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Frequently Asked Questions - Disability Employment Tabulation 2008-2010 (3-year ACS data)

  1. Why did the U.S. Census Bureau produce the Disability Employment Tabulation 2008-2010 (3-year ACS data)?
  2. What are the characteristics shown in the Disability Employment Tabulation 2008-2010 (3-year ACS data)?
  3. What geographic levels are available for this tabulation?
  4. How does the Disability Employment Tabulation compare to the EEO Tabulation?
  5. What is the American Community Survey (ACS) 2008-2010 3-year data file?
  6. How can I access the Disability Employment Tabulation 2008-2010 (3-year ACS data)?
  7. How can I download the data from American FactFinder?
  8. What is "residence geography"?
  9. WWhat are “EEO county sets”?
  10. How can I access data by “county set” geography?
  11. What is a core based statistical area (CBSA)?
  12. What is a Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA)?
  13. Were all geographies released at once?
  14. Is Puerto Rico included in the National (United States) geography level tables?
  15. What race and ethnicity (Hispanic origin) categories are included in the Disability Tabulation 2008-2010 (3-year ACS data)?
  16. What is the definition of ethnicity?
  17. What is the definition of citizenship?
  18. What is the definition of earnings?
  19. Are earnings data adjusted for inflation?
  20. Do the occupations on the Disability Employment Tabulation 2008-2010 (3-year ACS data) match the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC)?
  21. How do I get the data for all occupations for a particular geography?
  22. What is the definition of the “unemployed” occupation (Census occupation code 9920)?
  23. Why are there different occupation categories or groupings in the Disability Employment Tabulation?
  24. Do disclosure rules apply to the Disability Employment Tabulation 2008-2010 (3-year ACS data)?
  25. What additional rules apply to this tabulation?
  26. What are the margins of error?
  27. Is the Disability Employment Tabulation 2008-2010 (3-year ACS data) available on CD-ROM or DVD?
  28. Will there be another release of the Disability Employment Tabulation?
  29. Whom may I contact at the Census Bureau if I have general questions or need additional information about the Disability Employment Tabulation 2008-2010 (3-year ACS data)?
  30. Whom may I contact if I have questions or need additional information from the Department of Labor?
  31. Whom may I contact at the Census Bureau if I have questions about the FTP site for the Disability Employment Tabulation 2008-2010 (3-year ACS data)?
  32. Whom may I contact at the Census Bureau if I have other technical questions related to the Disability Employment Tabulation 2008-2010 (3-year ACS data)?

Why did the U.S. Census Bureau produce the Disability Employment Tabulation 2008-2010 (3-year ACS data)?  back to top

The Census Bureau produced this tabulation for two sponsoring Federal agencies: the Department of Labor’s Office of Disability Employment Policy (ODEP) and Office of Federal Contracting Compliance Programs (OFCCP). The Disability Employment Tabulation will be used by the Department of Labor, academic institutions and others as a research tool regarding the status of people with disabilities in the labor force.


What are the characteristics shown in the Disability Employment Tabulation 2008-2010 (3-year ACS data)?  back to top

The tables in the Disability Employment Tabulation 2008-2010 (3-year ACS data) provide data about the labor force and population by disability status, sex, race and ethnicity (Hispanic origin) crosstabulated by employment status and earnings, detailed occupations, EEO Occupational Groups, EEO-1 Job Categories, Federal Sector Job Groups, State and Local Government Job Groups, educational attainment and age.


What geographic levels are available for this tabulation?  back to top

These tables are shown for five geographic summary levels: nation, states, metro/micro areas, EEO county sets, and Public Use Microdata Areas (PUMAs). All together, this tabulation provides estimates for more than 4000 unique geographic entities.


How does the Disability Employment Tabulation compare to the EEO Tabulation?  back to top

The Disability Employment Tabulation provides information by disability status (have a disability or no disability); the EEO Tabulation does not show information by disability status. The Disability Employment Tabulation is based on the 2008-2010 ACS whereas the EEO Tabulation is based on the 2006-2010 ACS.

For geography comparisons, all tables in the Disability Employment Tabulation provide information only at residence geography. In other words, all estimates cover the population living in the geographic entity. The Disability Employment Tabulation differs from the EEO Tabulation in that there are no estimates at worksite geography, which covers where people work, or for home-to-work commuting flows. Also, geographic entities are different from those on the EEO Tabulation. The Disability Employment Tabulation shows estimates for the U.S., states, D.C. and Puerto Rico, metro/micro areas, EEO county sets, and PUMAs. There are no tabulations for “places” or cities in the Disability Employment Tabulation, and there are no tabulations for PUMAs in the EEO Tabulation.

