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What questions were asked during each census?

To learn more about the data collected during each census, you can view the questionnaires. Measuring America: The Decennial Census From 1790 to 2000 [16.5MB PDF] also contains questionnaire images, instructions to enumerators, and a brief history of each of the censuses.

Portion of the 1860 census schedule
A Portion of the 1860 census schedule asking about name, occupation, value of estate, educational attainment, etc.

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Source: U.S. Census Bureau | Census History Staff | Last Revised: March 28, 2014