Census Bureau

RESULTS OF THE 1996 RACE AND ETHNIC TARGETED TEST

Staff in Population Division and
Decennial Statistical Studies Division

U.S. Bureau of the Census
Washington, DC 20233-8800

May 1997

Population Division Working Paper No. 18


This paper reports the general results of research undertaken by Census Bureau Staff. The views expressed are attributable to the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Census Bureau.


Acknowledgments

The analysis of data from the 1996 Race and Ethnic Targeted Test (RAETT) and the writing of this report reflect the combined efforts of several co-authors. These co-authors, most of whom are in the Population Division (POP) or the Decennial Statistical Studies Division (DSSD) at the Census Bureau, are listed alphabetically: Claudette Bennett (POP), Manuel de la Puente (POP), Deborah Griffin (DSSD), Brian Harris-Kojetin (on special assignment from the Bureau of Labor Statistics), Roderick Harrison (POP), Joan Hill (DSSD), John Hilton (DSSD), Theresa Leslie (DSSD), and Edna Paisano (POP).

Campbell Gibson (POP) and Henry Woltman (DSSD) provided overall direction for preparation of the report.

The Decennial Management Division coordinated and directed survey operations, including processing of the questionnaires.

Staff in the Population Division made many contributions to the preparation of the report. In particular, Kymberly DeBarros, Rosalyn Green, Emily Lennon, and Barbara Martin provided computer programming support; and, Mary Blankenship, Rhonda Carney, Deborah Carroll, Linda Chase, Mary Kennedy, Debra Niner, Tonya Prince, John Reed, Paula Vines, and Leigh Zarbough provided professional, statistical, and clerical assistance. Numerous reviewers also contributed: Nancy Gordon, Robert Kominski, John Long, Elizabeth Martin, Nampeo McKenney, Gregory Robinson, Daniel Weinberg, Karen Wheeless, and other Census Bureau staff.


Highlights

Contents

  Page
 
1. Introduction and Research Results ................................................................................. 1-1
  1.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 1-1
  1.2 Overview of Survey Design and Methodology ......................................................... 1-6
    1.2.1 Survey Design ............................................................................................... 1-6
    1.2.2 Survey Methodology ...................................................................................... 1-7
  1.3 Research Results from the Targeted Samples: Options for Reporting More than One Race ....................................................................................................................... 1-8
    1.3.1 Responses to the Questions on Race .............................................................. 1-9
    1.3.2 Illustrative Approaches to Classifying Data on Race ........................................ 1-11
    1.3.3 Effects of the Options for Reporting More than One Race in the Targeted Samples ......................................................................................................... 1-15
  1.4 Research Results from the Targeted Samples: Effects of Placing the Hispanic Origin Question Immediately Before the Race Question ...................................................... 1-17
  1.5 Research Results from the Targeted Samples: Effects of Combining the Questions on Race and Hispanic Origin ........................................................................................ 1-18
  1.6 Research Results from the Targeted Samples: Terminology, Classification, and Formatting .............................................................................................................. 1-22
  1.7 Relationship to Other Research ................................................................................ 1-23
         
2. Background ................................................................................................................... 2-1
  2.1 The Office of Management and Budget's Statistical Policy Directive No. 15 .............. 2-1
  2.2 Issues Addressed in the Race and Ethnic Targeted Test ............................................ 2-2
    2.2.1 Reporting More than One Race ...................................................................... 2-2
    2.2.2 Sequencing the Questions on Race and Hispanic Origin ................................... 2-6
    2.2.3 Combining the Race and Hispanic Origin Questions With Ancestry Asked in a Second Part ................................................................................................... 2-7
    2.2.4 Terminology and Formatting Issues ................................................................. 2-10
         
3. Survey Design and Methodology .................................................................................... 3-1
  3.1 Design of the Survey ................................................................................................ 3-1
    3.1.1 Experimental Design ....................................................................................... 3-1
    3.1.2 Sample Selection ............................................................................................ 3-3
  3.2 Survey Methodology ............................................................................................... 3-4
  3.3 Editing of Race Data ................................................................................................ 3-5
  3.4 Data Analysis Methods ............................................................................................ 3-6
    3.4.1 Statistics Used ................................................................................................ 3-6
    3.4.2 Panel Comparison Methods ............................................................................ 3-6
         
