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Table 15. Distribution of People by Ratio of Income to Poverty Level                               1
by Selected Characteristics:  1997
(Numbers in thousands)

                                    All Income Levels      Under .50     
                                       Total  Percent    Number  Percent 
                                                                         
Total............................    268,480    100.0    14,594    100.0 
                                                                         
Age                                                                      
                                                                         
Under 18 years...................     71,069     26.5     6,364     43.6 
   Under 6  years................     23,597      8.8     2,454     16.8 
   6 to 17  years................     47,472     17.7     3,910     26.8 
18 to 24 years...................     25,201      9.4     1,957     13.4 
25 to 34 years...................     39,354     14.7     2,076     14.2 
35 to 54 years...................     78,519     29.2     2,705     18.5 
55 to 59 years...................     12,190      4.5       413      2.8 
60 to 64 years...................     10,065      3.7       366      2.5 
65 years and over................     32,082     11.9       713      4.9 
                                                                         
Race and Hispanic Origin                                                 
                                                                         
White............................    221,200     82.4     9,427     64.6 
   Under 18 years................     55,863     20.8     3,680     25.2 
Black............................     34,458     12.8     4,189     28.7 
   Under 18 years................     11,367      4.2     2,255     15.4 
Other............................     12,822      4.8       977      6.7 
   Under 18 years................      3,838      1.4       429      2.9 
                                                                         
Of Hispanic Origin...............     30,637     11.4     3,329     22.8 
   Under 18 years................     10,802      4.0     1,727     11.8 
Not Of Hispanic Origin...........    237,843     88.6    11,265     77.2 
   Under 18 years................     60,266     22.4     4,637     31.8 
                                                                         
Sex                                                                      
                                                                         
Male.............................    131,376     48.9     6,224     42.6 
   65 years and over.............     13,524      5.0       238      1.6 
Female...........................    137,105     51.1     8,370     57.4 
   65 years and over.............     18,558      6.9       475      3.3 
                                                                         
People in Families                                                       
                                                                         
Total............................    225,369     83.9    10,615     72.7 
 Householder.....................     70,884     26.4     2,957     20.3 
   Under 65 years................     59,614     22.2     2,760     18.9 
   65 years and over.............     11,270      4.2       197      1.3 
 Related Children................                                        
   Under 18 years................     69,844     26.0     5,907     40.5 
    Under 6 years................     23,363      8.7     2,356     16.1 
    6 to 17 years ...............     46,481     17.3     3,551     24.3 
 Own children 18 years and over..     21,625      8.1       546      3.7 
Table 15. Distribution of People by Ratio of Income to Poverty Level                               2
by Selected Characteristics:  1997
(Numbers in thousands)

                                    All Income Levels      Under .50     
                                       Total  Percent    Number  Percent 
                                                                         
In Married-Couple Families.......    175,779     65.5     3,335     22.9 
 Husbands........................     54,321     20.2       887      6.1 
  Under 65 years.................     44,635     16.6       747      5.1 
  65 years and over..............      9,687      3.6       140      1.0 
 Wives...........................     54,321     20.2       887      6.1 
  Under 65 years.................     46,865     17.5       782      5.4 
  65 years and over..............      7,456      2.8       105      0.7 
Related Children.................                                        
  Under 18 years.................     50,282     18.7     1,363      9.3 
    Under 6 years................     17,320      6.5       521      3.6 
    6 to 17 years ...............     32,962     12.3       842      5.8 
 Own children 18 years and over..     13,906      5.2       174      1.2 
                                                                         
In Families with Female                                                  
Householder, No Spouse Present...     38,412     14.3     6,583     45.1 
Householder, ....................     12,652      4.7     1,843     12.6 
  Under 65 years.................     10,976      4.1     1,794     12.3 
  65 years and over..............      1,676      0.6        50      0.3 
Related Children.................                                        
  Under 18 years.................     16,175      6.0     4,179     28.6 
    Under 6 years................      4,848      1.8     1,643     11.3 
    6 to 17 years................     11,326      4.2     2,536     17.4 
 Own children 18 years and over..      6,464      2.4       336      2.3 
                                                                         
In Unrelated Subfamilies.........      1,440      0.5       377      2.6 
 Under 18 years..................        825      0.3       226      1.6 
   Under 6 years.................        233      0.1        98      0.7 
   6 to 17 years ................        592      0.2       128      0.9 
 18 years and over...............        615      0.2       150      1.0 
                                                                         
Unrelated Individuals............     41,672     15.5     3,602     24.7 
 Male ...........................     19,804      7.4     1,586     10.9 
  Under 65 years.................     17,052      6.4     1,500     10.3 
    Living alone  ...............      8,690      3.2       519      3.6 
  65 years and over..............      2,752      1.0        86      0.6 
    Living alone  ...............      2,345      0.9        42      0.3 
 Female..........................     21,868      8.1     2,016     13.8 
  Under 65 years.................     13,985      5.2     1,730     11.9 
    Living alone  ...............      7,752      2.9       556      3.8 
  65 years and over..............      7,883      2.9       286      2.0 
    Living alone  ...............      7,577      2.8       258      1.8 
                                                                         
Marital Status                                                           
                                                                         
Male:                                                                    
  Under 65 years.................     36,367     13.5     3,203     21.9 
  18 years and over..............     95,009     35.4     3,021     20.7 
Table 15. Distribution of People by Ratio of Income to Poverty Level                               3
by Selected Characteristics:  1997
(Numbers in thousands)

                                    All Income Levels      Under .50     
                                       Total  Percent    Number  Percent 
    Married, Spouse Present......     55,303     20.6       910      6.2 
    Married, Spouse Absent.......      1,302      0.5        87      0.6 
    Divorced.....................      8,322      3.1       425      2.9 
    Separated....................      1,996      0.7       113      0.8 
    Widowed......................      2,567      1.0        78      0.5 
    Never Married................     25,518      9.5     1,408      9.6 
Female:                                                                  
  Under 65 years.................     34,702     12.9     3,161     21.7 
  18 years and over..............    102,403     38.1     5,209     35.7 
    Married, Spouse Present......     55,259     20.6       904      6.2 
    Married, Spouse Absent.......      1,111      0.4       141      1.0 
    Divorced.....................     11,078      4.1       923      6.3 
    Separated....................      2,885      1.1       497      3.4 
    Widowed......................     11,027      4.1       499      3.4 
    Never Married................     21,043      7.8     2,244     15.4 
                                                                         
