Real median household income in the United
States climbed 1.3 percent between 2006 and 2007, reaching $50,233, according
to a report released today by the U.S. Census Bureau. This is the third annual
increase in real median household income.
Meanwhile, the nation’s official poverty
rate in 2007 was 12.5 percent, not statistically different from 2006. There
were 37.3 million people in poverty in 2007, up from 36.5 million in 2006.
The number of people without health insurance coverage declined from 47 million
(15.8 percent) in 2006 to 45.7 million (15.3 percent) in 2007.
These findings are contained in the report
and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2007 [PDF]. The data
were compiled from information collected in the 2008 Current Population Survey
(CPS) Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC).
Also released today were income, poverty and
earnings data from the 2007 American Community Survey (ACS) for all states
and congressional districts, as well as for metropolitan areas, counties,
cities and American Indian/Alaska Native areas of 65,000 population or more.
Current Population Survey
(Primarily the source of national-level statistics)
The 2008 Current Population Survey Annual
Social and Economic Supplement (CPS ASEC) reveals the following results for
Race and Hispanic Origin (Race data refer to people reporting a single race only. Hispanics can be of any race.)
- Real median income (adjusted for inflation) for black and non-Hispanic
white households rose between 2006 and 2007, representing the first measured
real increase in annual household income for each group since 1999.
- Real median household income remained statistically unchanged for Asians
- Among the race groups and Hispanics, black households had the lowest median
income in 2007 ($33,916). This compares to the median of $54,920 for non-Hispanic
white households. Asian households had the highest median income ($66,103).
The median income for Hispanic households was $38,679.
- Between 2006 and 2007, real median household income rose in the Midwest
($50,277) and the South ($46,186), declined in the Northeast ($52,274) and
remained statistically unchanged in the West ($54,138).
- Real median income rose for native-born households for the second year,
up 1.0 percent from 2006, to $50,946. For foreign-born households whose
householder was not a U.S. citizen, income dropped by 7.3 percent to $37,637.
For households maintained by a naturalized U.S. citizen, median income remained
statistically unchanged at $52,092.
- In 2007, the ratio of earnings of women who worked full time, year-round
was 78 percent of that for corresponding men. The real median earnings of
men who worked full time, year-round climbed between 2006 and 2007, from
$43,460 to $45,113. For women, the corresponding increase was from $33,437
to $35,102. These increases in earnings follow three years of annual decline
in real earnings for both men and women.
- Income inequality decreased between 2006 and 2007, as measured by shares
of aggregate household income by quintiles and the Gini index. The share
of aggregate income received by households in the top fifth of the income
distribution declined, while the shares for the third and fourth quintiles
increased. Meanwhile, the Gini index declined from 0.470 to 0.463, moving
closer to 0, which represents perfect income equality (1 represents perfect
- In 2007, the family poverty rate and the number of families in poverty
were 9.8 percent and 7.6 million, respectively, both statistically unchanged
from 2006. Furthermore, the poverty rate and the number in poverty showed
no statistical change between 2006 and 2007 for the different types of families.
Married-couple families had a poverty rate of 4.9 percent (2.8 million),
compared with 28.3 percent (4.1 million) for female-householder, no-husband-present
families and 13.6 percent (696,000) for those with a male householder and
no wife present.
- As defined by the Office of Management and Budget and updated for inflation
using the Consumer Price Index, the weighted average poverty threshold for
a family of four in 2007 was $21,203; for a family of three, $16,530; for
a family of two, $13,540; and for unrelated individuals, $10,590.
Race and Hispanic Origin (Race data refer to people reporting a single race only. Hispanics can be of any race.)
- For Hispanics, 21.5 percent were in poverty in 2007, up from 20.6 percent
in 2006. Poverty rates remained statistically unchanged for non-Hispanic
whites (8.2 percent), blacks (24.5 percent) and Asians (10.2 percent) in
- For people 65 and older and those 18 to 64, the poverty rate remained
statistically unchanged at 9.7 percent and 10.9 percent, respectively. For
children younger than 18, the poverty rate increased from 17.4 percent in
2006 to 18.0 percent in 2007.
