishments primarily engaged in administering, overseeing, and managing governmental programs are classified in Sector 92, Public Administration; and
  • Establishments primarily engaged in providing investment advice are classified in Industry 523930, Investment Advice.

541612 Human Resources and Executive Search Consulting ServicesCAN

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing advice and assistance to businesses and other organizations in one or more of the following areas: (1) human resource and personnel policies, practices, and procedures; (2) employee benefits planning, communication, and administration; (3) compensation systems planning; (4) wage and salary administration; and (5) executive search and recruitment.

Illustrative Examples:

Benefit or compensation consulting services
Employee assessment consulting services
Executive placement or search consulting services
Human resources consulting services
Personnel management consulting services

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Professional and management development training--are classified in Industry 611430, Professional and Management Development Training; and
  • Listing employment vacancies and in selecting, referring, and placing applicants in employment--are classified in Industry 561310, Employment Placement Agencies.

541613 Marketing Consulting ServicesUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing operating advice and assistance to businesses and other organizations on marketing issues, such as developing marketing objectives and policies, sales forecasting, new product developing and pricing, licensing and franchise planning, and marketing planning and strategy.

Illustrative Examples:

Customer services management consulting services
Marketing management consulting services
New product development consulting services
Sales management consulting services

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Developing and implementing public relations plans--are classified in Industry 541820, Public Relations Agencies; and
  • Developing and conducting marketing research or public opinion polling--are classified in Industry 541910, Marketing Research and Public Opinion Polling.

541614 Process, Physical Distribution, and Logistics Consulting ServicesUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing operating advice and assistance to businesses and other organizations in areas, such as: (1) manufacturing operations improvement; (2) productivity improvement; (3) production planning and control; (4) quality assurance and quality control; (5) inventory management; (6) distribution networks; (7) warehouse use, operations, and utilization; (8) transportation and shipment of goods and materials; and (9) materials management and handling.

Illustrative Examples:

Freight rate or tariff rate consulting services
Inventory planning and control management consulting services
Manufacturing management consulting services
Productivity improvement consulting services
Transportation management consulting services

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Planning and designing industrial processes and systems--are classified in Industry 541330, Engineering Services; and
  • Providing computer systems integration design services--are classified in U.S. Industry 541512, Computer Systems Design Services.

541618 Other Management Consulting ServicesUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing management consulting services (except administrative and general management consulting; human resources consulting; marketing consulting; or process, physical distribution, and logistics consulting). Establishments providing telecommunications or utilities management consulting services are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing administrative and general management consulting services--are classified in U.S. Industry 541611, Administrative Management and General Management Consulting Services;
  • Providing human resources and executive search consulting services--are classified in U.S. Industry 541612, Human Resources and Executive Search Consulting Services;
  • Providing marketing consulting services--are classified in U.S. Industry 541613, Marketing Consulting Services; and
  • Providing process, physical distribution, and logistics consulting services--are classified in U.S. Industry 541614, Process, Physical Distribution, and Logistics Consulting Services.

54162 Environmental Consulting Services

See industry description for 541620 below.

541620 Environmental Consulting Services

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing advice and assistance to businesses and other organizations on environmental issues, such as the control of environmental contamination from pollutants, toxic substances, and hazardous materials. These establishments identify problems (e.g., inspect buildings for hazardous materials), measure and evaluate risks, and recommend solutions. They employ a multidisciplined staff of scientists, engineers, and other technicians with expertise in areas, such as air and water quality, asbestos contamination, remediation, and environmental law. Establishments providing sanitation or site remediation consulting services are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Environmental remediation--are classified in Industry 562910, Remediation Services; and
  • Providing environmental engineering services--are classified in Industry 541330, Engineering Services.

54169 Other Scientific and Technical Consulting Services

See industry description for 541690 below.

541690 Other Scientific and Technical Consulting Services

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing advice and assistance to businesses and other organizations on scientific and technical issues (except environmental).

Illustrative Examples:

Agricultural consulting services
Biological consulting services
Chemical consulting services
Economic consulting services
Energy consulting services
Motion picture consulting services
Physics consulting services
Radio consulting services
Safety consulting services
Security consulting services

Cross-References.

Establishments primarily engaged in environmental consulting are classified in Industry 541620, Environmental Consulting Services.

5417 Scientific Research and Development Services

This industry group comprises establishments engaged in conducting original investigation undertaken on a systematic basis to gain new knowledge (research) and/or the application of research findings or other scientific knowledge for the creation of new or significantly improved products or processes (experimental development). The industries within this industry group are defined on the basis of the domain of research; that is, on the scientific expertise of the establishment.

54171 Research and Development in the Physical, Engineering, and Life Sciences

See industry description for 541710 below.

