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Census of Housing




Historical Census of Housing Tables

Plumbing Facilities

In 1990, only 1 percent of our homes lacked complete plumbing facilities. But, things were much different in 1940, when nearly half lacked complete plumbing. Then, about ten States had rates approaching or exceeding 70 percent. In succeeding decades, the proportion of homes lacking complete plumbing dropped dramatically, falling to about one-third in 1950 and one- sixth in 1960. It is interesting to note the States with the lowest percent- age of such homes in 1940 were higher than Alaska, which topped the 1990 list.

Complete plumbing facilities are defined as hot and cold piped water, a bath- tub or shower, and a flush toilet. In earlier censuses, these facilities must have been for exclusive use of a housing unit's inhabitants; this requirement was dropped in 1990.

                         PLUMBING FACILITIES 

         1     9     9     0              1     9     8     0
        Complete  Lacking complete       Complete  Lacking complete
        plumbing          plumbing       plumbing          plumbing
      facilities              Per-     facilities              Per-
                     Number   cent                    Number   cent

US   101,161,982  1,101,696    1.1%    84,359,133  2,333,690    2.7%

AL     1,642,879     27,500    1.6%     1,375,018     74,993    5.2%
AK       203,584     29,024   12.5%       135,398     18,773   12.2%
AZ     1,627,959     31,471    1.9%     1,039,057     27,380    2.6%
AR       982,261     18,406    1.8%       841,975     46,765    5.3%
CA    11,113,501     69,381    0.6%     9,095,286    125,135    1.4%
CO     1,465,571     11,778    0.8%     1,147,652     21,029    1.8%
CT     1,315,105      5,745    0.4%     1,127,996     16,057    1.4%
DE       288,197      1,722    0.6%       225,402      4,705    2.0%
DC       276,239      2,250    0.8%       270,163      6,629    2.4%
FL     6,072,305     27,957    0.5%     4,217,726     52,665    1.2%
GA     2,609,956     28,462    1.1%     1,937,022     75,618    3.8%
HI       385,498      4,312    1.1%       324,511      7,702    2.3%
ID       407,309      6,018    1.5%       352,461      7,295    2.0%
IL     4,476,959     29,316    0.7%     4,216,890     85,973    2.0%
IN     2,229,811     16,235    0.7%     2,020,417     42,700    2.1%
IA     1,133,898      9,771    0.9%     1,094,789     26,410    2.4%
KS     1,036,261      7,851    0.8%       930,982     19,169    2.0%
KY     1,462,623     44,222    2.9%     1,252,777    102,231    7.5%
LA     1,694,335     21,906    1.3%     1,488,152     47,169    3.1%
ME       566,269     20,776    3.5%       402,583     24,794    5.8%
MD     1,879,232     12,685    0.7%     1,515,988     33,231    2.1%
MA     2,460,345     12,366    0.5%     2,103,509     36,632    1.7%
MI     3,815,434     32,492    0.8%     3,385,095     63,240    1.8%
MN     1,824,081     24,364    1.3%     1,486,413     42,950    2.8%
MS       988,572     21,851    2.2%       838,834     65,244    7.2%
MO     2,172,297     26,832    1.2%     1,902,964     58,199    3.0%
MT       354,144      7,011    1.9%       304,218     10,797    3.4%
NE       655,379      5,242    0.8%       606,962     11,737    1.9%
NV       516,156      2,702    0.5%       332,814      4,677    1.4%
NH       497,996      5,908    1.2%       339,098     10,117    2.9%
NJ     3,059,718     15,592    0.5%     2,642,381     45,373    1.7%
NM       612,087     19,971    3.2%       469,430     23,862    4.8%
NY     7,159,544     67,347    0.9%     6,507,921    191,163    2.9%
NC     2,775,231     42,962    1.5%     2,107,079    115,928    5.2%
ND       270,763      5,577    2.0%       241,950     10,668    4.2%
OH     4,339,037     32,908    0.8%     3,994,575     82,701    2.0%
OK     1,392,742     13,757    1.0%     1,203,675     25,004    2.0%
OR     1,183,174     10,393    0.9%     1,051,581     19,713    1.8%
PA     4,891,083     47,057    1.0%     4,396,803    112,529    2.5%
RI       412,319      2,253    0.5%       355,765      6,868    1.9%
SC     1,403,978     20,177    1.4%     1,064,227     57,221    5.1%
SD       286,513      5,923    2.0%       257,887     11,607    4.3%
TN     1,993,707     32,360    1.6%     1,657,075     79,772    4.6%
TX     6,923,924     85,075    1.2%     5,338,780    141,636    2.6%
UT       592,522      5,866    1.0%       475,359      5,385    1.1%
VT       265,092      6,122    2.3%       189,429      6,515    3.3%
VA     2,450,215     46,119    1.8%     1,897,362    101,331    5.1%
WA     2,013,760     18,618    0.9%     1,623,003     27,408    1.7%
WV       756,226     25,069    3.2%       685,896     50,456    6.9%
WI     2,025,997     29,777    1.4%     1,708,608     44,361    2.5%
WY       200,194      3,217    1.6%       178,195      4,173    2.3%



