Census Bureau statistics on governments are designed to account for the totality of public sector activity without omission or duplication. Governmental services in the U.S. are provided through a complex structure made up of numerous public bodies and agencies. In addition to the federal government and the 50 state governments, the Census Bureau recognizes five basic types of local governments. Of these five types, three are general-purpose governments:
The other two types are special-purpose governments:
County, municipal, and township governments are readily recognized and generally present no serious problem of classification. However, legislative provisions for school district and special district governments are diverse. Numerous single-function and multiple-function districts, authorities, commissions, boards, and other entities, which have varying degrees of autonomy, exist in the United States. The basic pattern of these entities varies widely from state to state. Moreover, various classes of local governments within a particular state also differ in their characteristics.
A government is an organized entity that, in addition to having governmental character, has sufficient discretion in the management of its own affairs to distinguish it as separate from the administrative structure of any other governmental unit.
To be counted as a government, any entity must possess all three of the attributes reflected in the above definition:
Evidence of this attribute is provided by the presence of some form of organization and the possession of some corporate powers, such as perpetual succession, the right to sue and be sued, have a name, make contracts, acquire and dispose of property.
Designation of a class of governments in law such as "municipal corporations," "public corporations," "bodies corporate and politic," indicates that such units are organized entities. On the other hand, some entities not so specifically stated by law to be corporations do have sufficient powers to be counted as governments.
The mere right to exist is not sufficient. Where a former government has ceased to operate – i.e., receives no revenue, conducts no activities, and has no officers at present – it is not counted as an active government.
This characteristic is indicated where officers of the entity are popularly elected or are appointed by public officials. A high degree of responsibility to the public, demonstrated by requirements for public reporting or for accessibility of records to public inspection, is also taken as critical evidence of governmental character.
Governmental character is attributed to any entities having power to levy property taxes, power to issue debt-paying interest exempt from federal taxation, or responsibility for performing a function commonly regarded as governmental in nature. However, a lack of these attributes or of evidence about them does not preclude a class of units from being recognized as having governmental character, if it meets the indicated requirements as to officers or public accountability. Thus, some special district governments that have no taxing powers and provide electric power or other public utility services also widely rendered privately are counted as local governments because of provisions as to their administration and public accountability.
This requirement is met where, subject to statutory limitations and any supervision of local governments by the state, an entity has considerable fiscal and administrative independence.
Fiscal independence generally derives from power of the entity to determine its budget without review and detailed modification by other local officials or governments, to determine taxes to be levied for its support, to fix and collect charges for its services, or to issue debt without review by another local government.
Administrative independence is closely related to the basis for selection of the governing body of the entity. Accordingly, a public agency is counted as an independent government if it has independent fiscal powers and in addition it has at least one of the following:
An entity must have both fiscal and administrative independence to be considered a government. Therefore, local government agencies having considerable fiscal autonomy may be classified as dependent agencies of another government, where one or more of the following characteristics is present:
Back to How the Data are Collected