541710 Research and Development in the Physical, Engineering, and Life Sciences

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in conducting research and experimental development in the physical, engineering, or life sciences, such as agriculture, electronics, environmental, biology, botany, biotechnology, computers, chemistry, food, fisheries, forests, geology, health, mathematics, medicine, oceanography, pharmacy, physics, veterinary, and other allied subjects.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing physical, chemical, or other analytical testing services (except medical or veterinary)--are classified in Industry 541380, Testing Laboratories;
  • Providing medical laboratory testing for humans--are classified in U.S. Industry 621511, Medical Laboratories; and
  • Providing veterinary testing services--are classified in Industry 541940, Veterinary Services.

54172 Research and Development in the Social Sciences and Humanities

See industry description for 541720 below.

541720 Research and Development in the Social Sciences and Humanities

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in conducting research and analyses in cognitive development, sociology, psychology, language, behavior, economic, and other social science and humanities research.

Cross-References.

Establishments primarily engaged in marketing research are classified in Industry 541910, Marketing Research and Public Opinion Polling.

5418 Advertising and Related Services

54181 Advertising Agencies

See industry description for 541810 below.

541810 Advertising Agencies

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in creating advertising campaigns and placing such advertising in periodicals, newspapers, radio and television, or other media. These establishments are organized to provide a full range of services (i.e., through in-house capabilities or subcontracting), including advice, creative services, account management, production of advertising material, media planning, and buying (i.e., placing advertising).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Purchasing advertising space from media outlets and reselling it directly to advertising agencies or individual companies--are classified in Industry 541830, Media Buying Agencies;
  • Conceptualizing and producing artwork or graphic designs without providing other advertising agency services--are classified in Industry 541430, Graphic Design Services;
  • Creating direct mail advertising campaigns--are classified in Industry 541860, Direct Mail Advertising;
  • Providing marketing consulting services--are classified in U.S. Industry 541613, Marketing Consulting Services; and
  • Selling media time or space for media owners as independent representatives--are classified in Industry 541840, Media Representatives.

54182 Public Relations Agencies

See industry description for 541820 below.

541820 Public Relations Agencies

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in designing and implementing public relations campaigns. These campaigns are designed to promote the interests and image of their clients. Establishments providing lobbying, political consulting, or public relations consulting are included in this industry.

54183 Media Buying Agencies

See industry description for 541830 below.

541830 Media Buying Agencies

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in purchasing advertising time or space from media outlets and reselling it to advertising agencies or individual companies directly.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Selling time and space to advertisers for media owners as independent representatives--are classified in Industry 541840, Media Representatives; and
  • Creating advertising campaigns and placing such advertising in media--are classified in Industry 541810, Advertising Agencies.

54184 Media Representatives

See industry description for 541840 below.

541840 Media Representatives

This industry comprises establishments of independent representatives primarily engaged in selling media time or space for media owners.

Illustrative Examples:

Newspaper advertising representatives (i.e., independent of media owners)
Publishers' advertising representatives (i.e., independent of media owners)
Radio advertising representatives (i.e., independent of media owners)
Television advertising representatives (i.e., independent of media owners)

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Purchasing advertising time or space from media outlets and reselling it directly to advertising agencies or individual companies--are classified in Industry 541830, Media Buying Agencies; and
  • Creating advertising campaigns and placing such advertising in media--are classified in Industry 541810, Advertising Agencies.

54185 Display Advertising

See industry description for 541850 below.

541850 Display Advertising

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in creating and designing public display advertising, campaign materials, such as printed, painted, or electronic displays, and/or placing such displays on indoor or outdoor billboards and panels, or on or within transit vehicles or facilities, shopping malls, retail (in-store) displays, and other display structures or sites.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing sign lettering and painting services--are classified in Industry 541890, Other Services Related to Advertising;
  • Printing paper on paperboard signs--are classified in Industry 32311, Printing;
  • Erecting display boards--are classified in Sector 23, Construction; and
  • Manufacturing electrical, mechanical, or plate signs and point-of-sale advertising displays--are classified in Industry 339950, Sign Manufacturing.

54186 Direct Mail Advertising

See industry description for 541860 below.

541860 Direct Mail Advertising

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) creating and designing advertising campaigns for the purpose of distributing advertising materials (e.g., coupons, flyers, samples) or specialties (e.g., key chains, magnets, pens with customized messages imprinted) by mail or other direct distribution; and/or (2) preparing advertising materials or specialties for mailing or other direct distribution. These establishments may also compile, maintain, sell, and rent mailing lists.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • The direct distribution or delivery (e.g., door-to-door, windshield placement) of advertisements or samples--are classified in Industry 541870, Advertising Material Distribution Services;
  • Distributing advertising specialties for clients who wish to use such materials for promotional purposes--are classified in Industry 541890, Other Services Related to Advertising;
  • Creating advertising campaigns and placing such advertising in media--are classified in Industry 541810, Advertising Agencies; and
  • Compiling and selling mailing lists without providing direct mail advertising services--are classified in Industry 511140, Database and Directory Publishing.