- The number of people in poverty increased for seniors 65 and older —
from 3.4 million in 2006 to 3.6 million in 2007. For children younger than
18, the number in poverty climbed as well, from 12.8 million in 2006 to
13.3 million in 2007. For those 18 to 64, however, the number in poverty
remained statistically unchanged, at 20.4 million in 2007.
- Among the native-born population, 11.9 percent, or 31.1 million, were
in poverty in 2007. Both the poverty rate and number in poverty were statistically
unchanged from 2006.
- Among the foreign-born population, the poverty rate and the number in
poverty increased to 16.5 percent and 6.2 million, respectively, in 2007,
from 15.2 percent and 5.7 million, respectively, in 2006. An increase in
poverty for U.S. noncitizens (from 19.0 percent in 2006 to 21.3 percent
in 2007) accounted for the rise in poverty for the foreign-born population
- The number in poverty in the South increased to 15.5 million in 2007,
up from 14.9 million in 2006, while the poverty rate remained statistically
unchanged at 14.2 percent in 2007. In 2007, the poverty rates for the Northeast
(11.4 percent), the Midwest (11.1 percent) and the West (12.0 percent) were
all statistically unchanged from 2006. The poverty rate for the Northeast
was not statistically different from that of the Midwest or West.
Health Insurance Coverage
- The number of uninsured children declined from 8.7 million (11.7 percent)
in 2006 to 8.1 million (11.0 percent) in 2007.
Race and Hispanic Origin (Race data refer to those reporting a single race only. Hispanics can be of any race.)
- Both the number and percentage of uninsured for non-Hispanic whites decreased
in 2007, to 10.4 percent and 20.5 million, respectively. For blacks, the
number of uninsured remained statistically unchanged from 2006, at 7.4 million,
while the percentage declined from 20.5 percent in 2006 to 19.5 percent
in 2007. The uninsured rate for Asians rose from 15.5 percent in 2006 to
16.8 percent in 2007.
- The number and percentage of uninsured Hispanics decreased from 15.3 million
and 34.1 percent in 2006 to 14.8 million and 32.1 percent in 2007.
- Based on a three-year average (2005-2007), 32.1 percent of people who
reported American Indian and Alaska Native as their race were without coverage.
The three-year average uninsured rate for Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific
Islanders was 20.5 percent.
- Between 2006 and 2007, the uninsured rate for the native-born population
declined from 13.2 percent in 2006 to 12.7 percent in 2007. Meanwhile, the
percentage of the foreign-born population without insurance was statistically
unchanged at 33.2 percent in 2007. Among the foreign-born population, the
uninsured rate for naturalized U.S. citizens increased from16.4 percent
in 2006 to 17.6 percent in 2007, while the uninsured rate for U.S. noncitizens
was statistically unchanged from 2006, at 43.8 percent in 2007.
- At 11.4 percent each, the Northeast and the Midwest had lower uninsured
rates in 2007 than the West (16.9 percent) and the South (18.4 percent).
The rates declined from 2006 in every region except for the Midwest, where
the change was not statistically significant.
- Rates for 2005-2007 using a three-year average show that Texas (24.4 percent)
had the highest percentage of uninsured. No one state had the “lowest”
uninsured rate. At 8.3 percent, Massachusetts and Hawaii had the lowest
point estimates for uninsured rates, but they were not statistically different
from Minnesota (8.5 percent), Wisconsin (8.8 percent) and Iowa (9.4 percent).
In addition, Hawaii was not statistically different from Maine (9.5 percent).
- Comparing a pair of two-year average uninsured rates (2004-2005 versus
2006-2007), five states and the District of Columbia saw a decline, while
10 states experienced an increase.
American Community Survey (ACS)
(Provides state, county and city statistics)
- In the 2007 ACS, median household income ranged from $68,080 for Maryland
to $36,338 for Mississippi. (The median income for Mississippi was not significantly
different from that for West Virginia.)
- Median household incomes for 18 states and the District of Columbia were
above the U.S. median in 2007, while 29 states were below it. Three states
had 2007 median household incomes that were not statistically different
from the U.S. median.
- Real median household income rose between the 2006 ACS and the 2007 ACS
for 33 states, while one state (Michigan) experienced a decline.
- For counties with 250,000 or more people, median household income ranged
from $107,207 for Loudoun County, Va., to $29,347 for Cameron County, Texas.
