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Poverty Measurement Research Using the Consumer Expenditure Survey and the Survey of Income and Program Participation: Tables

Table 1.  Poverty Thresholds for Two Adults and Two Children
                                                                                                                                                                                                                
________________________________________________________________________________________
         Year          Official             Experimental   Experimental
                                                           CEX updates
________________________________________________________________________________________                                                                                                                                                                                                              

         1991           $13,812             $13,891           $13,891

         1992            14,228            14,309            14,349

         1993            14,654            14,738            14,936

         1994            15,029            15,115            15,211

         1995            15,455            15,543            15,561

         1996            15,911            16,002            15,743

________________________________________________________________________________________

Table 2:  Percent of Persons with Positive Family Amounts and Mean Annual Amounts: 1991

                                                             All persons                                                             Poor persons
                                               Percent with                           Mean Amounts           Percent with                            Mean Amounts
                                             Positive Amounts                             ($)              Positive Amounts                              ($)
                                                   (%)                                                            (%)


                                   SIPP              CPS              SIPP               CPS              SIPP              CPS               SIPP              CPS

Food Stamps
  All persons                                                          234               190                                                  1549              1089
       With positive amounts      12.0               9.9             1,951             1,909              62.2              49.4              2489              2204

School Lunchs
   All persons                                                          92                98                                                   345               316
       With positive amounts      39.6              32.3               232               302              59.9              48.9               575               646

School Breakfasts
   All persons                                                          17                NA                                                    93                NA
       With positive amounts       9.8                NA               175                NA              36.8                NA               252                NA

Housing Subsidies
   All persons                                                         136                86                                                   895               482
       With positive amounts       4.5               4.3             2,993             1,992              24.3              20.1              3675              2395

Energy Assistance
   All persons                                                          16                NA                                                    85                NA
       With positive amounts       5.7                NA               278                NA              28.3                NA               301                NA

Women, Infants and Children 
   All persons                                                          21                NA                                                    94                NA
       With positive amounts       5.6                NA               382                NA              20.9                NA               449                NA

Child Care
   All persons                                                         640               662                                                   374               418
       With positive amounts      26.3              30.0             2,438             2,204              14.7              22.0              2551              1898

Work-Related Expenses
   All persons                                                         963               966                                                   337               327
       With positive amounts      79.9              84.5             1,205             1,144              41.3              54.9               817               595

Child Support Paid
   All persons                                                         100                NA                                                    11                NA
       With positive amounts       3.1                NA             3,286                NA               0.5                NA              2141                NA

Medical Out-of-Pocket Expenses 
   All persons                                                       2,193             2,146                                                  1389              1233
       With positive amounts      94.5              94.0             2,321             2,283              79.3              78.9              1751              1561

Federal Income Taxes
   All persons                                                          NA             4,510                                                    NA                13
       With positive amounts        NA              76.1                NA             5,925                NA               4.4                NA               289

Social Security Taxes
   All persons                                                          NA             2,355                                                    NA               294
       With positive amounts        NA              81.4                NA             2,893                NA              53.6                NA               548

Earned Income Tax Credit 
   All persons                                                          NA               106                                                    NA               331
       With positive amounts        NA              14.4                NA               735                NA              37.5                NA               884

NA  Not available.


