Indicators From the SIPP
Kristin E. Smith, Loretta E. Bass, and Jason M. Fields
U.S. Bureau of the Census
Population Division Working Paper No. 24
This poster was originally presented at the Annual Meeting of the
Population Association of America (PAA) Chicago, IL, April 1998.
The views expressed in this paper are solely attributable to the
authors and do not necessarily reflect the position of the United
States Bureau of the Census.
THE CHILD WELL-BEING MODULE OF THE SIPP
The SIPP provides a large, nationally representative sample that
allows linking income recipiency, labor force participation, and
participation in government assistance programs with indicators
of child well-being.
The Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), collected
in the Fall of 1994, provides analysis of child well-being in four
||Early childhood experiences
- ever in child care arrangement
- age at first child care arrangement
- hours in first child care arrangement
||Parent - child interaction
- any TV rules
- parent reads to child (0-5)
- outings with child
||School-age enrichment activities
- participation in sports
- membership in clubs
- takes lessons
||Children's academic experience
- ever changed schools
- ever repeated a grade
- "on-track" academically
The Survey: The SIPP provides the baseline for a longitudinal
analysis of the changes in children's well-being with respect to
the Welfare Reform and Work Responsibility Act of 1996, since
households from the Fall 1994 SIPP are followed in the Survey of
Program Dynamics (SPD).
Tabulations represent percentages of valid cases.
EARLY CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCES
- Families with higher incomes are more likely to have ever used
a child care arrangment on a regular basis.
- 3-5 year old children of parents with a high school diploma or
a higher education level start regular child care at earlier ages.
- 3-5 year olds spend more hours per week in child care if they
are children of single parents who work or of dual earner married
PARENT - CHILD INTERACTION
- 3-5 year olds living above the poverty level are read to more
often by their parents than are children below the poverty level
(at least seven times per week).
- 6-11 year old children are most likely to have TV rules
about the number of hours per day they can watch television.
- Black children are most likely to have television rules.
SCHOOL-AGE ENRICHMENT ACTIVITIES
Enrichment activities in the SIPP include participatino in clubs,
sports, and lessons.
- Children living in poverty are less likely to participate in
clubs, sports, and lessons.
- Those in families with income at 200 percent and above the
poverty level are twice as likely as those in families with income
less than the poverty level to participate in school and
- Children are less likely to participate in clubs, sports, and
lessons when parents have a low opinion of their neighborhood.
CHILDREN'S ACADEMIC EXPERIENCES
- Poor children are more likely to have ever changed schools.
- Children with parents who rent their homes are more likely to
have ever changed schools than children with parents who own their
- Children from the South are most likely to have ever repeated
a grade, compared to children from the North, East, and West.
- Children living in suburban areas are least likely to have
repeated a grade.
Children are "on-track" academically when they are enrolled at or
above the modal grade for their age.
- Among children ages 12-17, those with married, working parents
are most likely to be "on-track."
By: Kristin Smith, Loretta Bass, and Jason Fields
U.S. Bureau of the Census
For further information contact:
Fertility and Family Statistics Branch
FB #3, Room 2353
Washington, DC 20233
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division,
Fertility & Family Statistics Branch branch name
Authors: Kristin E. Smith, Loretta E. Bass, and Jason M. Fields
Last Revised: October 31, 2011 at 10:03:16 PM