(Median income for Loudoun was not significantly different from that for
Fairfax County, Va. In addition, median income for Cameron was not significantly
different from that for Hidalgo County, Texas.)
- For counties with a population between 65,000 and 249,999 people, median
household income ranged from $100,327 for Hunterdon County, N.J., to $26,275
for St. Landry Parish, La. (Median income in Hunterdon was not significantly
different from that for Calvert County, Md., and Arlington County, Va. In
addition, median income for St. Landry Parish was not significantly different
from that for Apache County, Ariz.)
- For large places (250,000 or more people), Plano, Texas, had the highest
median household income ($84,492), while Detroit had among the lowest ($28,097).
- For smaller places (65,000 to 249,999 people), Pleasanton, Calif., had
among the highest median household income ($113,345), while Youngstown,
Ohio ($24,941) had among the lowest.
- In the 2007 ACS, among states and the District of Columbia, poverty rates
ranged from 7.1 percent for New Hampshire to 20.6 percent for Mississippi.
- In the 2007 ACS, there were 29 states in which poverty rates were lower
than the national average; for 17 states and the District of Columbia, they
- For 12 states and the District of Columbia, poverty rates declined from
the 2006 to the 2007 ACS: Alaska, California, Florida, Hawaii, Kansas, Missouri,
New Hampshire, New York, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Texas and Utah. The only
state where the poverty rate increased was Michigan.
- Among counties with 250,000 or more people in 2007, Cameron and Hidalgo
counties in Texas had higher poverty rates than the others. On the other
hand, Douglas County, Colo., had a lower poverty rate than every other county
in the same size category except for Somerset County, N.J., which at 2.6
percent was not statistically different.
- Among smaller counties — populations between 65,000 and 249,999
? Apache County, Ariz. (33.8 percent), St. Landry Parish, La. (32.8 percent),
Webb County, Texas (31.1 percent) and Robeson County, N.C. (28.7 percent),
while not statistically different from each other, had among the highest
poverty rates in the 2007 ACS. With poverty rates ranging from 3.4 percent
to 4.6 percent, the 10 smaller counties with the lowest rates did not differ
statistically from one another. Among these counties was Stafford County,
Va., where 3.4 percent had income below the poverty level.
- In the 2007 ACS, among large cities (250,000 or more population), Detroit
had the highest poverty rate (33.8 percent). Plano, Texas (5.9 percent),
Virginia Beach, Va. (6.4 percent) and Anchorage, Alaska (7.3 percent), while
not statistically different from each other, had lower poverty rates than
other cities of the same size.
- Among the smaller cities (65,000 to 249,999 population), Bloomington,
Ind. (41.6 percent) had a higher poverty rate point estimate than other
places, although its rate was not statistically different from that of Camden,
N.J.; Brownsville, Texas; and Gainesville, Fla. The poverty rate for Highlands
Ranch, Colo., which was among the lowest (0.8 percent), was not statistically
different from Chino, Calif.; Yorba Linda, Calif.; Folsom, Calif.; Flower
Mound, Texas; Pleasanton, Calif.; and Weston, Fla.
- Connecticut, New Jersey, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Alaska
had median earnings above $50,000 for men who worked full time, year-round
in the 2007 ACS. No state had median earnings for women above $50,000, but
the District of Columbia, Maryland, New Jersey, Massachusetts and Connecticut
had median earnings for women who worked full time, year-round above $40,000.
- For each of the 50 states, women had lower median earnings than men in
the 2007 ACS. The District of Columbia had the highest ratio of women’s-to-men’s
earnings (93.4 percent). In fact, there was no statistically significant
difference between women’s and men’s median earnings in Washington,
Note that estimates from the CPS ASEC may not match the estimates from the ACS because of differences in the questionnaires, data collection methodology, reference period, processing procedures, etc. Both surveys are subject to sampling and nonsampling errors. All comparisons made in the reports have been tested and found to be statistically significant at the 90 percent confidence level, unless otherwise noted.
For additional information on the source of the data and accuracy of the estimates for the CPS, visit <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/p60_235sa.pdf>. For additional information on the ACS data, visit <http://www.census.gov/acs/www/UseData/Accuracy/Accuracy1.htm>.