Work Experience                                                          
                                                                         
Male:                                                                    
  Under 16 years.................     32,261     12.0     2,939     20.1 
16 to 64 years...................     85,591     31.9     3,047     20.9 
  Worked during Year.............     73,672     27.4     1,358      9.3 
    Full-time, year-round .......     53,922     20.1       332      2.3 
    Not full-time, year-round....     19,749      7.4     1,026      7.0 
  Did Not Work...................     11,919      4.4     1,689     11.6 
65 years and over................     13,524      5.0       238      1.6 
  Worked during Year.............      2,736      1.0        16      0.1 
    Full-time, year-round........        995      0.4         2      0.0 
    Not full-time, year-round....      1,741      0.6        14      0.1 
  Did Not Work...................     10,788      4.0       222      1.5 
  Female:                                                                
  Under 16 years.................     30,872     11.5     2,832     19.4 
16 to 64 years...................     87,674     32.7     5,062     34.7 
  Worked during Year.............     65,358     24.3     1,758     12.0 
    Full-time, year-round........     37,095     13.8       180      1.2 
    Not full-time, year-rod......     28,263     10.5     1,578     10.8 
  Did Not Work...................     22,316      8.3     3,304     22.6 
65 years and over................     18,558      6.9       475      3.3 
  Worked during Year.............      2,201      0.8         8      0.1 
    Full-time, year-round........        618      0.2         0      0.0 
    Not full-time, year-round....      1,583      0.6         7      0.0 
  Did Not Work...................     16,358      6.1       468      3.2 
                                                                         
Education and Age                                                        
                                                                         
Under 16 years....................    63,133     23.5     5,771     39.5 
16 to 24 years....................    33,137     12.3     2,549     17.5 
  Enrolled........................    18,372      6.8     1,199      8.2 
Table 15. Distribution of People by Ratio of Income to Poverty Level                               4
by Selected Characteristics:  1997
(Numbers in thousands)

                                    All Income Levels      Under .50     
                                       Total  Percent    Number  Percent 
  Not Enrolled....................    14,765      5.5     1,350      9.3 
   Did not finish high school.....     3,568      1.3       650      4.5 
25 years and over.................   172,211     64.1     6,273     43.0 
  Did not complete high school....    29,558     11.0     2,427     16.6 
  Completed high school...........   142,653     53.1     3,846     26.4 
   No college.....................    58,174     21.7     2,223     15.2 
   Some college, not a graduate...    42,506     15.8     1,094      7.5 
   Completed college..............    41,974     15.6       529      3.6 
                                                                         
Recipiency and Participation                                             
Status of Household                                                      
                                                                         
In households with                                                       
related children under                                                   
18 years..........................    49,328     18.4     8,229     56.4 
  Household received cash                                                
  public assistance..............     15,841      5.9     4,680     32.1 
  Household received                                                     
  food stamps....................     18,646      6.9     6,296     43.1 
  Household received public                                              
  or subsidized housing..........      7,788      2.9     2,833     19.4 
  Household received free                                                
  or reduced price                                                       
  school lunches.................     32,130     12.0     6,071     41.6 
  One or more members                                                    
  covered by Medicaid............     31,763     11.8     6,678     45.8 
                                                                         
In households with                                                       
no related children                                                      
under 18 years...................     15,342      5.7     1,424      9.8 
  Household received cash                                                
  public assistance..............      7,194      2.7       558      3.8 
  Household received                                                     
  food stamps....................      4,580      1.7       738      5.1 
  Household received public                                              
  or subsidized housing..........      3,490      1.3       422      2.9 
  One or more members                                                    
  covered by Medicaid............     11,840      4.4     1,100      7.5 
                                                                         
Size of Household                                                        
                                                                         
1 person.........................     26,364      9.8     1,375      9.4 
2 people.........................     67,141     25.0     2,365     16.2 
3 people.........................     53,421     19.9     2,767     19.0 
4 people.........................     62,155     23.2     2,982     20.4 
5 people.........................     35,675     13.3     2,423     16.6 
6 people.........................     13,720      5.1     1,335      9.1 
7 people.........................      5,524      2.1       736      5.0 
Table 15. Distribution of People by Ratio of Income to Poverty Level                               5
by Selected Characteristics:  1997
(Numbers in thousands)

                                    All Income Levels      Under .50     
                                       Total  Percent    Number  Percent 
8 people.........................      2,491      0.9       347      2.4 
9 or more people.................      1,989      0.7       263      1.8 
                                                                         
Residence and Region                                                     
                                                                         
Metropolitan.....................    216,143     80.5    11,329     77.6 
  Central City...................     80,089     29.8     6,230     42.7 
  Not central city...............    136,055     50.7     5,098     34.9 
Not metropolitan.................     52,337     19.5     3,265     22.4 
Northeast........................     51,202     19.1     2,707     18.5 
Metropolitan.....................     45,653     17.0     2,445     16.8 
  Central City...................     15,491      5.8     1,604     11.0 
  Not central city...............     30,161     11.2       841      5.8 
Not metropolitan.................      5,549      2.1       262      1.8 
Midwest..........................     62,498     23.3     2,438     16.7 
Metropolitan.....................     46,550     17.3     1,789     12.3 
  Central City...................     16,632      6.2     1,097      7.5 
  Not central city...............     29,918     11.1       692      4.7 
Not metropolitan.................     15,948      5.9       649      4.4 
South............................     94,235     35.1     5,759     39.5 
Metropolitan.....................     71,091     26.5     3,960     27.1 
  Central City...................     25,597      9.5     1,876     12.9 
  Not central city...............     45,495     16.9     2,084     14.3 
Not metropolitan.................     23,143      8.6     1,799     12.3 
West.............................     60,545     22.6     3,689     25.3 
Metropolitan.....................     52,849     19.7     3,134     21.5 
  Central City...................     22,368      8.3     1,652     11.3 
  Not central city...............     30,481     11.4     1,482     10.2 
Not metropolitan.................      7,697      2.9       555      3.8 
Table 15. Distribution of People by Ratio of Income to Poverty Level                               6
by Selected Characteristics:  1997
(Numbers in thousands)