For differences on variables, the Disability Employment Tabulation shows labor force status in in three categories- employed, unemployed and not in the labor force, and does not show detailed information on the unemployed, when the person last worked. Also, race/ethnicity categories for two or more races are not shown separately, age categories show the group 16 to 19 and combine 30 to 39 together, and earnings categories combined $100,000 and above for the total population and the employed, and $15,000 and above for the unemployed and those not in the labor force. The Disability Employment Tabulation does not show the following characteristics: industry, older age groups. Citizenship status is shown only at the national level and not below.


What is the American Community Survey (ACS) 2008-2010 3-year data file?  back to top

The American Community Survey (ACS) produces period estimates of socioeconomic and housing characteristics. It is designed to provide estimates that describe characteristics of an area over a specific time period. In the case of ACS one-year estimates, the period is the calendar year. While a one-year estimate includes information collected continuously nearly every day from independent monthly samples over a 12-month period, a three-year estimate includes statistics collected over a 36-month period. Then we aggregate the results over the specified period of time. For example, the 2008-2010 ACS three-year estimates describe the population and housing characteristics of an area for the period January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2010. They do not describe any specific day, month, or year within that time period. The cumulative sample of the ACS taken over a three-year time period allows measurement of detailed characteristics in local geographies and increases precision of its estimates.


How can I access the Disability Employment Tabulation 2008-2010 (3-year ACS data)?  back to top

The Disability Employment Tabulation 2008-2010 (3-year ACS data) is available through American FactFinder, the Census Bureau’s online statistics search tool. You can access the data here- http://factfinder2.census.gov/bkmk/navigation/1.0/en/d_dataset:EEO_10_3YR , or here http://www.census.gov/people/disabilityemptab/data.


How can I download the data from American FactFinder?  back to top

Currently, data can only be downloaded in comma delimited (.csv) format. The presentation-ready download option will yield incomplete columns. The Census Bureau is aware of this issue and making the needed system updates.

For now, make sure you follow these instructions-

Comma delimited (.csv) format (data rows only)
(.csv is compatible with spreadsheet programs such as Microsoft Excel)
You have to click on this radio button --> Data and annotations in a single file
Data and annotations in separate files
You have to click on this checkbox --> Include descriptive data element names


What is "residence geography"?  back to top

The Disability Employment Tabulation 2008-2010 (3-year ACS data) presents data according to where people lived, regardless of where they worked. These tables include people who were employed at work; employed but not at work, because they were temporarily absent due to illness, bad weather, industrial dispute, vacation, or other personal reasons; and the unemployed, who were actively looking for work in the last four weeks and available to start a job, whose last job was not a military-specific job. Table Set 7 additionally includes people who were not in the labor force.


WWhat are “EEO county sets”?  back to top

EEO County Sets are counties that have been aggregated because one or more of the counties in the county set did not have a residence population of 50,000 or more. The aggregated counties in a county set have a population of 50,000 or more. The counties within each county set are contiguous, and do not cross state lines. EEO County Sets are not delineated for Puerto Rico. County sets are only available for Disability Employment Tabulation tables 2 through 6.


How can I access data by “county set” geography?  back to top

To obtain data by county set geography, you have to go to the Geographies overlay on the left hand side of AFF's Main Page. When you click on it and you get the Select Geographies box, click on the Name tab (the default is List). There are two options to access this geography. Write the name of the county set in the box and it will pop-up, or under the Geography Filter Options you can click on Summary Level. There you will see EEO County Set under 902 (you need to scroll down until almost the end). It says 902 - EEO County Set (1,471). All county sets come up under the Geography results list. These are in alphabetical order by state. You can find both county sets, click on the check box and then hit Add (next to Selected). Selected county sets will show up on the Your Selections box on the top left hand corner of the page. County sets are only available for Disability Employment Tabulation tables 2 through 6.


What is a core based statistical area (CBSA)?  back to top

Standard definitions of metropolitan areas were first issued in 1949 by the then Bureau of the Budget (predecessor of OMB), under the designation "standard metropolitan area" (SMA). The term was changed to "standard metropolitan statistical area" (SMSA) in 1959, and to "metropolitan statistical area" (MSA) in 1983. The term "metropolitan area" (MA) was adopted in 1990 and referred collectively to metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs), consolidated metropolitan statistical areas (CMSAs), and primary metropolitan statistical areas (PMSAs). The term "core based statistical area" (CBSA) became effective in 2000 and refers collectively to metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas.