Table 3. Benchmark Totals Used for Medical Out-of-Pocket Imputations (In Billions of Dollars) _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Non- Medicare Year Totals Elderly Elderly Part B Premiums _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1991 204.3 45.8 149.2 9.3 1992 219.4 49.2 160.2 10.0 1993 232.4 52.1 169.7 10.6 1994 243.5 54.6 177.8 11.1 1995 254.5 57.1 185.8 11.6 1996 263.4 59.1 192.3 12.0 ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table 4. Poverty Rates: 1991 (percent poor) __________________________________________________________________________________________________ Official Definition Using CPS1 SIPP __________________________________________________________________________________________________ All persons 14.2 12.1 Children 21.8 19.6 Elderly 12.4 9.0 White 11.3 9.3 Black 32.7 29.0 Hispanic origin2 28.7 27.6 One or more worker 9.3 6.6 Persons in family of type: Married couple 7.2 6.3 Female Househo 39.7 35.5 Geographic regions: Northeast 12.2 11.7 Midwest 13.2 9.1 South 16.1 15.1 West 14.3 11.2 _____________________________________________________________________________ /1 Official poverty rates. /2 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Table 5. Poverty Rates: 1991 (percent poor) ______________________________________________________________________________ NAS Panel - Recommended Experimental Measures Using CPS SIPP ______________________________________________________________________________ All persons 18.9 13.6 Children 26.4 18.9 Elderly 20.3 14.5 White 16.1 11.5 Black 36.7 26.8 Hispanic origin1 40.0 29.5 One or more worker 14.3 9.0 Persons in family of type: Married couple 11.9 8.8 Female Househo 45.0 33.6 Geographic regions: Northeast 17.7 13.6 Midwest 16.6 10.0 South 19.9 16.1 West 20.9 13.9 ______________________________________________________________________________ /1 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Table 6. Poverty Rates: 1991 (percent poor) Official NAS Experimental Measures Measure Standardized to CPS Official Rate1 CPS CPS SIPP All persons 14.2 14.2 14.2 Children 21.8 19.9 20.0 Elderly 12.4 14.9 15.3 White 11.3 12.1 12.0 Black 32.7 27.4 28.4 Hispanic origin2 28.7 30.6 30.8 One or more worker 9.3 10.4 9.6 Persons in family of type: Married couple 7.2 8.3 9.3 Female Househo 39.7 35.7 35.2 Geographic regions: Northeast 12.2 13.4 14.0 Midwest 13.2 12.3 10.6 South 16.1 14.8 17.0 West 14.3 16.2 14.6 _______________________________________________________________________________ /1 Controlled to the 1991 CPS official poverty rate of 14.2 percent. /2 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Table 7. Distribution of the Population: 1991 (percent) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Total Population Poverty Population Official Measure NAS Experimental Measure (Standardized)2 CPS SIPP CPS1 SIPP CPS SIPP ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ All 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Children 26.2 26.9 40.2 43.9 36.8 37.7 Elderly 12.2 11.5 10.6 8.6 12.8 12.4 White 83.7 83.3 66.5 64.2 71.2 70.3 Black 12.5 12.5 28.7 30.1 24.1 24.9 Hispanic origin3 8.8 9.3 17.8 21.2 18.9 20.0 One or more worker 84.5 82.0 54.9 45.1 61.7 55.2 Persons