54187 Advertising Material Distribution Services

See industry description for 541870 below.

541870 Advertising Material Distribution Services

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the direct distribution or delivery of advertisements (e.g., circulars, coupons, handbills) or samples. Establishments in this industry use methods, such as delivering advertisements or samples door-to-door, placing flyers or coupons on car windshields in parking lots, or handing out samples in retail stores.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Creating and designing advertising campaigns for the purpose of distributing advertising materials or samples through the mail or by other direct distribution--are classified in Industry 541860, Direct Mail Advertising;
  • Publishing newspapers or operating television stations or on-line information services--are classified in Sector 51, Information; and
  • Distributing advertising specialties (e.g., key chains, magnets, or pens with customized messages imprinted) to clients who wish to use such materials for promotional purposes--are classified in Industry 541890, Other Services Related to Advertising.

54189 Other Services Related to Advertising

See industry description for 541890 below.

541890 Other Services Related to Advertising

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing advertising services (except advertising agency services, public relations agency services, media buying agency services, media representative services, display advertising services, direct mail advertising services, advertising material distribution services, and marketing consulting services).

Illustrative Examples:

Advertising specialties (e.g., key chains, magnets, pens) distribution services (except direct mail)
Display lettering services
Mannequin decorating services
Merchandise demonstration services
Sign lettering and painting services
Store window dressing or trimming services
Welcoming services (i.e., advertising services)

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Creating advertising campaigns and placing such advertising in newspapers, television, or other media--are classified in Industry 541810, Advertising Agencies;
  • Designing and implementing public relations campaigns--are classified in Industry 541820, Public Relations Agencies;
  • Purchasing advertising time or space from media outlets and reselling it directly to advertising agencies or individual companies--are classified in Industry 541830, Media Buying Agencies;
  • Selling media time or space for media owners as independent representatives--are classified in Industry 541840, Media Representatives;
  • Providing display advertising services (except aerial)--are classified in Industry 541850, Display Advertising;
  • Providing direct distribution or delivery (e.g., door-to-door, windshield placement) of advertisements or samples--are classified in Industry 541870, Advertising Material Distribution Services;
  • Providing direct mail advertising services--are classified in Industry 541860, Direct Mail Advertising;
  • Publishing newspapers or operating television stations or on-line information services--are classified in Sector 51, Information; and
  • Providing marketing consulting services--are classified in U.S. Industry 541613, Marketing Consulting Services.

5419 Other Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services

This industry group comprises establishments engaged in professional, scientific, and technical services (except legal services; accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and related services; architectural, engineering, and related services; specialized design services; computer systems design and related services; management, scientific, and technical consulting services; scientific research and development services; and advertising and related services).

54191 Marketing Research and Public Opinion Polling

See industry description for 541910 below.

541910 Marketing Research and Public Opinion Polling

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in systematically gathering, recording, tabulating, and presenting marketing and public opinion data.

Illustrative Examples:

Broadcast media rating services
Marketing analysis or research services
Opinion research services
Political opinion polling services
Statistical sampling services

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing research and analysis in economics, sociology, and related fields--are classified in Industry 541720, Research and Development in the Social Sciences and Humanities; and
  • Providing advice and counsel on marketing strategies--are classified in U.S. Industry 541613, Marketing Consulting Services.

54192 Photographic Services

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing still, video, or digital photography services. These establishments may specialize in a particular field of photography, such as commercial and industrial photography, portrait photography, and special events photography. Commercial or portrait photography studios are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Producing film and videotape for commercial exhibition or sale--are classified in Industry 51211, Motion Picture and Video Production;
  • Developing still photographs--are classified in Industry 81292, Photofinishing;
  • Developing motion picture film--are classified in Industry 51219, Postproduction and Other Motion Picture and Video Industries;
  • Taking, developing, and selling artistic, news or other types of photographs on a freelance basis, such as photojournalists,--are classified in Industry 71151, Independent Artists, Writers, and Performers; and
  • Supplying and servicing automatic photography machines in places of business operated by others--are classified in Industry 81299, All Other Personal Services.

541921 Photography Studios, PortraitUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments known as portrait studios primarily engaged in providing still, video, or digital portrait photography services.

Illustrative Examples:

Home photography services
Passport photography services
School photography services
Videotaping services for special events (e.g., weddings)

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Producing film and videotape for commercial exhibition or sale--are classified in Industry 512110, Motion Picture and Video Production;
  • Developing still photographs--are classified in Industry 81292, Photofinishing;
  • Developing motion picture film--are classified in U.S. Industry 512199, Other Motion Picture and Video Industries;
  • Taking, developing, and selling artistic, news or other types of photographs on a freelance basis, such as photojournalists,--are classified in Industry 711510, Independent Artists, Writers, and Performers; and
  • Supplying and servicing automatic photography machines in places of business operated by others--are classified in Industry 812990, All Other Personal Services.