The 2000 standards provide that each CBSA must contain at least one urban area of 10,000 or more population. Each metropolitan statistical area must have at least one urbanized area of 50,000 or more inhabitants. Each micropolitan statistical area must have at least one urban cluster of at least 10,000 but less than 50,000 population.

Federal agencies that use the statistical area definitions for nonstatistical program purposes should note that the 2000 standards changed the terminology used for classifying the areas. Under the 1980 and 1990 standards there were two types of areas: (1) Metropolitan Statistical Areas and (2) Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas that consisted of Primary Metropolitan Statistical Areas. The terms “Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area” and “Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area” are now obsolete.

For more information, see http://www.census.gov/population/metro/about/ and http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/assets/bulletins/b10-02.pdf [PDF]


What is a Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA)?  back to top

Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) geographies are statistical entities based on Census 2000 geographic area definitions. On the Disability Employment Tabulation 2008-2010, these are the same PUMA definitions used in the ACS 2008-2010 dataset. PUMAs are non-overlapping areas that partition each state into geographic units originally defined as containing no fewer than 100,000 people each. PUMAs are identified by a 5-digit number that is unique within state. The 5-digit PUMA codes are not useful in identifying where in a state a PUMA is located.

For descriptions and maps of the Census 2000 PUMA boundaries, visit: http://www.census.gov/geo/www/maps/descriptwindows/puma5_des.htm
https://www.census.gov/geo/www/maps/puma5pct.htm

Information on the geographic areas (i.e. counties, county subdivisions, places, and census tracts) located within each PUMA is available on the FTP site. First, select the state of interest, then pick the text file PUMEQ5-XX.TXT, where XX is the state's 2-letter abbreviation. For example, when selecting Michigan as the state of interest, the corresponding text file is PUMEQ5-MI.TXT.

For more information on PUMAs in general, see: https://ask.census.gov/faq.php?id=5000&faqId=1673

For information on the vintage of PUMAs associated with the 2008-2010 ACS estimates, see the “2010” tab, “Statistical Areas” sub-tab under: http://www.census.gov/acs/www/data_documentation/geography/


Were all geographies released at once?  back to top

Yes, data for all states, D.C. and Puerto Rico were released at once on March 14, 2013.


Is Puerto Rico included in the National (United States) geography level tables?  back to top

All National level tables for the Disability Employment Tabulation 2008-2010 (3-year ACS data) only include the 50 states and Washington, D.C. Puerto Rico is not included in the data at the National level.


What race and ethnicity (Hispanic origin) categories are included in the Disability Tabulation 2008-2010 (3-year ACS data)?  back to top

In this tabulation, there are a total of 8 race and ethnicity (Hispanic origin) categories. These are as follows- Hispanic or Latino origin-

1. White alone Hispanic or Latino
2. All other Hispanic or Latino

Not Hispanic or Latino, one race-
3. White alone
4. Black or African American alone
5. American Indian and Alaska Native alone
6. Asian alone
7. Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone

8. Balance of not Hispanic or Latino

The U.S. Census Bureau collects race data in accordance with guidelines provided by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB). Except for the total, all race and ethnicity (Hispanic origin) categories are mutually exclusive. "Balance of Not Hispanic or Latino" includes the balance of non-Hispanic individuals who reported two or more races or reported Some Other Race alone. For more information on race and Hispanic origin, see the Subject Definitions at http://www.census.gov/acs/www/data_documentation/documentation_main/.


What is the definition of ethnicity?  back to top

The Census Bureau categorizes ethnicity into two categories: Hispanic or Latino OR not Hispanic or Latino. The data on the Hispanic or Latino population were derived from answers to a question that was asked of all people. The terms "Hispanic," "Latino," and "Spanish" are used interchangeably. Some respondents identify with all three terms while others may identify with only one of these three specific terms. Hispanics or Latinos who identify with the terms "Hispanic," "Latino," or "Spanish" are those who classify themselves in one of the specific Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish categories listed on the questionnaire ("Mexican," "Puerto Rican," or "Cuban") as well as those who indicate that they are "another Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin." People who do not identify with one of the specific origins listed on the questionnaire but indicate that they are "another Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin" are those whose origins are from Spain, the Spanish-speaking countries of Central or South America, or the Dominican Republic. Up to two write-in responses to the "another Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin" category are coded.


