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The Local Update of Census Addresses program, also known as LUCA, is a decennial census geographic partnership program that allows designated representatives of tribal, state, and local governments to review and update the Census Bureau's Address List that is used to deliver questionnaires for the decennial census. The LUCA program uses local knowledge to update the Census Bureau's Address List and maps. It is authorized by the Census Address List Improvement Act of 1994 (Public Law 103-430).
Because the objective of the census is to collect a questionnaire from every address on the Census Bureau's Address List, the accuracy and completeness of the address list is critical to the accuracy and completeness of the census. Therefore, governments that participate in the LUCA Program help ensure an accurate decennial census for their communities.
There are a number of reasons accurate census data are important to you. Census data are used not only to apportion seats in the House of Representatives but are used to appropriate federal monies in over 1000 programs administered by 26 federal agencies. Most of the funds for these programs are distributed by formulas that use census data such as total population, population by age group, gender, income, housing characteristics, etc. depending on the program. For instance, according to the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) Report to Congressional Requesters, published in June 2006, the top 20 federal formula grant programs together had over $300 billion in obligations to states of the total $460.2 billion obligated by over 1,100 federal grant programs in fiscal year 2004.
Census data also provides the statistical support for grant applications that fund community social, economic, and environmental programs as well as other needed community improvements and enhancements.
Census data helps your community to plan for future needs. For example, if census data reveals that your community has a growing number of individuals nearing retirement age, you may have a future need for more assisted living options.
The first step to getting accurate local census data is to get involved in the LUCA program.
Your government is eligible to participate in the LUCA program if it is an active, functioning government including federally recognized American Indian Reservations, states, counties, incorporated places, or minor civil divisions (MCD).
The 2010 Decennial Census LUCA Program offers a number of improvements:
A single-family house, townhouse, mobile home, trailer, apartment, group of rooms, or a single room occupied as a separate living quarters or, if vacant, intended for occupancy as a separate living quarters. A separate living quarters is one in which one or more occupants (or intended occupants, if vacant) live separate from any other individual(s) in the building and have direct access to the living quarters without going through another living quarters, such as from outside the building or through a common hall.
A place where people live or stay, in a group living arrangement, that is owned or managed by an entity or organization providing housing and/or services for the residents. This is not a typical household-type living arrangement. These services may include custodial or medical care as well as other types of assistance, and residency is commonly restricted to those receiving these services. People living in group quarters are usually not related to each other.
The following types of housing units are acceptable:
The following types of group quarters are acceptable:
Exclude the following unacceptable types of housing units and group quarters addresses from your address list:
The Census Bureau divides all addresses in two use types, residential and nonresidential. Residential addresses are addresses of housing units and/or group quarters where one or more persons could live. Nonresidential addresses are addresses of a structure or unit within a structure that do not serve as a residence, such as commercial establishments, schools, government offices, and churches.
The Census Bureau classifies housing unit and group quarters addresses that have a house number and street name address, for example, 212 Elm Street or 137 Clark Ct., Apt. 316, as city-style addresses. In some instances, the house number may also include an alpha character such as 35A or W9254. These addresses are used for mailing or to provide location for emergency services, such as police, fire, and rescue (E-911 addresses).
The Census Bureau classifies addresses that do not include a house number and/or a street name as noncity-style addresses. Noncity-style addresses also may not include a complete house number and street name address. Frequently used noncity-style mailing addresses include:
Noncity-style addresses often do not follow any numeric sequence, and may not be associated with the name of the street or highway on which they are located. For this reason, the Census Bureau uses different methods to compile the list of addresses for inclusion into the Address List, such as location descriptions (BRICK HSE w/ATTACHED GARAGE ON RIGHT), structure points (geographic coordinates), and census geographic codes.
Census tracts are small, relatively permanent statistical subdivisions of a county or statistically equivalent entity, delineated for presenting Census Bureau statistical data.
The proposed criteria for census tracts for the 2010 Census is that they contain a minimum of 1,200 people with an optimal population of 4,000.
Census tract boundaries are delineated with the intention of being stable over many decades, so they generally follow relatively permanent visible features. However, they may follow governmental unit boundaries and other non-visible features in some instances. Census tract boundaries never cross state or county (or statistically equivalent entity) boundaries.
Each census tract is uniquely numbered within a county and contains numerous census blocks. Census tract numbers contain up to a 4-digit number followed by a decimal point and a 2-digit number for suffixed tracts, e.g., 1234.01. For census tracts without a suffix, the number will contain a period with zero fill, e.g., 4567.00. Leading zeros are not shown on Census Bureau materials.
