Introducing a new way to navigate by topics. Access the latest news, data, publications and more around topics of interest.
Our population statistics cover age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, migration, ancestry, language use, veterans, as well as population estimates and projections.
This section provides information on a range of educational topics, from educational attainment and school enrollment to school districts, costs and financing.
We measure the state of the nations workforce, including employment and unemployment levels, weeks and hours worked, occupations, and commuting.
Our statistics highlight trends in household and family composition, describe characteristics of the residents of housing units, and show how they are related.
Health statistics on insurance coverage, disability, fertility and other health issues are increasingly important in measuring the nation's overall well-being.
We measure the housing and construction industry, track homeownership rates, and produce statistics on the physical and financial characteristics of our homes.
The U.S. Census Bureau is the official source for U.S. export and import statistics and regulations governing the reporting of exports from the U.S.
The U.S. Census Bureau provides data for the Federal, state and local governments as well as voting, redistricting, apportionment and congressional affairs.
Search an alphabetical index of keywords and phrases to access Census Bureau statistics, publications, products, services, data, and data tools.
Geography provides the framework for Census Bureau survey design, sample selection, data collection, tabulation, and dissemination.
Geography is central to the work of the Bureau, providing the framework for survey design, sample selection, data collection, tabulation, and dissemination.
Find resources on how to use geographic data and products with statistical data, educational blog postings, and presentations.
The Geographic Support System Initiative will integrate improved address coverage, spatial feature updates, and enhanced quality assessment and measurement.
Work with interactive mapping tools from across the Census Bureau.
Find geographic data and products such as Shapefiles, KMLs, TIGERweb, boundary files, geographic relationship files, and reference and thematic maps.
Metropolitan and micropolitan areas are geographic entities used by Federal statistical agencies in collecting, tabulating, and publishing Federal statistics.
Find information about specific partnership programs and learn more about our partnerships with other organizations.
Definitions of geographic terms, why geographic areas are defined, and how the Census Bureau defines geographic areas.
We conduct research on geographic topics such as how to define geographic areas and how geography changes over time.
Visit our library of Census Bureau multimedia files. Collection formats include audio, video, mobile apps, images, and publications.
Official audio files from the Census Bureau, including "Profile America," a daily series of bite-sized statistics, placing current data in a historical context.
Infographics include information on the Census Bureau's history of data collection, our nation's veterans and the American Community Survey.
Read briefs and reports from Census Bureau experts.
Watch Census Bureau vignettes, testimonials, and video files.
Read research analyses from Census Bureau experts.
Access data through products and tools including data visualizations, mobile apps, interactive web apps and other software.
Developer portal to access services and documentation for the Census Bureau's APIs.
Explore Census Bureau data on your mobile device with interactive tools.
Find a multitude of DVDs, CDs and publications in print by topic.
These external sites provide more data.
Download extraction tools to help you get the in-depth data you need.
Learn more about our data from this collection of e-tutorials, presentations, webinars and other training materials. Sign up for training sessions.
Explore Census data with interactive visualizations covering a broad range of topics.
Learn how we serve the public as the most reliable source of data about the nation's people and economy.
Information about the U.S. Census Bureau.
Information about what we do at the U.S. Census Bureau.
Our researchers explore innovative ways to conduct surveys, increase respondent participation, reduce costs, and improve accuracy.
Our surveys provide periodic and comprehensive statistics about the nation, critical for government programs, policies, and decisionmaking.
Learn about other opportunities to collaborate with us.
Explore the rich historical background of an organization with roots almost as old as the nation.
Explore prospective positions available at the U.S. Census Bureau.
Information about the current field vacancies available at the U.S. Census Bureau Regional Offices.
Discover the latest in Census Bureau data releases, reports, and events.
The Census Bureau's Director writes on how we measure America's people, places and economy.
Find interesting and quirky statistics regarding national celebrations and major events.
Profile America is a daily, 60-second feature that uses interesting vignettes for that day to highlight information collected by the Census Bureau.
Find media toolkits, advisories, and all the latest Census news.
See what's coming up in releases and reports.
THE NONEMPLOYER UNIVERSE
The universe of nonemployer firms is created annually in conjunction with identifying the Census Bureau`s employer business universe. If the Census Bureau receives information through administrative records that a business has no paid employees, then the business becomes part of the potential nonemployer universe. Name, address, industry classification, and receipts are available for each potential nonemployer firm. These data are obtained chiefly from the annual business income tax returns filed with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and maintained in the Census Bureau’s Business Register.
The potential nonemployer universe is edited and reviewed to detect and remove firms that are not true nonemployers. Among the largest group of removed firms are those which are associated with large, multiunit companies, but which were not properly linked to the company. Another group consists of income records for regulated investment companies, representing mutual fund income. The Census Bureau does not include these as nonemployer firms because their income is generally not viewed as being nonemployer income. The Census Bureau also excludes firms with receipts above a predetermined cutoff, assuming that they are really employers and that their data are included in the employer database. For corporations and partnerships this cutoff is $1 million, except for service-type industries, where the cutoff is $2 million. For sole proprietorships, the cutoffs vary widely depending upon industrial classification. For some nonemployer sole proprietorships, such as those engaged in investment and entertainment, it may be possible to have well over $1million in receipts. However, it is unlikely that a sole proprietorship restaurant, for example, would have over $1million in receipts and have no paid employees.
Potential nonemployer businesses with less than $1,000 in receipts are excluded in all sectors except construction. The small receipts of these non-construction firms indicate that they may represent hobbies as opposed to normal business activities.
A certain amount of undercoverage in the universe occurs as a result of processing deadlines. If the Census Bureau receives information on a potential nonemployer business more than one year after the end of the reference year, it is excluded in nonemployer tabulations. The estimated undercount of nonemployer corporation and partnership firms because of late reporting is around 5 percent. This accounts for about 1 to 2 percent of receipts. The estimated undercount for sole proprietorship firms because of late reporting is much less.
INDUSTRY CLASSIFICATION OF FIRMSIndustry classification of businesses obtained from the IRS are self-classified by tax filers. Codes used for classification are NAICS-based industries. The NAICS system is comprised of nearly 1,200 industries, but Nonemployer Statistics are limited to approximately 300 codes that are available through administrative-record sources, and are common to all three legal forms of organization applicable to nonemployer businesses. For the 1997 – 2001 data series, each firm was classified in accordance with the industry definitions in the 1997 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) manual. Beginning with the 2002 data year, nonemployer firms are classified according to the 2002 NAICS manual, which contains several major revisions from 1997. For more information on the 2002 NAICS codes, as well as comparisons between the 1997 and 2002 codes, go to http://www.census.gov/epcd/www/naics.html.
There is a small percentage of nonemployers that are unclassified. The percentage is at its lowest in Economic Census years. For these cases, an industry classification is assigned, or imputed, from a classified firm within the same county with a similar value of receipts and the same legal form of organization. This imputation procedure has the effect of preserving the distribution of firms and receipts by industry, while eliminating an unclassified component which varies in size each year. To control the contribution of imputed classifications, we have adopted the rule that if firms with an imputed classification account for more than 40 percent of either receipts or number of firms in a published row, both items are suppressed and assigned a flag of `S`. At the national level, less than 12 percent of nonemployer firms have an imputed classification, accounting for 3 to 5 percent of receipts.
PRECAUTIONS IN ANALYZING AND INTERPRETING NONEMPLOYER DATA
There are several considerations that must be recognized when analyzing or interpreting nonemployer data. The first is that the Census Bureau equates a business mailing address with a business firm. Under the usual definition, a firm or business is a fixed physical location or permanent structure where some form of business activity is conducted. Stores, offices, and manufacturing plants are examples of firms, but mobile vending vehicles or temporary stands are not. However, for Nonemployer Statistics, a business that sells from a mobile vehicle, temporary stand, or even one that has a separate store for conducting business, will be considered as a firm and assigned geographically to an owner`s mailing address.
A second consideration is that many businesses use leased or contract employees. In cases where all employees are leased or contracted, the payroll for the business is zero, placing it in the potential nonemployer universe. If the firm`s receipts are large, it may be dropped from nonemployer tabulations because its receipts exceed the cutoffs. Otherwise, it appears in the tabulations. Currently, the Census Bureau does not have a method to identify the universe of firms that lease all their employees.
RELIABILITY OF DATA
The nonemployer data are tabulated from administrative records data only, and are not subject to sampling error. No survey data are collected. These data undergo complex processing, editing, and analytical review at the Census Bureau to distinguish nonemployers from employers, correct and complete data items, and form the final nonemployer universe. Despite extensive review, the data compiled for Nonemployer Statistics are subject to nonsampling errors, which can be attributed to many sources: inability to identify all cases that should be in the universe; definition and classification difficulties; errors in recording or coding the data obtained; and other errors of coverage, processing, and estimation for missing or misreported data.
The accuracy of these tabulated data is determined by the joint effects of the various nonsampling errors. No direct measurement of these effects has been obtained except for estimation for missing or misreported industry classifications; however, precautionary steps were taken in all phases of the processing to minimize the effects of nonsampling errors.
The improper inclusion of possible employer establishments in the nonemployer universe is a primary source of nonsampling error. The Census Bureau takes several steps to identify and remove these establishments from the nonemployer universe. The most significant cases were identified, but the size of the universe, limited resources, and limited data on which to make a determination do not achieve the complete identification and removal of all employer establishments.
The assignment or imputation of an industry classification to nonemployer firms
with missing classification is another source of nonsampling error. The effect
of this imputation is to preserve the overall distribution of totals by industry
at the county and higher geographic levels, but certain data cells may be adversely
effected in counties or industries with a small number of firms. Data
cells with a high level of imputation are identified in the tabulations as not
meeting publication standards.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, EPCD, Nonemployer Statistics.