in family of type: Married couple 79.7 80.3 44.8 44.7 50.6 54.2 Female Househol 16.4 16.6 50.9 52.2 44.4 42.4 Geographic regions: Northeast 20.2 20.5 17.3 19.9 19.0 20.2 Midwest 24.0 25.6 22.4 19.4 20.8 19.0 South 34.2 32.6 38.6 40.8 35.7 38.9 West 21.6 21.3 21.7 19.8 24.6 21.8 _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ /1 Official poverty rates. /2 Controlled to the 1991 CPS official poverty rate of 14.2 percent. /3 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Table 8. Poverty Rates 1991 to 1996: CPS (percent poor) __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Official Measure NAS Experimental All persons 14.2 14.8 15.1 14.6 13.8 13.7 All persons 18.9 19.6 20.2 19.0 18.2 18.0 Children 21.8 22.4 22.7 21.8 20.8 20.5 Children 26.4 26.8 27.5 25.3 24.3 23.8 Nonelderly adults 11.4 11.9 12.4 11.9 11.4 11.4 Nonelderly adul 15.4 16.0 16.8 15.8 15.2 15.0 Elderly 12.4 12.9 12.2 11.7 10.5 10.8 Elderly 20.3 21.8 21.8 21.0 19.7 20.4 White 11.3 11.9 12.2 11.7 11.2 11.2 White 16.1 16.6 17.2 16.3 15.7 15.6 Black 32.7 33.4 33.1 30.6 29.3 28.4 Black 36.7 37.8 38.2 33.3 32.4 32.0 Hispanic origin1 28.7 29.6 30.6 30.7 30.3 29.4 Hispanic origin 40.0 40.2 40.9 38.9 38.8 37.7 One or more worker 9.3 9.7 9.9 9.6 9.5 9.5 One or more wor 14.3 14.7 15.2 14.1 13.8 13.6 Persons in family of type: Persons in family of type: Married coupl 7.2 7.7 8.0 7.4 6.8 6.9 Married co 11.9 12.6 13.0 11.9 11.2 11.1 Female Househ 39.7 39.0 38.7 38.6 36.5 35.8 Female Hou 45.0 44.2 44.5 42.7 40.7 40.4 Geographic regions: Geographic regions: Northeast 12.2 12.6 13.3 12.9 12.5 12.7 Northeast 17.7 19.0 19.6 18.8 18.8 18.8 Midwest 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.0 11.0 10.7 Midwest 16.6 17.1 17.4 16.2 14.2 13.8 South 16.1 17.1 17.2 16.1 15.7 15.1 South 19.9 20.7 21.0 19.0 18.5 18.3 West 14.3 14.9 15.6 15.3 14.9 15.4 West 20.9 21.1 22.5 22.0 21.2 21.0 Metro/CC 20.2 20.9 21.5 20.9 20.6 19.6 Metro/CC 25.7 26.9 27.7 25.7 25.6 24.7 Not CC 9.6 9.9 10.3 10.3 9.1 9.4 Not CC 14.5 14.8 15.6 15.2 13.9 14.1 Nonmetro 16.1 16.9 17.2 16.0 15.6 15.9 Nonmetro 19.1 19.8 20.1 18.6 17.7 17.5 __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ NAS Experimental - controlled to 1991 rate2 NAS Experimental - controlled to 1996 rate3 All persons 14.2 15.0 15.4 14.3 13.4 13.4 All persons 14.5 15.3 15.7 14.7 13.8 13.7 Children 19.9 20.7 21.0 19.3 17.8 17.7 Children 20.4 21.1 21.4 19.8 18.4 18.1 Nonelderly adults 11.6 12.2 12.8 11.9 11.3 11.2 Nonelderly adul 11.9 12.5 13.1 12.2 11.6 11.5 Elderly 14.9 16.1 16.2 15.7 14.6 15.2 Elderly 15.2 16.5 16.6 16.1 14.9 15.6 White 12.1 12.7 12.9 12.3 11.5 11.5 White 12.3 12.9 13.2 12.6 11.8 11.8 Black 27.4 29.2 30.1 25.2 24.6 24.5 Blacks 28.4 29.8 30.7 25.8 25.3 25.2 Hispanic origin1 30.6 31.1 31.0 30.1 28.0 27.8 Hispanic origin 31.3 31.8 31.8 30.9 28.8 28.5 One or more worker 10.4 10.7 11.1 10.2 9.7 9.7 One or more wor 10.6 11.0 11.4 10.5 10.1 10.0 Persons in family of type: Persons in family of type: Married coupl 8.3 9.1 9.2 8.3 7.6 7.6 Married co 8.6 9.3 9.4 8.6 7.9 7.8 Female Househ 35.7 35.3 35.2 34.1 31.3 31.6 Female Hou 36.4 35.9 35.9 34.9 32.0 32.3 Geographic regions: Geographic regions: Northeast 13.4 14.4 15.0 13.9 13.9 13.9 Northeast 13.6 14.7 15.4 