         1     9     7     0              1     9     6     0
        Complete  Lacking complete       Complete  Lacking complete
        plumbing          plumbing       plumbing          plumbing
      facilities              Per-     facilities              Per-
                     Number   cent                    Number   cent
                                       
US    62,984,221  4,672,345    6.9%    48,537,001  9,777,783   16.8%

AL       926,277    188,363   16.9%       595,120    372,378   38.5%
AK        73,181     15,162   17.2%        47,433     19,724   29.4%
AZ       548,294     30,196    5.2%       359,962     55,798   13.4%
AR       549,101    123,694   18.4%       333,240    253,276   43.2%
CA     6,833,068    143,676    2.1%     5,184,180    280,706    5.1%
CO       704,929     36,721    5.0%       510,377     84,031   14.1%
CT       942,226     25,842    2.7%       758,360     60,068    7.3%
DE       165,887      8,856    5.1%       125,883     17,816   12.4%
DC       271,943      6,431    2.3%       242,369     20,270    7.7%
FL     2,361,445    127,523    5.1%     1,510,304    266,641   15.0%
GA     1,272,520    193,748   13.2%       776,131    393,740   33.7%
HI       203,856     12,041    5.6%       137,574     27,816   16.8%
ID       225,504     12,619    5.3%       190,766     32,767   14.7%
IL     3,515,960    176,955    4.8%     2,834,658    440,324   13.4%
IN     1,601,187    110,681    6.5%     1,242,682    260,349   17.3%
IA       882,981     71,820    7.5%       725,612    179,659   19.8%
KS       743,567     43,855    5.6%       622,742    117,502   15.9%
KY       839,718    220,646   20.8%       557,996    367,387   39.7%
LA     1,013,690    132,191   11.5%       689,590    288,771   29.5%
ME       284,992     52,015   15.4%       253,434    111,169   30.5%
MD     1,179,739     54,770    4.4%       835,720     98,531   10.5%
MA     1,770,477     65,721    3.6%     1,529,037    161,823    9.6%
MI     2,718,000    123,827    4.4%     2,248,976    299,397   11.7%
MN     1,119,240     99,460    8.2%       870,316    246,459   22.1%
MS       527,732    169,362   24.3%       328,103    300,842   47.8%
MO     1,502,256    161,867    9.7%     1,105,195    386,078   25.9%
MT       218,558     21,746    9.0%       185,801     47,484   20.4%
NE       480,586     31,305    6.1%       390,252     82,663   17.5%
NV       166,150      5,485    3.2%        91,615      9,931    9.8%
NH       229,605     17,403    7.0%       186,897     37,523   16.7%
NJ     2,244,692     57,917    2.5%     1,868,909    129,547    6.5%
NM       287,672     34,226   10.6%       224,342     57,550   20.4%
NY     5,957,098    195,165    3.2%     5,240,221    453,460    8.0%
NC     1,365,784    252,319   15.6%       852,121    470,718   35.6%
ND       172,699     27,635   13.8%       130,272     64,325   33.1%
OH     3,269,060    178,108    5.2%     2,650,545    390,407   12.8%
OK       871,214     66,426    7.1%       645,707    169,902   20.8%
OR       708,818     26,425    3.6%       561,370     61,356    9.9%
PA     3,677,606    198,605    5.1%     3,176,707    404,339   11.3%
RI       296,855      9,646    3.1%       247,741     38,971   13.6%
SC       655,455    149,300   18.6%       417,049    261,306   38.5%
SD       191,661     30,059   13.6%       150,911     65,538   30.3%
TN     1,104,463    192,543   14.8%       706,248    378,074   34.9%
TX     3,517,023    291,383    7.7%     2,526,847    626,106   19.9%
UT       303,257      8,557    2.7%       246,495     16,087    6.1%
VT       136,647     12,454    8.4%       110,817     25,490   18.7%
VA     1,284,834    199,317   13.4%       848,051    320,590   27.4%
WA     1,162,677     41,510    3.4%       910,991     98,493    9.8%
WV       483,693    108,678   18.3%       388,678    185,676   32.3%
WI     1,312,733    101,372    7.2%     1,067,474    221,025   17.2%
WY       107,611      6,719    5.9%        95,180     17,900   15.8%