                                       Under 1.00         Under 1.25     
                                      Number  Percent    Number  Percent 
                                                                         
Total............................     35,574    100.0    47,853    100.0 
                                                                         
Age                                                                      
                                                                         
Under 18 years...................     14,113     39.7    17,937     37.5 
   Under 6  years................      5,199     14.6     6,642     13.9 
   6 to 17  years................      8,914     25.1    11,296     23.6 
18 to 24 years...................      4,416     12.4     5,898     12.3 
25 to 34 years...................      4,759     13.4     6,422     13.4 
35 to 54 years...................      6,690     18.8     9,150     19.1 
55 to 59 years...................      1,092      3.1     1,452      3.0 
60 to 64 years...................      1,127      3.2     1,554      3.2 
65 years and over................      3,376      9.5     5,440     11.4 
                                                                         
Race and Hispanic Origin                                                 
                                                                         
White............................     24,396     68.6    33,612     70.2 
   Under 18 years................      8,990     25.3    11,715     24.5 
Black............................      9,116     25.6    11,646     24.3 
   Under 18 years................      4,225     11.9     5,159     10.8 
Other............................      2,062      5.8     2,595      5.4 
   Under 18 years................        899      2.5     1,063      2.2 
                                                                         
Of Hispanic Origin...............      8,308     23.4    11,003     23.0 
   Under 18 years................      3,972     11.2     5,057     10.6 
Not Of Hispanic Origin...........     27,266     76.6    36,851     77.0 
   Under 18 years................     10,141     28.5    12,881     26.9 
                                                                         
Sex                                                                      
                                                                         
Male.............................     15,187     42.7    20,702     43.3 
   65 years and over.............        953      2.7     1,566      3.3 
Female...........................     20,387     57.3    27,151     56.7 
   65 years and over.............      2,423      6.8     3,874      8.1 
                                                                         
People in Families                                                       
                                                                         
Total............................     26,217     73.7    35,460     74.1 
 Householder.....................      7,324     20.6    10,032     21.0 
   Under 65 years................      6,646     18.7     8,938     18.7 
   65 years and over.............        678      1.9     1,094      2.3 
 Related Children................                                        
   Under 18 years................     13,422     37.7    17,144     35.8 
    Under 6 years................      5,049     14.2     6,472     13.5 
    6 to 17 years ...............      8,373     23.5    10,672     22.3 
 Own children 18 years and over..      1,727      4.9     2,552      5.3 
Table 15. Distribution of People by Ratio of Income to Poverty Level                               7
by Selected Characteristics:  1997
(Numbers in thousands)

                                       Under 1.00         Under 1.25     
                                      Number  Percent    Number  Percent 
                                                                         
In Married-Couple Families.......     11,166     31.4    16,854     35.2 
 Husbands........................      2,821      7.9     4,377      9.1 
  Under 65 years.................      2,378      6.7     3,604      7.5 
  65 years and over..............        444      1.2       774      1.6 
 Wives...........................      2,821      7.9     4,377      9.1 
  Under 65 years.................      2,508      7.0     3,817      8.0 
  65 years and over..............        314      0.9       561      1.2 
Related Children.................                                        
  Under 18 years.................      4,759     13.4     6,877     14.4 
    Under 6 years................      1,844      5.2     2,732      5.7 
    6 to 17 years ...............      2,915      8.2     4,145      8.7 
 Own children 18 years and over..        591      1.7       920      1.9 
                                                                         
In Families with Female                                                  
Householder, No Spouse Present...     13,494     37.9    16,525     34.5 
Householder, ....................      3,995     11.2     4,974     10.4 
  Under 65 years.................      3,770     10.6     4,655      9.7 
  65 years and over..............        225      0.6       318      0.7 
Related Children.................                                        
  Under 18 years.................      7,928     22.3     9,320     19.5 
    Under 6 years................      2,863      8.0     3,299      6.9 
    6 to 17 years................      5,065     14.2     6,022     12.6 
 Own children 18 years and over..      1,055      3.0     1,510      3.2 
                                                                         
In Unrelated Subfamilies.........        670      1.9       813      1.7 
 Under 18 years..................        405      1.1       493      1.0 
   Under 6 years.................        150      0.4       170      0.4 
   6 to 17 years ................        255      0.7       323      0.7 
 18 years and over...............        266      0.7       320      0.7 
                                                                         
Unrelated Individuals............      8,687     24.4    11,581     24.2 
 Male ...........................      3,447      9.7     4,588      9.6 
  Under 65 years.................      3,001      8.4     3,887      8.1 
    Living alone  ...............      1,248      3.5     1,628      3.4 
  65 years and over..............        447      1.3       701      1.5 
    Living alone  ...............        328      0.9       549      1.1 
 Female..........................      5,240     14.7     6,992     14.6 
  Under 65 years.................      3,454      9.7     4,155      8.7 
    Living alone  ...............      1,489      4.2     1,869      3.9 
  65 years and over..............      1,786      5.0     2,837      5.9 
    Living alone  ...............      1,698      4.8     2,714      5.7 
                                                                         
Marital Status                                                           
                                                                         
Male:                                                                    
  Under 65 years.................      7,179     20.2     9,129     19.1 
  18 years and over..............      8,009     22.5    11,573     24.2 
Table 15. Distribution of People by Ratio of Income to Poverty Level                               8
by Selected Characteristics:  1997
(Numbers in thousands)

                                       Under 1.00         Under 1.25     
                                      Number  Percent    Number  Percent 
    Married, Spouse Present......      2,903      8.2     4,492      9.4 
    Married, Spouse Absent.......        163      0.5       245      0.5 
    Divorced.....................        969      2.7     1,350      2.8 
    Separated....................        336      0.9       447      0.9 
    Widowed......................        312      0.9       506      1.1 
    Never Married................      3,326      9.3     4,533      9.5 
Female:                                                                  
  Under 65 years.................      6,934     19.5     8,808     18.4 
  18 years and over..............     13,452     37.8    18,343     38.3 
    Married, Spouse Present......      2,887      8.1     4,474      9.4 
    Married, Spouse Absent.......        335      0.9       420      0.9 
    Divorced.....................      2,415      6.8     3,201      6.7 
    Separated....................      1,054      3.0     1,264      2.6 
    Widowed......................      2,080      5.8     3,172      6.6 
    Never Married................      4,682     13.2     5,812     12.1 
                                                                         