541922 Commercial PhotographyUS

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing commercial photography services, generally for advertising agencies, publishers, and other business and industrial users.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Producing film and videotape for commercial exhibition or sale--are classified in Industry 512110, Motion Picture and Video Production;
  • Developing still photographs--are classified in Industry 81292, Photofinishing;
  • Developing motion picture film--are classified in U.S. Industry 512199, Other Motion Picture and Video Industries;
  • Taking, developing, and selling artistic, news, or other types of photographs on a freelance basis, such as photojournalists,--are classified in Industry 711510, Independent Artists, Writers, and Performers; and
  • Supplying and servicing coin-operated photography machines in places of business operated by others--are classified in Industry 812990, All Other Personal Services.

54193 Translation and Interpretation Services

See industry description for 541930 below.

541930 Translation and Interpretation Services

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in translating written material and interpreting speech from one language to another and establishments primarily engaged in providing sign language services.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing transcription services--are classified in Industry 561410, Document Preparation Services;
  • Providing real-time (i.e., simultaneous) closed captioning services for live television performances, at meetings and conferences--are classified in U.S. Industry 561492, Court Reporting and Stenotype Services;
  • Providing film or tape closed captioning services--are classified in U.S. Industry 512191, Teleproduction and Other Postproduction Services; and
  • Analyzing handwriting--are classified in Industry 541990, All Other Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services.

54194 Veterinary Services

See industry description for industry 541940 below.

541940 Veterinary Services

This industry comprises establishments of licensed veterinary practitioners primarily engaged in the practice of veterinary medicine, dentistry, or surgery for animals; and establishments primarily engaged in providing testing services for licensed veterinary practitioners.

Illustrative Examples:

Animal hospitals
Veterinarians' offices
Veterinary clinics
Veterinary testing laboratories

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing veterinary research and development services--are classified in Industry 541710, Research and Development in the Physical, Engineering, and Life Sciences;
  • Providing nonveterinary pet care services, such as boarding or grooming pets,--are classified in Industry 812910, Pet Care (except Veterinary) Services;
  • Providing animal breeding services or boarding horses--are classified in Industry 115210, Support Activities for Animal Production; and
  • Transporting pets--are classified in U.S. Industry 485991, Special Needs Transportation.

54199 All Other Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services

See industry description for 541990 below.

541990 All Other Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the provision of professional, scientific, or technical services (except legal services; accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and related services; architectural, engineering, and related services; specialized design services; computer systems design and related services; management, scientific, and technical consulting services; scientific research and development services; advertising and related services; market research and public opinion polling; photographic services; translation and interpretation services; and veterinary services).

Illustrative Examples:

Appraisal (except real estate) services
Arbitration and conciliation services (except by lawyer, attorney, or paralegal offices)
Commodity inspector services
Consumer credit counseling services
Handwriting analysis services
Marine surveyor (i.e., appraiser) services
Patent broker services (i.e., patent marketing services)
Pipeline or power line inspection (i.e., visual) services
Weather forecasting services

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

  • Providing legal services--are classified in Industry Group 5411, Legal Services;
  • Providing accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services--are classified in Industry Group 5412, Accounting, Tax Preparation, Bookkeeping, and Payroll Services;
  • Providing architectural, engineering, and related services--are classified in Industry Group 5413, Architectural, Engineering, and Related Services;
  • Providing specialized design services--are classified in Industry Group 5414, Specialized Design Services;
  • Providing computer systems design and related services--are classified in Industry Group 5415, Computer Systems Design and Related Services;
  • Providing management, scientific, and technical consulting services--are classified in Industry Group 5416, Management, Scientific, and Technical Consulting Services;
  • Providing scientific research and development services--are classified in Industry Group 5417, Scientific Research and Development Services;
  • Providing advertising and related services--are classified in Industry Group 5418, Advertising and Related Services;
  • Providing marketing research and public opinion polling--are classified in Industry 541910, Marketing Research and Public Opinion Polling;
  • Providing photographic services--are classified in Industry 54192, Photographic Services;
  • Providing translation and interpretation services--are classified in Industry 541930, Translation and Interpretation Services;
  • Providing veterinary services--are classified in Industry 541940, Veterinary Services; and
  • Providing real estate appraisal services--are classified in Industry 531320, Offices of Real Estate Appraisers.

US—United States industry only. CAN—United States and Canadian industries are comparable.
When neither US nor CAN appears, Canadian, Mexican, and United States industries are comparable.

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Source: U.S. Census Bureau | North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) | (888) 756-2427 | naics@census.gov | Last Revised: September 13, 2013