U.S. Census Bureau
 Program Participation



PROGRAM PARTICIPATION, 1993-1994,
WHO GETS ASSISTANCE?

Table B.
Median Duration of Participation and Standard Errors by Program: 1993-1994
(in months)1
Characteristic Any Means-tested Programs 2 AFDC/General Assistance SSI
Median Standard error Median Standard error Median Standard error
All people 7.7 0.22218 8.3 0.79405 (X) (X)
RACE AND HISPANIC ORIGIN
  White 7.3 0.24837 7.6 0.52661 (X) (X)
  Not of Hispanic origin3 7.2 0.30979 7.2 0.66564 (X) (X)
  Black 7.9 0.30321 11.2 0.55659 (X) (X)
  Hispanic origin 7.4 0.39864 8.6 1.29495 (X) (X)
  Not of Hispanic origin 7.4 0.26354 8.1 1.097106 (X) (X)
AGE 4

  Under 18 years 7.0 0.29579 9.8 1.55256 (X) (X)
  18 to 64 7.5 0.30135 7.6 0.47854 (X) (X)
  65 years and over 19.5 3.35537 (B) (B) (X) (X)
Sex
  Men 7.1 0.27064 7.3 0.55756 (X) (X)
  Women 7.8 0.3638 9.8 1.73589 (X) (X)
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT (People 18 years and over)
  Less than four years of high   school 11.0 0.70525 7.4 0.62194 (X) (X)
  High school graduate, no college 7.2 0.4382 8.5 2.1211 (X) (X)
  1 or more years of college 7.1 0.60594 6.8 6.2284 12.8 8.17021
DISABILITY STATUS (people 15 to 64 years)
  With a work disability 11.1 1.31667 7.5 0.69958 (X) (X)
  With no work disability 7.0 0.33104 7.5 0.5768 (X) (X)
RESIDENCE

  Metropolitan 7.6 0.25709 8.9 1.47948 (X) (X)
  Central city 7.7 0.33959 9.2 1.47948 (X) (X)
  Noncentral city 7.4 0.38586 8.4 1.57093 (X) (X)
  Nonmetropolitan 6.7 1.31011 7.0 4.55103 (X) (X)
REGION

  Northeast 7.3 0.44999 8.0 0.54801 25.6 2.28723
  Midwest 6.0 0.98197 8.1 1.64662 (X) (X)
  South 7.5 0.42478 7.8 0.8718 (X) (X)
  West 7.7 0.3904 11.5 1.75971 (X) (X)
FAMILY STATUS

  In families 7.3 0.22602 8.6 0.81977 (X) (X)
  In married-couple families 6.0 0.2385 9.0 0.82206 (X) (X)
  In families with a female   householder, no spouse present 9.8 1.871 11.0 0.59151 (X) (X)
  Unrelated individuals 10.5 1.95171 4.0 0.95566 (X) (X)
EMPLOYMENT AND LABOR FORCE STATUS (People 18 Years and over)
  Employed full-time 4.3 0.99373 3.9 0.18634 3.9 0.24163
  Employed part-time 9.1 2.39752 7.1 4.37907 (X) (X)
  Unemployed 7.4 0.6129 8.1 1.11922 (X) (X)
  Not in the labor force 11.8 0.74419 10.4 20.8445 (X) (X)
FAMILY INCOME-TO-POVERTY RATIO
  Less than 1.00 10.1 1.08174 9.1 1.26663 (X) (X)
  1.00 and over 9.6 0.90115 7.4 0.51679 (X) (X)
X Not applicable. B Base less than 200,000.
1 Median duration cannot be computed when more than half of the spells are continuing in the last month of data   collection. This situation is especially likely to occur for elderly recipients whose income from other sources is   unlikely to rise over time.)
2 Major means-tested programs include AFDC and General Assistance, SSI, food stamps, Medicaid, and housing   assistance.
3 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
4 Age, educational attainment, and other variables are measured at the time the spells begin, excluding those who   are already on programs at the start of the survey