         1     9     5     0              1     9     4     0
        Complete  Lacking complete       Complete  Lacking complete
        plumbing          plumbing       plumbing          plumbing
      facilities              Per-     facilities              Per-
                     Number   cent                    Number   cent
                                                   
US    28,729,475 15,772,717   35.5%    19,174,344 15,852,098   45.3%
      
AL       264,008    555,372   67.8%       131,528    535,675   80.3%
AK        15,446     13,964   47.5%
AZ       151,695     81,000   34.8%        64,207     73,737   53.5%
AR       164,801    393,785   70.5%        81,587    413,303   83.5%
CA     3,085,547    411,679   11.8%     1,825,597    362,287   16.6%
CO       262,934    159,353   37.7%       153,340    177,887   53.7%
CT       492,128     99,118   16.8%       369,232     85,249   18.8%
DE        66,169     27,725   29.5%        42,742     28,906   40.3%
DC       198,114     25,561   11.4%       142,177     30,603   17.7%
FL       561,104    359,313   39.0%       299,622    257,204   46.2%
GA       341,395    592,348   63.4%       177,891    572,796   76.3%
HI        72,649     46,057   38.8%
ID       115,690     67,015   36.7%        55,691     89,247   61.6%
IL     1,765,179    817,891   31.7%     1,363,094    773,784   36.2%
IN       682,880    511,481   42.8%       430,738    513,919   54.4%
IA       410,441    378,454   48.0%       288,220    400,941   58.2%
KS       355,632    249,394   41.2%       207,146    311,875   60.1%
KY       288,872    507,332   63.7%       180,231    507,855   73.8%
LA       314,223    440,075   58.3%       193,999    397,737   67.2%
ME       156,985    136,749   46.6%       111,473    136,125   55.0%
MD       483,103    183,322   27.5%       276,122    180,632   39.5%
MA     1,097,910    259,634   19.1%       941,107    196,623   17.3%
MI     1,368,663    531,778   28.0%       897,763    539,795   37.5%
MN       477,485    415,888   46.6%       334,036    399,337   54.5%
MS       153,723    436,580   74.0%        73,780    452,457   86.0%
MO       600,289    617,887   50.7%       465,510    617,752   57.0%
MT       108,687     79,120   42.1%        62,906    107,367   63.1%
NE       230,297    171,658   42.7%       157,579    214,513   57.7%
NV        41,071     12,433   23.2%        19,199     14,930   43.7%
NH       119,314     61,948   34.2%        91,215     58,893   39.2%
NJ     1,240,418    217,450   14.9%       920,693    210,218   18.6%
NM        99,308     89,687   47.5%        37,301     99,538   72.7%
NY     3,822,868    620,749   14.0%     3,020,833    655,146   17.8%
NC       361,161    666,059   64.8%       183,644    590,976   76.3%
ND        58,152    112,487   65.9%        30,314    124,647   80.4%
OH     1,660,123    673,766   28.9%     1,153,011    709,351   38.1%
OK       365,849    324,931   47.0%       199,870    409,846   67.2%
OR       387,040    121,796   23.9%       214,160    135,575   38.8%
PA     2,153,876    794,533   26.9%     1,531,167    908,201   37.2%
RI       150,541     88,621   37.1%       149,455     46,766   23.8%
SC       188,609    351,205   65.1%        92,195    343,012   78.8%
SD        73,189    116,074   61.3%        43,362    127,642   74.6%
TN       328,599    565,689   63.3%       171,910    533,810   75.6%
TX     1,265,429  1,053,982   45.4%       647,231  1,060,814   62.1%
UT       159,248     35,845   18.4%        84,665     54,807   39.3%
VT        78,520     38,833   33.1%        59,934     42,282   41.4%
VA       439,612    432,033   49.6%       219,632    405,785   64.9%
WA       633,178    149,042   19.1%       359,737    198,333   35.5%
WV       243,295    284,365   53.9%       148,316    282,844   65.6%
WI       607,031    417,746   40.8%       439,018    417,575   48.7%
WY        55,090     33,931   38.1%        30,164     43,501   59.1%
Alaska and Hawaii are not included in the 1950 totals. Universe: all housing units reporting plumbing facilities in 1940 and 1950. all housing units in 1960 and 1990. year-round housing units in 1970 and 1980. In 1990, units having complete plumbing but not for exclusive use of their inhabitants, were counted as having complete plumbing. In previous censuses, such units were tabulated as "lacking complete plumbing".

Contact the Physical and Social Characteristics Branch at 301-763-3237 or visit ask.census.gov for further information.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division
Last Revised: October 31, 2011