Text Tables
         
Table 1-1. Overview of the Eight Survey Panels (Questionnaires) ..................................... 1-5
Table 1-2. Overview of Mail Return Responses by Panel for the Black Targeted Sample . 1-28
Table 1-3. Overview of Mail Return Responses by Panel for the American Indian Targeted Sample .......................................................................................................... 1-29
Table 1-4. Overview of Mail Return Responses by Panel for the Alaska Native Targeted Sample .......................................................................................................... 1-30
Table 1-5. Overview of Mail Return Responses by Panel for the Asian and Pacific Islander Targeted Sample ............................................................................................ 1-31
Table 1-6. Overview of Mail Return Responses by Panel for the Hispanic Targeted Sample 1-32
Table 1-7. Overview of Mail Return Responses by Panel for the White Ethnic Targeted Sample .......................................................................................................... 1-33
Table 1-8. Reporting by Race in the Asian and Pacific Islander Targeted Sample, for Selected Panels .............................................................................................. 1-34
Table 1-9. Reporting on the Hispanic Origin Question in the Hispanic Targeted Sample, for Selected Panels .............................................................................................. 1-35
Table 1-10. Reporting by Race in the Hispanic Targeted Sample, for Selected Panels ........ 1-35
Table 1-11. Nonresponse Rates to the Race Question by Targeted Sample, for Selected Panels ............................................................................................................ 1-36
Table 1-12. Reporting as American Indian and Alaska Native by Format of the Race Question in the American Indian Targeted Sample, for Selected Panels ........... 1-36
Table 1-13. Reporting as Asian and Pacific Islander by the Order of Categories in the Race Question in the Asian and Pacific Islander Targeted Sample, for Selected Panels 1-37
         
Table 2-1. Issues Included as Test Objectives in 1996 Census Tests ................................ 2-3
Table 2-2. Selected Characteristics of the Asian and Pacific Islander Population ............... 2-14
Table 2-3. Summary of Issues Covered in the RAETT ..................................................... 2-16
         
Table 3-1. Experimental Design ....................................................................................... 3-1
Table 3-2. Race and Hispanic Origin Question Design Features by Panel ......................... 3-2
Table 3-3. Characteristics of the Sampling Frames ........................................................... 3-3
Table 3-4. Mailout Sample Size (Housing Units) by Panel and Targeted Sample .............. 3-4
Table 3-5. Mail Response Rate by Targeted Sample ....................................................... 3-5
         
Appendixes
         
A. Questions in the Race and Ethnic Targeted Test ............................................................. A-1
B. Supplement on Survey Design and Methodology ............................................................ B-1
  B.1 Modifications to the Race and Hispanic Origin Questions ......................................... B-1
  B.2 Sample Selection .................................................................................................... B-1
  B.3 Edits and Recodes .................................................................................................. B-5
C. Description of Detailed Tables ....................................................................................... C-1
  C.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ C-1
    C.1.1 Tables Showing the Reporting of Race and Hispanic Origin for Pairs of Panels C-1
    C.1.2 Tables Showing Details of Reporting More Than One Race for All Panels ...... C-2
    C.1.3 Tables Showing Illustrative Approaches to Racial Classification for Pairs of Panels ........................................................................................................... C-3
    C.1.4 General Information About the Detailed Tables .............................................. C-4
  C.2 List of Titles for Detailed Tables .............................................................................. C-5
    C.2.1 Titles of Tables Showing the Reporting of Race and Hispanic Origin for Pairs of Panels ....................................................................................................... C-5
    C.2.2 Titles of Tables Showing Details of Reporting More than One Race for All Panels ........................................................................................................... C-14
    C.2.3 Titles of Tables Showing Illustrative Approaches to Racial Classification for Pairs of Panels .............................................................................................. C-14
D. Detailed Tables ............................................................................................................. D-1
E. Population Division Working Paper Series ..................................................................... E-1
         
Appendix Text Tables
         
Table B-1. Final Frame Results ......................................................................................... B-3
Table B-2. States Included in Sampling Frames ................................................................. B-4
         
Appendix Figures
         
Figure A-1. Panel A:1990 Census Modified; No Multiracial Category .............................. A-2
Figure A-2. Panel B: Multiracial Category; Hispanic Origin First Sequence ........................ A-3
Figure A-3. Panel C: Multiracial Check One or More Races: Hispanic Origin First Sequence ...................................................................................... A-4
Figure A-4. Panel D: Multiracial Category; Race First Sequence ....................................... A-5
Figure A-5. Panel E: Combined Race, Hispanic Origin, and Ancestry Question; Multiracial Category ......................................................................................... A-6
Figure A-6. Panel F: Combined Race, Hispanic Origin, and Ancestry Question With Mark One or More Boxes .......................................................................... A-7
Figure A-7. Panel G: Multiracial Category; Hispanic Origin First Sequence; Terminology; Alphabetization .................................................................................. A-8
Figure A-8. Mark All that Apply; Hispanic Origin First Sequence ....................................... A-9
Figure B-1. Race and Hispanic Origin Questions from the 1990 Census ............................. B-2

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division and
Decennial Statistical Studies Division

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Last Revised: October 31, 2011 at 10:03:15 PM