The Census Bureau reports poverty data from several major household surveys and programs. The Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the Current Population Survey (CPS) is the source of official national poverty estimates. The American Community Survey (ACS) provides single and multi-year estimates for smaller areas. The Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) provides longitudinal estimates. The Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE) program provides model-based poverty estimates for counties and school districts. See Description of Income and Poverty Data Sources to determine which survey or program meets your specific needs.
Supplemental Poverty Measure: 2014 (P60-254) [PDF - 1.4M]
Poverty Rates by County: 1960-2010 [XLSM - 6M]
Poverty: 2012 and 2013 (ACSBR/13-01) [PDF - 508k]
How Census Measures Poverty Infographic [Source: U.S. Census Bureau]
The History of a Measure Infographic [Source: U.S. Census Bureau]
Tables of NAS-based Experimental Poverty Estimates: 2013