A census block is an area bounded by visible features such as streets, roads, streams, and railroad tracks and nonvisible features such as the boundaries of governmental units and other legal entities. A block is the smallest geographic area for which the Census Bureau collects and tabulates statistical data.
Census blocks may look like a city block or may be large and irregularly shaped, depending upon features. The boundary of a state or a county is always a block boundary.
Census blocks are numbered within census tracts and are unique to the census tract to which they belong. Census block numbers contain a 4-digit number plus one alpha character, if applicable, e.g. 3001A. Suffixes, such as 2011A and 2011B, reflect boundary changes as well as added features.
Census Bureau geographic codes identify the geographic location of individual addresses. These codes include state, county, census tract, and census block codes.
Because the Census Bureau counts people where they live, census geographic code information or geocodes support the systematic collection of data that allows Census enumerators to locate an address. They are also important in allocating data from questionnaire responses to the correct location.
The Census Bureau's Address List is used to deliver questionnaires for the decennial census. It contains all of the residential (city-style and noncity-style) addresses known to the Census Bureau for your jurisdiction. It also contains census geographic codes (state, county, census tract numbers, census block numbers) that indicate the location of each address.
In preparation for Census 2000, the Census Bureau created the Master Address File (MAF) by merging the 1990 Address Control File with the latest version of the U.S. Postal Service's (USPS) Delivery Sequence File (DSF).
The Census Bureau's Geography Division regularly updates the MAF database from various sources. In addition to the USPS DSF, other sources of updates include current household surveys, special censuses, and local sources.
The MAF is a nationwide database of all addresses used to support many of the Census Bureau's operations. Besides containing mailing addresses and ZIP Codes, an address record in the MAF also contains geographic information about the location of addresses. In areas where there are noncity-style addresses (e.g., rural route or post office box number), the address record may contain additional information such as a location description.
LUCA participants can submit city-style addresses only. Option 1 participants can comment on any city-style address on the Census Bureau's Address List using correct, delete, not in jurisdiction, and nonresidential action codes. Option 1 participants can also add city-style addresses to the address list.
Option 2 and Option 3 participants must submit their local address list files in the Census Bureau's predefined computer-readable format.
Option 2 and Option 3 participants must submit their local address list files in the Census Bureau's predefined computer-readable format. An address list template record layout is included on the CD-ROM for Option 2 and Option 3 participants. You may use this template to import your local address file for submission. This format contains 17 fields of information:
The Address List Add Page is used by Option 1 participants who select to receive the Census Bureau's Address List in paper format to add city-style addresses not shown on the address list.
The Address Count List contains the count of housing unit and group quarters addresses for each census block within your jurisdiction. It can be used to compare address counts between the Census Bureau and your local address count. It is provided to all LUCA participants.
Address records in the MAF are linked to feature segments in the Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER™) database. The TIGER™ database includes the geographic coordinates and names of all streets, water features, and other linear features, and boundaries for all jurisdictions and statistical areas (census tracts, census blocks, etc.) used to tabulate decennial census data. The TIGER™ database also includes address ranges along streets that have city-style addresses and the hierarchy of census geographic area codes from the state level down to individual census blocks www.census.gov/geo/reference/hierarchy.html. By linking address records in the MAF to the TIGER™ database, the Census Bureau is able to identify street segments along which an individual address exists and determine the geographic code that applies to that address.
The Census Bureau's Geography Division regularly updates the MAF/TIGER database from various sources. In addition to the USPS DSF, other sources of updates include current household surveys, special censuses, and local sources.
Census Bureau maps are provided to give you a reference for locating and geocoding individual addresses, and to update or make corrections to your jurisdiction's features and boundaries. Maps are available in paper or shapefile format.
The Map Sheet-to-Block Number Relationship List identifies census block numbers and the Census Bureau paper map(s) on which each block is located.
Shapefiles are digital representations of geographic features, such as roads and boundaries, that are used to create maps. A shapefile stores non-topological geometry and attribute information for the spatial features in a data set. The Census Bureau provides county-based shapefile layers in Environmental Systems Research Institute* (ESRI) shapefile format.
* The use of brand names does not represent an endorsement of a company or its products by the U.S. government. Due to the wide use of ESRI products by our partners in the GIS community, and ubiquitous use of the shapefile format as a medium for GIS data exchange, the Census Bureau provides data in shapefile format.
In order to submit digital feature information, you must have geographic information system (GIS) software capable of importing ESRI shapefiles, editing the features, and exporting layers back into ESRI shapefile format.