14.2 14.2 14.3 Midwest 12.3 12.8 13.1 12.3 10.6 10.2 Midwest 12.6 13.1 13.5 12.6 10.9 10.3 South 14.8 16.0 15.9 14.3 13.7 13.9 South 15.2 16.3 16.2 14.7 14.1 14.2 West 16.2 16.2 17.4 16.9 15.6 15.6 West 16.5 16.5 17.8 17.3 16.0 16.1 Metro/CC 19.8 20.6 21.5 19.6 19.4 18.6 Metro/CC 20.2 21.0 22.0 20.1 19.9 19.2 Not CC 10.8 11.4 11.8 11.4 10.2 10.4 Not CC 11.1 11.6 12.0 11.7 10.4 10.6 Nonmetro 13.8 14.9 14.8 14.0 12.7 13.3 Nonmetro 14.2 15.2 15.2 14.3 13.0 13.5 _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ /1 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. /2 Controlled to the 1991 CPS official poverty rate of 14.2 percent. /3 Controlled to the 1996 CPS official poverty rate of 13.7 percent. Source: Current Population Survey Table 9. Poverty Rates Using Various Resource and Threshold Measures: 1991-1996 ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Official 14.2 14.8 15.1 14.6 13.8 13.7 NAS Experimental 18.9 19.6 20.2 19.0 18.2 18.0 Exp resource-official thres 19.5 20.2 20.7 19.4 18.7 18.5 Old resource-exp thresholds 13.8 14.5 14.9 14.3 13.4 13.5 No Medical OOP 14.5 15.0 15.4 14.2 13.2 13.2 No Taxes 17.1 18.1 18.6 17.8 17.1 17.3 Experimental - Standardized 14.2 15.0 15.4 14.3 13.4 13.4 No EIC 14.9 15.8 16.3 15.7 15.1 15.2 No Medical OOP 10.3 10.9 11.1 10.1 9.3 9.3 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ /1 Controlled to the 1991 CPS official poverty rate of 14.2 percent. Source: Current Population Survey Table 10. Experimental Measures With and Without Earned Income Credit: 1991-1996 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Standardized Experimental1 14.2 15.0 15.4 14.3 13.4 13.4 Children 19.9 20.7 21.0 19.3 17.8 17.7 Blacks 27.4 29.2 30.1 25.2 24.6 24.5 Hispanic 30.6 31.1 31.0 30.1 28.0 27.8 One or more w 10.4 10.7 11.1 10.2 9.7 9.7 Without EIC 14.9 15.8 16.3 15.7 15.1 15.2 Children 21.3 22.3 22.7 21.8 20.9 21.2 Blacks 29.0 30.8 31.8 27.9 27.3 28.0 Hispanic 32.6 33.0 33.3 33.3 32.6 32.8 One or more w 11.2 11.7 12.2 11.8 11.6 11.8 _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ /1 Controlled to the 1991 CPS official poverty rate of 14.2 percent. Source: Current Population Survey Appendix Table A: Poverty Rates Using Pre-Tax1 Resource Measure; CPS 1991 _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Official Measure NAS Experimental Measures Standardized CPS CPS CPS SIPP _____________________________________________________________________________________________ All persons 14.2 17.1 14.2 14.2 Children 21.8 24.2 20.3 20.0 Elderly 12.4 19.8 15.7 15.3 White 11.3 14.3 11.9 12.0 Black 32.7 35.0 29.0 28.4 Hispanic 28.7 36.8 30.4 30.8 One or more worker 9.3 12.2 10.0 9.6 Persons in family of type: Married couple 7.2 10.1 8.1 9.3 Female Househo 39.7 43.7 37.6 35.2 Geographic regions: Northeast 12.2 15.8 13.1 14.0 Midwest 13.2 14.9 12.4 10.6 South 16.1 18.3 15.0 17.0 West 14.3 19.0 16.1 14.6 ________________________________________________________________________________________________

/1 This measure is similar to those presented in Table 5 with the exception that taxes paid are not deducted from income in the CPS measure.


Source: U.S. Census Bureau | Poverty - Experimental Measures |  Last Revised: December 15, 2010