What is the definition of citizenship?  back to top

There are two categories of citizenship used in this tabulation: U.S. citizen and Not a U.S. citizen.

U.S. Citizen – Respondents who indicated that they were born in the United States, Puerto Rico, a U.S. Island Area (such as Guam), or abroad of American (U.S. citizen) parent or parents are considered U.S. citizens at birth. Foreign-born people who indicated that they were U.S. citizens through naturalization also are considered U.S. citizens.

Not a U.S. Citizen – Respondents who indicated that they were not U.S. citizens at the time of the survey. We do not collect data on immigration status.


What is the definition of earnings?  back to top

Earnings are defined as the sum of wage or salary income and net income from self-employment. “Earnings” represent the amount of income received for people 16 years old and over before deductions for personal income taxes, Social Security, bond purchases, union dues, Medicare deductions, etc. An individual with earnings is one who has either wage/salary income or self-employment income, or both. Respondents who “break even” in self-employment income and therefore have zero self-employment earnings also are considered “individuals with earnings.”


Are earnings data adjusted for inflation?  back to top

Income components were reported for the 12 months preceding the interview month. Monthly Consumer Price Indices (CPI) factors were used to inflation-adjust these components to a reference calendar year (January through December). For example, households interviewed in March 2010 report their income for March 2009 through February 2010. Their income is adjusted to the 2010 reference calendar year by multiplying their reported income by 2010 average annual CPI (January-December 2010) and then dividing by the average CPI for March 2009 - February 2010.

In order to inflate income amounts from previous years, the dollar values on individual records are inflated to the latest year’s dollar values by multiplying by a factor equal to the average annual CPI-U-RS factor for the current year, divided by the average annual CPI-U-RS factor for the earlier/earliest year.

In the Disability Employment Tabulation 2008-2010 (3-year ACS data), earnings are inflation-adjusted to 2010.


Do the occupations on the Disability Employment Tabulation 2008-2010 (3-year ACS data) match the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC)?  back to top

The occupations in this tabulation are based on the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC), published by the Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget. This classification groups occupations according to the nature of the work performed, and relates these occupations to others of a similar nature. Census occupation codes, based on the 2010 SOC, provide 539 specific occupational categories, for employed people, including military, arranged into 23 major occupational groups. The Census Bureau has adapted the SOC to create the occupation categories used in the American Community Survey (ACS), and shown on the EEO Tabulation 2006-2010 (5-year ACS data). In some cases, the Census categories are groupings of the more detailed SOC categories. As a method of disclosure avoidance, detailed categories are collapsed for occupation. Each category contains at least 10,000 cases nationwide. That is why instead of showing the full set of 539 specific occupations, data were published for 488 detailed occupations.


How do I get the data for all occupations for a particular geography?  back to top

By selecting "Total, all occupations" in the EEO Occupation Codes Overlay (left hand menu) in American FactFinder, which is represented by Code "0000" in that particular geography.


What is the definition of the “unemployed” occupation (Census occupation code 9920)?  back to top

Code 9920 includes people who are 16 years old and over who are unemployed AND (1) have no work experience in the last 5 years; people who have never worked but are looking for work; and (2) people who have worked in the last 5 years but whose last job was in a military-specific occupation (e.g. military officer) and are now looking for work. People who are unemployed and had an occupation in the last five years (e.g. civilian engineer, military civil engineer) are included in the appropriate occupation and are not in the “unemployed” occupation category.

Note that the unemployed as an employment status is broader than the “unemployed” occupation.


Why are there different occupation categories or groupings in the Disability Employment Tabulation?  back to top

We provide a variety of categories to meet the needs of the government, private sector and researchers. Please visit our website to learn more about the available options.


Do disclosure rules apply to the Disability Employment Tabulation 2008-2010 (3-year ACS data)?  back to top

Yes, disclosure rules apply since the Census Bureau must avoid disclosing information about individual respondents of the American Community Survey (ACS). Disclosure avoidance is the process of disguising data to protect confidentiality. A disclosure of data occurs when someone can use published statistical information to identify an individual who provided information under a pledge of confidentiality. Using disclosure avoidance, the Census Bureau modifies or removes all of the characteristics that put confidential information at risk for disclosure. Although it may appear that a table shows information about a specific individual, the Census Bureau has taken steps (such as data swapping) to disguise the original data while making sure the results are useful. Data swapping is designed to protect confidentiality in tables of frequency data (the number or percentage of the population with certain characteristics). Data swapping is done by editing the source data or exchanging records for a sample of cases. A sample of households is selected and matched on a set of selected key variables with households in neighboring geographic areas (geographic areas with a small population) that have similar characteristics (same number of adults, same number of children, etc.). Because the swap often occurs within a geographic area with a small population, there is no effect on the marginal totals for the geographic area with a small population or for totals that include data from multiple geographic areas with small populations. Because of data swapping, users should not assume that tables with cells having a value of one or two reveal information about specific individuals.