Work Experience                                                          
                                                                         
Male:                                                                    
  Under 16 years.................      6,511     18.3     8,263     17.3 
16 to 64 years...................      7,723     21.7    10,873     22.7 
  Worked during Year.............      4,095     11.5     6,352     13.3 
    Full-time, year-round .......      1,369      3.8     2,463      5.1 
    Not full-time, year-round....      2,726      7.7     3,889      8.1 
  Did Not Work...................      3,629     10.2     4,521      9.4 
65 years and over................        953      2.7     1,566      3.3 
  Worked during Year.............         68      0.2       118      0.2 
    Full-time, year-round........         12      0.0        21      0.0 
    Not full-time, year-round....         56      0.2        97      0.2 
  Did Not Work...................        885      2.5     1,448      3.0 
  Female:                                                                
  Under 16 years.................      6,310     17.7     7,992     16.7 
16 to 64 years...................     11,654     32.8    15,285     31.9 
  Worked during Year.............      5,209     14.6     7,408     15.5 
    Full-time, year-round........        961      2.7     1,840      3.8 
    Not full-time, year-rod......      4,248     11.9     5,567     11.6 
  Did Not Work...................      6,445     18.1     7,878     16.5 
65 years and over................      2,423      6.8     3,874      8.1 
  Worked during Year.............         72      0.2       124      0.3 
    Full-time, year-round........          3      0.0         7      0.0 
    Not full-time, year-round....         69      0.2       117      0.2 
  Did Not Work...................      2,351      6.6     3,750      7.8 
                                                                         
Education and Age                                                        
                                                                         
Under 16 years....................    12,821     36.0    16,255     34.0 
16 to 24 years....................     5,709     16.0     7,581     15.8 
  Enrolled........................     2,739      7.7     3,561      7.4 
Table 15. Distribution of People by Ratio of Income to Poverty Level                               9
by Selected Characteristics:  1997
(Numbers in thousands)

                                       Under 1.00         Under 1.25     
                                      Number  Percent    Number  Percent 
  Not Enrolled....................     2,970      8.3     4,020      8.4 
   Did not finish high school.....     1,322      3.7     1,666      3.5 
25 years and over.................    17,044     47.9    24,018     50.2 
  Did not complete high school....     7,244     20.4    10,013     20.9 
  Completed high school...........     9,800     27.5    14,005     29.3 
   No college.....................     5,769     16.2     8,112     17.0 
   Some college, not a graduate...     2,747      7.7     4,088      8.5 
   Completed college..............     1,284      3.6     1,804      3.8 
                                                                         
Recipiency and Participation                                             
Status of Household                                                      
                                                                         
In households with                                                       
related children under                                                   
18 years..........................    19,557     55.0    25,052     52.4 
  Household received cash                                                
  public assistance..............      9,453     26.6    10,891     22.8 
  Household received                                                     
  food stamps....................     12,959     36.4    15,081     31.5 
  Household received public                                              
  or subsidized housing..........      5,229     14.7     6,218     13.0 
  Household received free                                                
  or reduced price                                                       
  school lunches.................     14,215     40.0    18,135     37.9 
  One or more members                                                    
  covered by Medicaid............     15,062     42.3    18,419     38.5 
                                                                         
In households with                                                       
no related children                                                      
under 18 years...................      4,980     14.0     6,628     13.9 
  Household received cash                                                
  public assistance..............      2,653      7.5     3,406      7.1 
  Household received                                                     
  food stamps....................      2,550      7.2     3,146      6.6 
  Household received public                                              
  or subsidized housing..........      1,600      4.5     2,116      4.4 
  One or more members                                                    
  covered by Medicaid............      3,873     10.9     5,055     10.6 
                                                                         
Size of Household                                                        
                                                                         
1 person.........................      4,764     13.4     6,760     14.1 
2 people.........................      5,690     16.0     8,066     16.9 
3 people.........................      6,374     17.9     8,454     17.7 
4 people.........................      6,923     19.5     9,278     19.4 
5 people.........................      5,622     15.8     7,433     15.5 
6 people.........................      2,940      8.3     3,765      7.9 
7 people.........................      1,714      4.8     2,139      4.5 
Table 15. Distribution of People by Ratio of Income to Poverty Level                              10
by Selected Characteristics:  1997
(Numbers in thousands)

                                       Under 1.00         Under 1.25     
                                      Number  Percent    Number  Percent 
8 people.........................        722      2.0       885      1.8 
9 or more people.................        826      2.3     1,074      2.2 
                                                                         
Residence and Region                                                     
                                                                         
Metropolitan.....................     27,273     76.7    36,377     76.0 
  Central City...................     15,018     42.2    19,573     40.9 
  Not central city...............     12,255     34.4    16,803     35.1 
Not metropolitan.................      8,301     23.3    11,477     24.0 
Northeast........................      6,474     18.2     8,342     17.4 
Metropolitan.....................      5,811     16.3     7,446     15.6 
  Central City...................      3,709     10.4     4,604      9.6 
  Not central city...............      2,102      5.9     2,842      5.9 
Not metropolitan.................        663      1.9       896      1.9 
Midwest..........................      6,493     18.3     8,992     18.8 
Metropolitan.....................      4,616     13.0     6,263     13.1 
  Central City...................      2,819      7.9     3,782      7.9 
  Not central city...............      1,797      5.1     2,482      5.2 
Not metropolitan.................      1,878      5.3     2,729      5.7 
South............................     13,748     38.6    18,627     38.9 
Metropolitan.....................      9,305     26.2    12,622     26.4 
  Central City...................      4,499     12.6     5,988     12.5 
  Not central city...............      4,805     13.5     6,635     13.9 
Not metropolitan.................      4,444     12.5     6,005     12.5 
West.............................      8,858     24.9    11,892     24.9 
Metropolitan.....................      7,542     21.2    10,045     21.0 
  Central City...................      3,991     11.2     5,200     10.9 
  Not central city...............      3,551     10.0     4,845     10.1 
Not metropolitan.................      1,316      3.7     1,847      3.9 
Table 15. Distribution of People by Ratio of Income to Poverty Level                              11
by Selected Characteristics:  1997
(Numbers in thousands)

                                       Under 1.50         Under 1.75     
                                      Number  Percent    Number  Percent 
                                                                         
