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Our population statistics cover age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, migration, ancestry, language use, veterans, as well as population estimates and projections.
This section provides information on a range of educational topics, from educational attainment and school enrollment to school districts, costs and financing.
We measure the state of the nations workforce, including employment and unemployment levels, weeks and hours worked, occupations, and commuting.
Our statistics highlight trends in household and family composition, describe characteristics of the residents of housing units, and show how they are related.
Health statistics on insurance coverage, disability, fertility and other health issues are increasingly important in measuring the nation's overall well-being.
We measure the housing and construction industry, track homeownership rates, and produce statistics on the physical and financial characteristics of our homes.
The U.S. Census Bureau is the official source for U.S. export and import statistics and regulations governing the reporting of exports from the U.S.
The U.S. Census Bureau provides data for the Federal, state and local governments as well as voting, redistricting, apportionment and congressional affairs.
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Geography provides the framework for Census Bureau survey design, sample selection, data collection, tabulation, and dissemination.
Geography is central to the work of the Bureau, providing the framework for survey design, sample selection, data collection, tabulation, and dissemination.
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The Geographic Support System Initiative will integrate improved address coverage, spatial feature updates, and enhanced quality assessment and measurement.
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Metropolitan and micropolitan areas are geographic entities used by Federal statistical agencies in collecting, tabulating, and publishing Federal statistics.
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Definitions of geographic terms, why geographic areas are defined, and how the Census Bureau defines geographic areas.
We conduct research on geographic topics such as how to define geographic areas and how geography changes over time.
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The Census Bureau packages data and information into easy-to-understand visuals.
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Developer portal to access services and documentation for the Census Bureau's APIs.
Explore Census Bureau data on your mobile device with interactive tools.
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Learn how we serve the public as the most reliable source of data about the nation's people and economy.
How we provide the best mix of timeliness, relevancy, quality, and cost for the data we collect.
Our researchers explore innovative ways to conduct surveys, increase respondent participation, reduce costs, and improve accuracy.
Our surveys provide periodic and comprehensive statistics about the nation, critical for government programs, policies, and decisionmaking.
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Explore the rich historical background of an organization with roots almost as old as the nation.
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The Census Bureau's Director writes on how we measure America's people, places and economy.
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Imputation: Not all respondents answer every item on the questionnaire. There are also questionnaires that are not returned despite efforts to gain a response. Imputation is the process of filling in missing or invalid data with reasonable values in order to have a complete data set for analytical purposes. For census years, the complete data set is also needed for sample design purposes.
For nonresponding general purpose governments, imputations for missing units are based on recently reported historical data from either a prior year annual survey or the most recent census, adjusted by a growth rate. If no historical data are available, data from a randomly selected similar unit are adjusted by the ratio of the populations of the nonresponding and randomly selected donor governments.
The imputations for nonresponding special districts are done similarly. If prior year reported data are available, the prior year data for the nonrespondent are adjusted by a growth rate that is determined from reporting units that are similar to the nonrespondent. Special districts are similar if they are of the same function code and similar geography, e.g., police protection in a state or water transport in a region. For nonresponding special districts with no recently reported data available, data are used from a randomly selected donor that is similar to the nonrespondent. In cases where secondary data sources exist, the data from those sources are used.
For individual questionnaire items that are not reported by general purpose governments or dependent and independent school districts, either data from another source, pro-rating of totals, or prior year data are used to give a complete dataset.
Note: Between years 2002 through 2006, individual government imputed data were not released to the public. For 2007, individual unit data are available upon request. Official Census Bureau datafiles carry imputation and edit flags to help the users determine the usability of the data for their purposes.
Editing: Editing is a process that ensures data are accurate, complete, and consistent. Efforts are made at all phases of collection, processing, and tabulation to minimize errors.
Although some edits are built into the Internet data collection instrument and the data entry programs, the majority of the edits are performed post collection. Edits consist primarily of four types: (1) consistency edits, (2) historical ratio edits of the current year's reported value to the prior year's value, (3) current year ratio edits, and (4) balance checks.
The consistency edits check the logical relationships of data items reported on the form. For example, if interest on debt is reported, then there must be debt.
The historical ratio edits compare data for the current year to data for the prior year or prior census year. If data fall outside of acceptable tolerance levels, the item is flagged for further review. For example, the reported property tax for the current year may be compared against the property tax last year, if the reporting unit was in last year's sample. If it was not in last year's sample, the current year value is compared to the prior census year value.
The current year ratio edits compare one data item on the form against a different data item. If data fall outside of acceptable tolerance levels, the item is flagged for further review. For example, airport expenditure to airport revenue is a current year ratio.
Balance checks are checks of linear relationships that exist in the data. Debt flow is an example of a balance check. The ending debt must equal the beginning debt plus the debt issued minus the debt retired.
After all data are edited and imputed, they are aggregated. A macro-edit, or aggregate-level, review is conducted with current year state aggregates compared to prior year and prior census aggregates. Macro-level ratio edits and tolerance levels were developed using the current year data.
For the ratio edits, consistency edits, balance checks, and macro edits, the edit results are reviewed by analysts and adjusted as needed. When the analyst is unable to resolve or accept the edit failure, contact is made with the respondent to verify or correct the reported data. The results of the action are tracked with a data edit flag.
Sampling Error: The data for the census year are not subject to sampling and do not contain sampling error. The user should be mindful that the data for years not ending in '2' or '7' are from sample surveys and are subject to sampling error. Discussions of sampling error are available in the survey methodology descriptions for those years.