What additional rules apply to this tabulation?  back to top

The disclosure rules listed below were approved by the Census Bureau’s Disclosure Review Board (DRB).

  1. All cells in the Disability Employment Tabulation 2008-2010 (3-year ACS data) are rounded. The rounding schematic is:
    • 0 remains 0
    • 1-7 rounds to 4
    • 8 or greater rounds to nearest multiple of 5 (i.e., 864 rounds to 865, 982 rounds to 980)
    • Any number that already ends in 5 or 0 stays as is
    • Any totals or subtotals are constructed before rounding. This assures that universes remain the same from dataset to dataset, and it is recognized that cells in a table will no longer be additive after rounding.
  2. Tables for nation, states, and PUMAs do not require minimum cell counts. For metro/micro areas and EEO County Sets, there must be at least 3 unweighted cases per cell of disability status, race/ethnicity and sex (0s can be shown); for Table Set 7C, there must be at least 3 unweighted cases per cell of disability status and sex (0s can be shown). Complementary cell suppression may also be applied.
  3. Tables showing detailed occupation (EEO Occupation Codes) have a minimum residence population thresholds of 100,000 for metro/micro areas. Tables without detailed occupation have a minimum residence population threshold of 50,000 for metro/micro areas and EEO County Sets.

What are the margins of error?  back to top

A margin of error estimates the magnitude of sampling errors in the American Community Survey (ACS). It is the difference between an estimate and its upper or lower confidence bound. The Census Bureau provides the margin of error at the 90 percent confidence level for each published ACS estimate. At a 90 percent confidence level, the margin of error indicates that there is a 90 percent probability that the estimate and the population value differ by no more than the value of the margin of error. In other words, we can be 90 percent certain that the range established by the margin of error contains the population value. The ACS employs the Successive Differences Replication (SDR) method to produce variance estimates. Because of the use of these replicate weights, the margin of error published for the EEO tabulation may not match an externally computed margin of error without the use of replicate weights. Margins of error are useful in assessing the reliability of estimates and whether differences between estimates are significant. Both the confidence bounds and the standard error can easily be computed from the margin of error. The standard error for an ACS estimate can be obtained by dividing the published margin of error for the estimate by the value 1.645. See Accuracy at- 2008-2010 & 2006-2010 Multiyear Accuracy (US) [PDF]


Is the Disability Employment Tabulation 2008-2010 (3-year ACS data) available on CD-ROM or DVD?  back to top

No, this tabulation is available on American FactFinder and on an FTP site. The FTP site contains ASCII files only. Documentation will be provided to convert these files to SAS by the end of April 2013.


Will there be another release of the Disability Employment Tabulation?  back to top

The sponsors have yet to determine if there will be another tabulation and when it would be released.


Whom may I contact at the Census Bureau if I have general questions or need additional information about the Disability Employment Tabulation 2008-2010 (3-year ACS data)?  back to top

For assistance, please contact the Census Call Center at 1-800-923-8282 (toll free) or visit ask.census.gov for further information.


Whom may I contact if I have questions or need additional information from the Department of Labor?  back to top

Dylan Orr, J.D.
Special Advisor
Office of Disability Employment Policy
Department of Labor
200 Constitution Avenue NW
Washington, DC 20210
(202) 693-7906 (Direct)
(202) 693-7888 (Fax)
orr.dylan@dol.gov


Whom may I contact at the Census Bureau if I have questions about the FTP site for the Disability Employment Tabulation 2008-2010 (3-year ACS data)?  back to top

Data Products Branch
U.S. Census Bureau
Phone: 301-763-6841


Whom may I contact at the Census Bureau if I have other technical questions related to the Disability Employment Tabulation 2008-2010 (3-year ACS data)?  back to top

Industry and Occupation Statistics Branch
U.S. Census Bureau
Phone: 301-763-3239



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Source: U.S. Census Bureau | Disability Employment Tabulation |  Last Revised: 2013-03-14T19:13:15.75-04:00