Total............................     60,331    100.0    73,080    100.0 
                                                                         
Age                                                                      
                                                                         
Under 18 years...................     21,738     36.0    25,600     35.0 
   Under 6  years................      8,004     13.3     9,364     12.8 
   6 to 17  years................     13,735     22.8    16,236     22.2 
18 to 24 years...................      7,174     11.9     8,363     11.4 
25 to 34 years...................      8,141     13.5     9,966     13.6 
35 to 54 years...................     11,800     19.6    14,383     19.7 
55 to 59 years...................      1,847      3.1     2,175      3.0 
60 to 64 years...................      1,951      3.2     2,376      3.3 
65 years and over................      7,679     12.7    10,218     14.0 
                                                                         
Race and Hispanic Origin                                                 
                                                                         
White............................     43,627     72.3    53,971     73.9 
   Under 18 years................     14,694     24.4    17,695     24.2 
Black............................     13,722     22.7    15,697     21.5 
   Under 18 years................      5,876      9.7     6,610      9.0 
Other............................      2,982      4.9     3,413      4.7 
   Under 18 years................      1,168      1.9     1,294      1.8 
                                                                         
Of Hispanic Origin...............     13,441     22.3    15,603     21.4 
   Under 18 years................      6,027     10.0     6,831      9.3 
Not Of Hispanic Origin...........     46,890     77.7    57,477     78.6 
   Under 18 years................     15,711     26.0    18,769     25.7 
                                                                         
Sex                                                                      
                                                                         
Male.............................     26,326     43.6    32,185     44.0 
   65 years and over.............      2,278      3.8     3,223      4.4 
Female...........................     34,005     56.4    40,895     56.0 
   65 years and over.............      5,401      9.0     6,995      9.6 
                                                                         
People in Families                                                       
                                                                         
Total............................     45,052     74.7    55,380     75.8 
 Householder.....................     12,845     21.3    16,004     21.9 
   Under 65 years................     11,179     18.5    13,574     18.6 
   65 years and over.............      1,665      2.8     2,430      3.3 
 Related Children................                                        
   Under 18 years................     20,878     34.6    24,666     33.8 
    Under 6 years................      7,807     12.9     9,154     12.5 
    6 to 17 years ...............     13,071     21.7    15,512     21.2 
 Own children 18 years and over..      3,353      5.6     4,129      5.7 
Table 15. Distribution of People by Ratio of Income to Poverty Level                              12
by Selected Characteristics:  1997
(Numbers in thousands)

                                       Under 1.50         Under 1.75     
                                      Number  Percent    Number  Percent 
                                                                         
In Married-Couple Families.......     23,401     38.8    30,607     41.9 
 Husbands........................      6,185     10.3     8,284     11.3 
  Under 65 years.................      4,961      8.2     6,430      8.8 
  65 years and over..............      1,224      2.0     1,854      2.5 
 Wives...........................      6,185     10.3     8,284     11.3 
  Under 65 years.................      5,267      8.7     6,833      9.4 
  65 years and over..............        919      1.5     1,450      2.0 
Related Children.................                                        
  Under 18 years.................      9,335     15.5    11,815     16.2 
    Under 6 years................      3,694      6.1     4,698      6.4 
    6 to 17 years ...............      5,641      9.3     7,117      9.7 
 Own children 18 years and over..      1,251      2.1     1,592      2.2 
                                                                         
In Families with Female                                                  
Householder, No Spouse Present...     18,977     31.5    21,325     29.2 
Householder, ....................      5,772      9.6     6,567      9.0 
  Under 65 years.................      5,318      8.8     5,981      8.2 
  65 years and over..............        454      0.8       586      0.8 
Related Children.................                                        
  Under 18 years.................     10,379     17.2    11,358     15.5 
    Under 6 years................      3,601      6.0     3,819      5.2 
    6 to 17 years................      6,778     11.2     7,540     10.3 
 Own children 18 years and over..      1,930      3.2     2,319      3.2 
                                                                         
In Unrelated Subfamilies.........        919      1.5     1,018      1.4 
 Under 18 years..................        548      0.9       605      0.8 
   Under 6 years.................        197      0.3       210      0.3 
   6 to 17 years ................        351      0.6       395      0.5 
 18 years and over...............        372      0.6       413      0.6 
                                                                         
Unrelated Individuals............     14,359     23.8    16,683     22.8 
 Male ...........................      5,588      9.3     6,492      8.9 
  Under 65 years.................      4,665      7.7     5,337      7.3 
    Living alone  ...............      1,995      3.3     2,323      3.2 
  65 years and over..............        923      1.5     1,155      1.6 
    Living alone  ...............        743      1.2       924      1.3 
 Female..........................      8,772     14.5    10,191     13.9 
  Under 65 years.................      4,993      8.3     5,574      7.6 
    Living alone  ...............      2,277      3.8     2,552      3.5 
  65 years and over..............      3,779      6.3     4,618      6.3 
    Living alone  ...............      3,622      6.0     4,441      6.1 
                                                                         
Marital Status                                                           
                                                                         
Male:                                                                    
  Under 65 years.................     11,036     18.3    12,919     17.7 
  18 years and over..............     15,290     25.3    19,265     26.4 
Table 15. Distribution of People by Ratio of Income to Poverty Level                              13
by Selected Characteristics:  1997
(Numbers in thousands)

                                       Under 1.50         Under 1.75     
                                      Number  Percent    Number  Percent 
    Married, Spouse Present......      6,347     10.5     8,501     11.6 
    Married, Spouse Absent.......        319      0.5       389      0.5 
    Divorced.....................      1,773      2.9     2,111      2.9 
    Separated....................        526      0.9       621      0.8 
    Widowed......................        656      1.1       872      1.2 
    Never Married................      5,668      9.4     6,771      9.3 
Female:                                                                  
  Under 65 years.................     10,702     17.7    12,680     17.4 
  18 years and over..............     23,303     38.6    28,215     38.6 
    Married, Spouse Present......      6,329     10.5     8,477     11.6 
    Married, Spouse Absent.......        495      0.8       560      0.8 
    Divorced.....................      3,853      6.4     4,381      6.0 
    Separated....................      1,426      2.4     1,614      2.2 
    Widowed......................      4,330      7.2     5,332      7.3 
    Never Married................      6,871     11.4     7,852     10.7 
                                                                         
Work Experience                                                          
                                                                         
Male:                                                                    
  Under 16 years.................      9,974     16.5    11,657     16.0 
16 to 64 years...................     14,074     23.3    17,305     23.7 
  Worked during Year.............      8,802     14.6    11,405     15.6 
    Full-time, year-round .......      3,844      6.4     5,434      7.4 
    Not full-time, year-round....      4,959      8.2     5,971      8.2 
  Did Not Work...................      5,272      8.7     5,899      8.1 
65 years and over................      2,278      3.8     3,223      4.4 
  Worked during Year.............        164      0.3       237      0.3 
    Full-time, year-round........         35      0.1        48      0.1 
    Not full-time, year-round....        129      0.2       189      0.3 
  Did Not Work...................      2,114      3.5     2,986      4.1 
  Female:                                                                
  Under 16 years.................      9,700     16.1    11,505     15.7 
16 to 64 years...................     18,904     31.3    22,395     30.6 
  Worked during Year.............      9,768     16.2    12,100     16.6 
    Full-time, year-round........      2,935      4.9     4,058      5.6 
    Not full-time, year-rod......      6,834     11.3     8,042     11.0 
  Did Not Work...................      9,136     15.1    10,295     14.1 
65 years and over................      5,401      9.0     6,995      9.6 
  Worked during Year.............        220      0.4       321      0.4 
    Full-time, year-round........         17      0.0        32      0.0 
    Not full-time, year-round....        203      0.3       289      0.4 
  Did Not Work...................      5,181      8.6     6,674      9.1 
                                                                         
Education and Age                                                        
                                                                         
Under 16 years....................    19,674     32.6    23,162     31.7 
16 to 24 years....................     9,238     15.3    10,801     14.8 
  Enrolled........................     4,322      7.2     5,073      6.9 
Table 15. Distribution of People by Ratio of Income to Poverty Level                              14
by Selected Characteristics:  1997
(Numbers in thousands)

                                       Under 1.50         Under 1.75     
                                      Number  Percent    Number  Percent 
  Not Enrolled....................     4,916      8.1     5,728      7.8 
   Did not finish high school.....     1,967      3.3     2,202      3.0 
25 years and over.................    31,419     52.1    39,118     53.5 
  Did not complete high school....    12,634     20.9    15,034     20.6 
  Completed high school...........    18,785     31.1    24,083     33.0 
   No college.....................    10,821     17.9    13,731     18.8 
   Some college, not a graduate...     5,599      9.3     7,316     10.0 
   Completed college..............     2,365      3.9     3,037      4.2 
                                                                         
Recipiency and Participation                                             
Status of Household                                                      
                                                                         
In households with                                                       
related children under                                                   
18 years..........................    29,767     49.3    33,926     46.4 
  Household received cash                                                
  public assistance..............     11,817     19.6    12,630     17.3 
  Household received                                                     
  food stamps....................     16,172     26.8    17,000     23.3 
  Household received public                                              
  or subsidized housing..........      6,664     11.0     7,013      9.6 
  Household received free                                                
  or reduced price                                                       
  school lunches.................     21,478     35.6    24,540     33.6 
  One or more members                                                    
  covered by Medicaid............     20,719     34.3    22,722     31.1 
                                                                         
In households with                                                       
no related children                                                      
under 18 years...................      7,890     13.1     8,818     12.1 
  Household received cash                                                
  public assistance..............      4,035      6.7     4,470      6.1 
  Household received                                                     
  food stamps....................      3,512      5.8     3,748      5.1 
  Household received public                                              
  or subsidized housing..........      2,467      4.1     2,684      3.7 
  One or more members                                                    
  covered by Medicaid............      5,982      9.9     6,670      9.1 
                                                                         
Size of Household                                                        
                                                                         
1 person.........................      8,638     14.3    10,240     14.0 
2 people.........................     10,765     17.8    13,731     18.8 
3 people.........................     10,329     17.1    12,547     17.2 
4 people.........................     11,640     19.3    14,099     19.3 
5 people.........................      9,100     15.1    11,075     15.2 
6 people.........................      4,896      8.1     5,727      7.8 
7 people.........................      2,512      4.2     2,989      4.1 
Table 15. Distribution of People by Ratio of Income to Poverty Level                              15
by Selected Characteristics:  1997
(Numbers in thousands)

                                       Under 1.50         Under 1.75     
                                      Number  Percent    Number  Percent 
8 people.........................      1,171      1.9     1,309      1.8 
9 or more people.................      1,279      2.1     1,362      1.9 
                                                                         
Residence and Region                                                     
                                                                         
Metropolitan.....................     45,751     75.8    55,439     75.9 
  Central City...................     23,538     39.0    27,726     37.9 
  Not central city...............     22,213     36.8    27,713     37.9 
Not metropolitan.................     14,580     24.2    17,641     24.1 
Northeast........................     10,402     17.2    12,384     16.9 
Metropolitan.....................      9,241     15.3    11,029     15.1 
  Central City...................      5,452      9.0     6,201      8.5 
  Not central city...............      3,789      6.3     4,828      6.6 
Not metropolitan.................      1,161      1.9     1,356      1.9 
Midwest..........................     11,477     19.0    14,432     19.7 
Metropolitan.....................      7,982     13.2    10,071     13.8 
  Central City...................      4,541      7.5     5,457      7.5 
  Not central city...............      3,441      5.7     4,614      6.3 
Not metropolitan.................      3,495      5.8     4,361      6.0 
South............................     23,603     39.1    28,449     38.9 
Metropolitan.....................     16,031     26.6    19,377     26.5 
  Central City...................      7,416     12.3     8,835     12.1 
  Not central city...............      8,614     14.3    10,542     14.4 
Not metropolitan.................      7,572     12.6     9,072     12.4 
West.............................     14,850     24.6    17,815     24.4 
Metropolitan.....................     12,497     20.7    14,962     20.5 
  Central City...................      6,128     10.2     7,232      9.9 
  Not central city...............      6,369     10.6     7,730     10.6 
Not metropolitan.................      2,352      3.9     2,852      3.9 
Table 15. Distribution of People by Ratio of Income to Poverty Level                              16
by Selected Characteristics:  1997
(Numbers in thousands)

                                       Under 1.85         Under 2.00     
                                      Number  Percent    Number  Percent 
                                                                         