The law requires the U.S. Census Bureau to maintain the confidentiality for all of the information that it collects. The Census Bureau takes its responsibility to protect the confidentiality of the information it collects very seriously. Respondents place their trust in the Census Bureau each time they complete a survey or an interview. This trust in confidentiality is critical to the success of the Census Bureau's mission to collect and report the most accurate data possible. To uphold the law, the Census Bureau requires that all individuals who work with the Census Bureau's confidential materials read, understand, and agree to abide by the confidentiality and security guidelines.
Title 13, United States Code (U.S.C.) provides for the confidential treatment of census-related information, including individual addresses and map structure points that identify the location of housing units and group quarters.
Title 13 requires that all liaisons, reviewers, and anyone with access to Title 13 materials read, understand, and agree to abide by the Confidentiality and Security Guidelines.
Title 13 also requires that the Census Bureau maintain the confidentiality for all of the information that it collects.
The Confidentiality and Security Guidelines describe how to protect Title 13, U.S.C. Census information. The guidelines discuss the nondisclosure of confidential information, how to secure Title 13 information, and how to return or destroy all Title 13 materials once the LUCA appeals process is complete.
All Option 1 and Option 2 participants must read and understand the Confidentiality and Security Guidelines and are required to sign a Confidentiality Agreement form.
All Option 1 and Option 2 liaisons, reviewers, and anyone with access to Title 13 materials must agree to keep confidential the Census Bureau's address information and location of map structure points by signing the Confidentiality Agreement form.
Signatures on the Confidentiality Agreement constitute an agreement by each individual to abide by the Census Bureau's Confidentiality and Security Guidelines.
Prior confidentiality agreements on file with the Census Bureau will not fulfill the requirement of the 2010 Decennial Census LUCA program. Each liaison, reviewer, and anyone with access to Title 13 materials must sign a new agreement for this program.
The penalty for violating Title 13, U.S.C. is a fine of up to $250,000 and/or five (5) years imprisonment.
No, you can only use the Census Bureau Address List for the LUCA program.
Each participating government must designate a LUCA liaison who accepts the responsibility for protecting and safeguarding Title 13 materials.
The Self-Assessment Checklist is designed to measure your ability to meet the Census Bureau's security requirements. If you cannot meet the requirements listed in the checklist, you are not eligible for Option 1 or Option 2 participation.
The LUCA liaisons for Option 1 and Option 2 must complete and return the form.
The Census Bureau reviews the checklists. If any confidentiality problems are evident, the Census Bureau will contact you and attempt to work out a satisfactory resolution to the problem.
The Census Bureau will not ship Title 13 materials to you until the signed form is received and the evidence of adequate security measures exists.
If you are unable to provide positive responses to all questions, you should select Option 3.
If you are unable to provide positive responses to the questions about computer security and you select Option 1, you may request a paper format address list if your entity has 6000 addresses or fewer and you are able to secure the paper address list.
The 2010 Decennial Census LUCA Program offers three participation options:
Option 1. Title 13 Full Address List Review
Participants who select Option 1 are required to sign a Confidentiality Agreement form
Option 2. Title 13 Local Address List Submission
Participants who select Option 2 are required to sign a Confidentiality Agreement form
Option 3. Non-Title 13 Local Address List Submission
Participants who select Option 3 are not required to sign a Confidentiality Agreement form.
Option 1 allows participants to:
Under Option 1, participants cannot update any noncity-style address on the Census Bureau's Address List.
You cannot both challenge the count of addresses in a census block and add/delete/correct individual addresses within that census block.
Even if the Census Bureau Address List has only noncity-style addresses for a block, you can and should add any city-style addresses that currently exist for that block.
The materials the Census Bureau provides to Option 1 participants include the:
Option 2 allows participants to:
Under Option 2, participants cannot comment on the Census Bureau's Address List or challenge the count of addresses for census blocks within their jurisdiction. These lists are provided for reference purposes only.
The materials the Census Bureau provides to Option 2 participants include the:
Option 3 allows you to:
Under Option 3, participants cannot challenge the count of addresses for census blocks on the Address Count List.
In addition, you cannot appeal the results of the count of addresses by census block since you will not know which addresses are missing from the Census Bureau's Address List.
The materials provided to Option 3 participants include:
Depending on your participation option, the Census Bureau provides LUCA materials in the following formats:
The responsibilities of Option 1 and Option 2 participants include:
The responsibilities of Option 3 participants include:
The Census Bureau's LUCA program responsibilities include: