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Survey of Market Absorption of Apartments (SOMA)

Source and Accuracy of the Estimates - Fourth Quarter 2007

The Survey of Market Absorption (SOMA) is a sample survey and 

consequently all statistics in the report are subject to sampling variability. 

Estimates derived from different samples would likely differ from these.


90-percent confidence intervals for statistical comparisons are shown with each 



The SOMA adopted new ratio estimation procedures in 1990 to derive

more accurate estimates of completions.  Please use caution when 

comparing the number of completions in 1990 and following years with  

those in earlier years.


The U.S. Census Bureau designed the survey to provide data concerning the rate at which

privately financed, nonsubsidized, unfurnished units in buildings with five or more units

are rented or sold (absorbed).  In addition, the survey collects data on characteristics 

such as number of bedrooms, asking rent, and asking price.

Buildings for the survey came from those included in the Census 

Bureau's Survey of Construction (SOC).  (Refer to Section V of for further details on the SOC 

sample design.) For the SOC, the United States is first divided into primary sampling units 

(PSUs), which are stratified based on population and building permits.  The PSUs to be used 

for the survey are then randomly selected from each stratum.  Next, a sample of geographic 

locations that issue permits is chosen within each of the selected PSUs.  All newly 

constructed buildings with five units or more within the sampled places and a 

subsample of buildings with one to four units are included in the SOC.

For the SOMA, the Census Bureau selects, each quarter, a sample of buildings with 

five or more units that have been reported in the SOC as having been completed 

during that quarter.  The SOMA does not include buildings in areas that do not issue 

permits.  In each of the subsequent four quarters, the proportion of units in the 

quarterly sample that are sold or rented ("absorbed") are recorded, providing data  

for absorption rates 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after completion. 


The Census Bureau publishes preliminary estimates for a given quarter and 

may revise these estimates in ensuing quarters.  Each quarter, some of the 

absorption data for some buildings arrive after the deadline for that quarter's 

report; these late data appear in a revised table in the next quarterly report.   

Finalized data appears in the H-130, Market Absorption of Apartments

annual report.

Beginning with data on completions in the fourth quarter of 1990

(which formed the basis for absorptions in the first quarter of 1991),

the Census Bureau modified the estimation procedure and applied the 

new procedure to the data for the other three quarters of 1990

so that annual estimates using the same methodology for four quarters

could be derived.  The Census Bureau did not perform any  additional 

re-estimation of past data.

Using the original estimation procedure, the Census Bureau created unbiased 

estimates by multiplying the counts for each building by its base weight 

(the inverse of its probability of selection) and then summing over all 

buildings.  Multiplying the unbiased estimate by the following ratio estimate

factor for the country as a whole provided the final estimate:

     total units in buildings with five or more units in permit-issuing

     areas as estimated by the SOC for that quarter* divided by 

     total units in buildings with five or more units as estimated by

     the SOMA for that quarter

*(Beginning with January 2001 completions, the SOC revised its methodology 

for estimating the number of units completed for 5+ multi-unit structures.  See

for these changes.  Thus, use caution when comparing data from 2001 and 

forward to any estimates prior to 2001.) 

In the modified estimation procedure, instead of applying a single

ratio-estimate factor for the entire Nation, the Census Bureau computes 

separate ratio-estimate factors for each of the four census regions.  

Multiplying the unbiased regional estimates by the corresponding 

ratio-estimate factors provides the final estimates for regions.  The 

Census Bureau obtains the final  estimate for the country by summing 

the final regional estimates.

This procedure produces estimates of the units completed in a given

quarter which are consistent with the published figures from the SOC 

and also reduces, to some extent, the sampling variability of the

estimates of totals.

Absorption rates and other characteristics of units not included in

the interviewed group or not accounted for are assumed to be identical

to rates for units about which data were obtained.  The noninterviewed and

not-accounted-for cases constitute less than 2 percent of the sample

housing units in this survey.


The SOMA is a sample survey and consequently all statistics in this report

are subject to sampling variability.  Estimates derived from different samples 

would likely differ from these. 

Two types of possible errors are associated with data from

sample surveys: nonsampling and sampling errors. 

In general, nonsampling errors can be attributed to many sources:

inability to obtain information about all cases in the sample,

difficulties with definitions, differences in interpretating questions,

inability or unwillingness of the respondents to provide correct

information, and data processing errors. Although no direct measurements 

of any bias that might result from nonsampling errors has been obtained, 

the Census Bureau thinks that most of the important response and operational 

errors were detected during review of the data for reasonableness and consistency. 

Sampling Errors

The particular sample used for this survey is one of many

possible samples of the same size that could have been

selected using the same sample design. Even if the same

questionnaires, instructions, and interviewers were used, estimates

from different samples would likely differ from each other. The

deviation of a sample estimate from the average of estimates from all 

possible samples is defined as the sampling error. The standard error of 

a survey estimate provides a measure of this variation and, 

thus, is a measure of the precision with which an estimate from 

a sample approximates the average result from all possible samples.

If all possible samples were selected, if each was surveyed under 

the same general conditions, and if an estimate and its estimated 

standard error were calculated from each sample, then:

     Approximately 90 percent of the intervals from 1.645 standard

     errors below the estimate to 1.645 standard errors above the

     estimate (i.e., the 90-percent confidence interval) would include

     the average result from all possible samples.

This report uses a 90-percent confidence level as its standard for statistical 


Beginning with data for completions in the second quarter of 1999, the

Census Bureau implemented a new procedure for computing standard errors. 

The new procedure may result in differences in standard errors derived using

the prior methodology, so standard errors were revised back to the third  

quarter of 1998.

The estimates in this report show the totals, percents, and medians with the 

90-percent confidence interval.


For very small estimates, the lower limit of the confidence interval

may be negative. In this case, a better approximation to the true

interval estimate can be achieved by restricting the interval estimate

to positive values; that is, by changing the lower limit of the

interval estimate to zero.

The average result from all possible samples either is or is not

contained in any particular computed interval. However, for a

particular sample, one can say with specified confidence that the

average result from all possible samples is included in the constructed


Contact George Boyd at 301-763-3199 or mail to for further information on the Survey of Market Absorption of Apartments Data.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Social, Economic, and Housing Statistics Division