Total............................     78,776    100.0    86,264    100.0 
                                                                         
Age                                                                      
                                                                         
Under 18 years...................     27,257     34.6    29,384     34.1 
   Under 6  years................      9,935     12.6    10,614     12.3 
   6 to 17  years................     17,322     22.0    18,770     21.8 
18 to 24 years...................      8,965     11.4     9,712     11.3 
25 to 34 years...................     10,826     13.7    11,872     13.8 
35 to 54 years...................     15,683     19.9    17,514     20.3 
55 to 59 years...................      2,339      3.0     2,613      3.0 
60 to 64 years...................      2,521      3.2     2,761      3.2 
65 years and over................     11,186     14.2    12,407     14.4 
                                                                         
Race and Hispanic Origin                                                 
                                                                         
White............................     58,554     74.3    64,514     74.8 
   Under 18 years................     18,939     24.0    20,595     23.9 
Black............................     16,530     21.0    17,705     20.5 
   Under 18 years................      6,912      8.8     7,284      8.4 
Other............................      3,693      4.7     4,045      4.7 
   Under 18 years................      1,406      1.8     1,506      1.7 
                                                                         
Of Hispanic Origin...............     16,580     21.0    17,604     20.4 
   Under 18 years................      7,147      9.1     7,485      8.7 
Not Of Hispanic Origin...........     62,196     79.0    68,660     79.6 
   Under 18 years................     20,110     25.5    21,899     25.4 
                                                                         
Sex                                                                      
                                                                         
Male.............................     34,964     44.4    38,562     44.7 
   65 years and over.............      3,596      4.6     4,091      4.7 
Female...........................     43,812     55.6    47,702     55.3 
   65 years and over.............      7,590      9.6     8,316      9.6 
                                                                         
People in Families                                                       
                                                                         
Total............................     59,837     76.0    66,155     76.7 
 Householder.....................     17,320     22.0    19,277     22.3 
   Under 65 years................     14,571     18.5    16,119     18.7 
   65 years and over.............      2,750      3.5     3,157      3.7 
 Related Children................                                        
   Under 18 years................     26,288     33.4    28,392     32.9 
    Under 6 years................      9,722     12.3    10,399     12.1 
    6 to 17 years ...............     16,567     21.0    17,993     20.9 
 Own children 18 years and over..      4,492      5.7     5,045      5.8 
Table 15. Distribution of People by Ratio of Income to Poverty Level                              17
by Selected Characteristics:  1997
(Numbers in thousands)

                                       Under 1.85         Under 2.00     
                                      Number  Percent    Number  Percent 
                                                                         
In Married-Couple Families.......     33,903     43.0    38,591     44.7 
 Husbands........................      9,205     11.7    10,605     12.3 
  Under 65 years.................      7,075      9.0     8,122      9.4 
  65 years and over..............      2,129      2.7     2,484      2.9 
 Wives...........................      9,205     11.7    10,605     12.3 
  Under 65 years.................      7,519      9.5     8,619     10.0 
  65 years and over..............      1,685      2.1     1,986      2.3 
Related Children.................                                        
  Under 18 years.................     12,982     16.5    14,532     16.8 
    Under 6 years................      5,119      6.5     5,634      6.5 
    6 to 17 years ...............      7,863     10.0     8,898     10.3 
 Own children 18 years and over..      1,809      2.3     2,073      2.4 
                                                                         
In Families with Female                                                  
Householder, No Spouse Present...     22,164     28.1    23,415     27.1 
Householder, ....................      6,852      8.7     7,292      8.5 
  Under 65 years.................      6,222      7.9     6,589      7.6 
  65 years and over..............        630      0.8       704      0.8 
Related Children.................                                        
  Under 18 years.................     11,697     14.8    12,160     14.1 
    Under 6 years................      3,904      5.0     4,037      4.7 
    6 to 17 years................      7,793      9.9     8,124      9.4 
 Own children 18 years and over..      2,453      3.1     2,690      3.1 
                                                                         
In Unrelated Subfamilies.........      1,076      1.4     1,111      1.3 
 Under 18 years..................        637      0.8       658      0.8 
   Under 6 years.................        214      0.3       215      0.2 
   6 to 17 years ................        423      0.5       443      0.5 
 18 years and over...............        439      0.6       453      0.5 
                                                                         
Unrelated Individuals............     17,864     22.7    18,998     22.0 
 Male ...........................      7,078      9.0     7,569      8.8 
  Under 65 years.................      5,838      7.4     6,218      7.2 
    Living alone  ...............      2,532      3.2     2,702      3.1 
  65 years and over..............      1,240      1.6     1,352      1.6 
    Living alone  ...............      1,004      1.3     1,091      1.3 
 Female..........................     10,785     13.7    11,429     13.2 
  Under 65 years.................      5,885      7.5     6,224      7.2 
    Living alone  ...............      2,670      3.4     2,837      3.3 
  65 years and over..............      4,900      6.2     5,205      6.0 
    Living alone  ...............      4,707      6.0     4,999      5.8 
                                                                         
Marital Status                                                           
                                                                         
Male:                                                                    
  Under 65 years.................     13,762     17.5    14,852     17.2 
  18 years and over..............     21,202     26.9    23,709     27.5 
Table 15. Distribution of People by Ratio of Income to Poverty Level                              18
by Selected Characteristics:  1997
(Numbers in thousands)

                                       Under 1.85         Under 2.00     
                                      Number  Percent    Number  Percent 
    Married, Spouse Present......      9,456     12.0    10,889     12.6 
    Married, Spouse Absent.......        426      0.5       466      0.5 
    Divorced.....................      2,280      2.9     2,493      2.9 
    Separated....................        653      0.8       698      0.8 
    Widowed......................        944      1.2     1,057      1.2 
    Never Married................      7,444      9.4     8,105      9.4 
Female:                                                                  
  Under 65 years.................     13,495     17.1    14,532     16.8 
  18 years and over..............     30,317     38.5    33,170     38.5 
    Married, Spouse Present......      9,432     12.0    10,865     12.6 
    Married, Spouse Absent.......        614      0.8       648      0.8 
    Divorced.....................      4,621      5.9     4,916      5.7 
    Separated....................      1,698      2.2     1,790      2.1 
    Widowed......................      5,657      7.2     6,127      7.1 
    Never Married................      8,295     10.5     8,825     10.2 
                                                                         