Table B. Continued
Median Duration of Participation and Standard Errors by Program: 1993-1993
( in months )
Characteristic Food stamps Medicaid Housing
Median Standard error Median Standard error Median Standard error
All people 8.2 1.00416 8.0 0.18135 16.1 1.31521
RACE AND HISPANIC ORIGIN 2/
  White 7.6 0.40906 7.9 0.21114 11.8 1.0888
  Not of Hispanic origin 7.6 0.5598 8.4 2.01193 11.0 1.06865
  Black 11.2 0.4974 9.0 1.02362 18.0 1.13099
  Hispanic origin 7.6 0.51089 7.5 0.33358 (X) (X)
  Not of Hispanic origin 8.6 0.1124 8.6 1.2717 14.0 1.84038
AGE 4

  Under 18 years 10.1 1.92349 7.4 0.22398 19.9 2.18595
  18 to 64 7.5 0.35678 11.1 0.42482 11.5 0.88704
  65 years and over 14.4 3.94844 (X) (X) (X) (X)
Sex
  Men 7.5 0.39061 7.7 0.24285 12.6 21.0952
  Women 9.9 1.24348 8.9 1.40133 18.2 1.47466
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT (People 18 years and over)
  Less than four years of high   school 8.7 2.20665 12.7 2.66229 21.5 4.58025
  High school graduate, no college 7.4 0.54764 11.5 1.15493 11.0 2.10206
  One or more years of college 7.1 0.77092 8.6 2.9504 9.0 6.27684
DISABILITY STATUS (Persons 15 to 69 Years)
  With a work disability 9.7 2.36988 17.8 7.42448 21.9 4.68369
  With no work disability 7.3 0.39049 7.8 0.34871 8.0 0.79504
RESIDENCE

  Metropolitan 10.0 1.70288 8.2 1.44454 18.6 1.38412
  Central city 11.2 0.6975 9.4 6.25239 19.9 1.79573
  Noncentral city 8.4 1.15938 8.0 0.29192 11.4 1.13945
  Nonmetropolitan 6.8 1.07261 7.8 0.40092 7.8 0.99204
REGION

  Northeast 10.6 3.71621 7.7 0.34646 (X) (X)
  Midwest 7.7 0.86382 9.8 1.58659 13.1 3.66224
  South 8.6 1.13991 7.8 0.33785 7.0 1.10906
  West 7.7 0.58606 8.8 3.4856 (X) (X)
FAMILY STATUS

  In families 8.0 1.03657 7.8 0.18941 16.3 1.23242
  In married-couple families 7.2 1.37234 7.5 0.23022 7.5 1.26258
  In families with a female   householder, no spouse present 11.7 0.71355 10.5 1.70927 (X) (X)
  Unrelated individuals 9.9 3.12797 20.5 5.90563 14.3 2.38853
EMPLOYMENT AND LABOR FORCE STATUS (People 18 years and over)
  Employed full-time 4.8 0.92289 7.2 0.42438 5.2 2.03562
  Employed part-time 6.2 2.27387 11.9 0.62936 11.5 1.34208
  Unemployed 7.5 0.66937 8.7 1.30151 13.9 2.53526
  Not in the labor force 11.1 0.72093 15.2 1.06796 (X) (X)
FAMILY INCOME-TO-POVERTY RATIO
  Less than 1.00 10.5 1.02283 11.4 0.3862 (X) (X)
  1.00 and over 6.8 0.74421 7.2 0.2262 7.1 0.93348
X Not applicable. B Base less than 200,000.
1 Median duration cannot be computed when more than half of the spells are continuing in the last month of data   collection. This situation is especially likely to occur for elderly recipients whose income from other sources is   unlikely to rise over time.)
2 Major means-tested programs include AFDC and General Assistance, SSI, food stamps, Medicaid, and housing   assistance.
3 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
4 Age, educational attainment, and other variables are measured at the time the spells begin, excluding those who   are already on programs at the start of the survey


Contact the Demographic Call Center Staff at 301-763-2422 or 1-866-758-1060 (toll free) or visit ask.census.gov for further information on Program Participation Data.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division
Last Revised: October 31, 2011