The data presented here are from the March 1995 supplement to the Current Population Survey, the source of official income and poverty estimates. The CPS is a sample survey of
approximately 60,000 households nationwide. These data reflect conditions in
calendar year 1994.
(The figures in parentheses denote 90-percent confidence intervals.)
The median income of households in the United States, $32,264 (+/- 240) did not change significantly in real terms between 1993 and 1994, and has not yet recovered to its 1989 pre-
recessionary peak of $34,445 (+/- 312) (in 1994 dollars).
Households in the South experienced a 2.9 (+/- 1.8) percent increase in median household income, in real terms, between 1993 and 1994. The median household incomes of the other
three regions did not change significantly. Households in the South continue to
have the lowest median income among the four regions.
Family households experienced an increase of 2.5 (+/- 1.1) percent in real median income between 1993 and 1994; nonfamily households experienced a decline of 2.1 (+/- 2.1)
Married-couple family households experienced a 1.8 (+/- 1.1) percent increase in real median income between 1993 and 1994, and family households maintained by women with no
husbands present experienced a 4.5 (+/- 3.2) percent increase in income.
Black households experienced a 5.0 (+/- 3.8) percent increase in real median income between 1993 and 1994, the only racial group showing a significant change.
The per capita income for all persons increased by 2.3 (+/- 1.2) percent between 1993 and 1994 (after adjusting for inflation). Increases were also evident for the White population,
2.2 (+/- 1.4) percent, and for the Black population, 5.3 (+/- 3.5) percent. The
per capita income for the Asian and Pacific Islander and Hispanic origin
populations remained unchanged.
The shares of aggregate household income received by quintiles of households were unchanged in 1994 when compared to 1993. In 1994, the share received by the lowest
quintile was 3.6 percent, the second, 8.9 percent, the third, 15.0 percent, the
fourth, 23.4 percent, and the top quintile, 49.1 percent.
The number of persons below the official government poverty level was 38.1 (+/-0.9) million in 1994, a figure 1.2 million lower than the 39.3 (+/-0.9) million poor in 1993.
The poverty rate was 14.5 (+/-0.3) percent in 1994, significantly lower than the 15.1 (+/-0.3)
percent poverty rate in 1993.
While the poverty rate of 21.8 (+/-0.7) for persons under 18 years old in 1994 remained higher than that of other age groups, this was significantly lower than the 1993 rate of
22.7 (+/-0.7) percent.
Poverty rates dropped between 1993 and 1994 for Whites and Blacks but showed no significant change for persons of Hispanic origin or Asians and Pacific Islanders. While the
number of poor Blacks dropped significantly between 1993 and 1994, the number
of poor Hispanics showed a significant increase.
There was a significant decrease in both the rate and the number of poor families between
1993 and 1994. In 1994, there were 8.1 (+/-0.3) million poor families, resulting in a poverty rate of 11.6 (+/-0.3) percent.
In 1994, 40.8 (+/-1.6) percent of poor persons 16 years old and over worked, and 10.5 (+/-1.0) percent worked year round, full-time. The number of poor persons in these categories
remained unchanged between 1993 and 1994.
The South was the only region with a statistically significant decline in its poverty rate, from 17.1 (+/-0.6) percent in 1993 to 16.1 (+/-0.6) percent in 1994. Unlike previous
years in which the South had the highest regional poverty rate, the West, with
a rate of 15.3 (+/-0.8) percent, was not significantly different from the South
During the period April 1994 through June 1995, the Bureau of the Census
systematically introduced a new sample design for the Current Population Survey
(CPS) based on the results of the 1990 Decennial Census. During this
phase-in-period, CPS estimates were being made from two distinct sample
designs, the old 1980 sample design and the new 1990 sample design. The March
1995 CPS consisted of 55 percent new (1990) sample and 45 percent old (1980)
sample. Since overlap in the sample design does not permit the development of
estimates for metropolitan/non-metropolitan categories that are comparable to
either the 1980 or 1990 census definitions, estimates of these categories have
been omitted from this report.
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