Work Experience                                                          
                                                                         
Male:                                                                    
  Under 16 years.................     12,436     15.8    13,423     15.6 
16 to 64 years...................     18,932     24.0    21,047     24.4 
  Worked during Year.............     12,774     16.2    14,536     16.9 
    Full-time, year-round .......      6,308      8.0     7,511      8.7 
    Not full-time, year-round....      6,466      8.2     7,024      8.1 
  Did Not Work...................      6,158      7.8     6,511      7.5 
65 years and over................      3,596      4.6     4,091      4.7 
  Worked during Year.............        269      0.3       312      0.4 
    Full-time, year-round........         51      0.1        64      0.1 
    Not full-time, year-round....        218      0.3       247      0.3 
  Did Not Work...................      3,327      4.2     3,780      4.4 
  Female:                                                                
  Under 16 years.................     12,259     15.6    13,175     15.3 
16 to 64 years...................     23,963     30.4    26,211     30.4 
  Worked during Year.............     13,223     16.8    14,849     17.2 
    Full-time, year-round........      4,626      5.9     5,448      6.3 
    Not full-time, year-rod......      8,597     10.9     9,401     10.9 
  Did Not Work...................     10,740     13.6    11,362     13.2 
65 years and over................      7,590      9.6     8,316      9.6 
  Worked during Year.............        390      0.5       443      0.5 
    Full-time, year-round........         42      0.1        48      0.1 
    Not full-time, year-round....        348      0.4       396      0.5 
  Did Not Work...................      7,200      9.1     7,872      9.1 
                                                                         
Education and Age                                                        
                                                                         
Under 16 years....................    24,695     31.3    26,599     30.8 
16 to 24 years....................    11,526     14.6    12,497     14.5 
  Enrolled........................     5,374      6.8     5,845      6.8 
Table 15. Distribution of People by Ratio of Income to Poverty Level                              19
by Selected Characteristics:  1997
(Numbers in thousands)

                                       Under 1.85         Under 2.00     
                                      Number  Percent    Number  Percent 
  Not Enrolled....................     6,152      7.8     6,652      7.7 
   Did not finish high school.....     2,295      2.9     2,433      2.8 
25 years and over.................    42,555     54.0    47,168     54.7 
  Did not complete high school....    15,939     20.2    17,061     19.8 
  Completed high school...........    26,615     33.8    30,107     34.9 
   No college.....................    15,149     19.2    17,151     19.9 
   Some college, not a graduate...     8,067     10.2     9,175     10.6 
   Completed college..............     3,399      4.3     3,781      4.4 
                                                                         
Recipiency and Participation                                             
Status of Household                                                      
                                                                         
In households with                                                       
related children under                                                   
18 years..........................    35,523     45.1    37,424     43.4 
  Household received cash                                                
  public assistance..............     12,897     16.4    13,211     15.3 
  Household received                                                     
  food stamps....................     17,269     21.9    17,528     20.3 
  Household received public                                              
  or subsidized housing..........      7,101      9.0     7,296      8.5 
  Household received free                                                
  or reduced price                                                       
  school lunches.................     25,703     32.6    26,976     31.3 
  One or more members                                                    
  covered by Medicaid............     23,466     29.8    24,260     28.1 
                                                                         
In households with                                                       
no related children                                                      
under 18 years...................      9,240     11.7     9,760     11.3 
  Household received cash                                                
  public assistance..............      4,657      5.9     4,876      5.7 
  Household received                                                     
  food stamps....................      3,854      4.9     3,975      4.6 
  Household received public                                              
  or subsidized housing..........      2,761      3.5     2,829      3.3 
  One or more members                                                    
  covered by Medicaid............      6,997      8.9     7,396      8.6 
                                                                         
Size of Household                                                        
                                                                         
1 person.........................     10,914     13.9    11,629     13.5 
2 people.........................     15,026     19.1    16,853     19.5 
3 people.........................     13,349     16.9    14,729     17.1 
4 people.........................     15,371     19.5    17,020     19.7 
5 people.........................     12,029     15.3    13,136     15.2 
6 people.........................      6,172      7.8     6,681      7.7 
7 people.........................      3,079      3.9     3,263      3.8 
Table 15. Distribution of People by Ratio of Income to Poverty Level                              20
by Selected Characteristics:  1997
(Numbers in thousands)

                                       Under 1.85         Under 2.00     
                                      Number  Percent    Number  Percent 
8 people.........................      1,450      1.8     1,546      1.8 
9 or more people.................      1,387      1.8     1,406      1.6 
                                                                         
Residence and Region                                                     
                                                                         
Metropolitan.....................     59,780     75.9    65,434     75.9 
  Central City...................     29,649     37.6    31,944     37.0 
  Not central city...............     30,131     38.2    33,490     38.8 
Not metropolitan.................     18,997     24.1    20,830     24.1 
Northeast........................     13,416     17.0    14,735     17.1 
Metropolitan.....................     11,920     15.1    12,989     15.1 
  Central City...................      6,561      8.3     6,979      8.1 
  Not central city...............      5,360      6.8     6,010      7.0 
Not metropolitan.................      1,495      1.9     1,745      2.0 
Midwest..........................     15,683     19.9    17,542     20.3 
Metropolitan.....................     10,899     13.8    12,164     14.1 
  Central City...................      5,828      7.4     6,395      7.4 
  Not central city...............      5,072      6.4     5,768      6.7 
Not metropolitan.................      4,784      6.1     5,378      6.2 
South............................     30,457     38.7    33,128     38.4 
Metropolitan.....................     20,792     26.4    22,708     26.3 
  Central City...................      9,451     12.0    10,185     11.8 
  Not central city...............     11,341     14.4    12,524     14.5 
Not metropolitan.................      9,665     12.3    10,419     12.1 
West.............................     19,220     24.4    20,859     24.2 
Metropolitan.....................     16,168     20.5    17,573     20.4 
  Central City...................      7,810      9.9     8,386      9.7 
  Not central city...............      8,358     10.6     9,187     10.7 
Not metropolitan.................      3,052      3.9     3,286      3.8 

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Contact: Census Bureau Question & Answer Center at ask.census.gov
Last revised: July 20, 2004
URL: http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/cpstables/macro/031998/pov/new15_000.htm