Introducing a new way to navigate by topics. Access the latest news, data, publications and more around topics of interest.
Our population statistics cover age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, migration, ancestry, language use, veterans, as well as population estimates and projections.
This section provides information on a range of educational topics, from educational attainment and school enrollment to school districts, costs and financing.
We measure the state of the nations workforce, including employment and unemployment levels, weeks and hours worked, occupations, and commuting.
Our statistics highlight trends in household and family composition, describe characteristics of the residents of housing units, and show how they are related.
Health statistics on insurance coverage, disability, fertility and other health issues are increasingly important in measuring the nation's overall well-being.
We measure the housing and construction industry, track homeownership rates, and produce statistics on the physical and financial characteristics of our homes.
The U.S. Census Bureau is the official source for U.S. export and import statistics and regulations governing the reporting of exports from the U.S.
The U.S. Census Bureau provides data for the Federal, state and local governments as well as voting, redistricting, apportionment and congressional affairs.
Search an alphabetical index of keywords and phrases to access Census Bureau statistics, publications, products, services, data, and data tools.
Geography provides the framework for Census Bureau survey design, sample selection, data collection, tabulation, and dissemination.
Geography is central to the work of the Bureau, providing the framework for survey design, sample selection, data collection, tabulation, and dissemination.
Find resources on how to use geographic data and products with statistical data, educational blog postings, and presentations.
The Geographic Support System Initiative will integrate improved address coverage, spatial feature updates, and enhanced quality assessment and measurement.
Work with interactive mapping tools from across the Census Bureau.
Find geographic data and products such as Shapefiles, KMLs, TIGERweb, boundary files, geographic relationship files, and reference and thematic maps.
Metropolitan and micropolitan areas are geographic entities used by Federal statistical agencies in collecting, tabulating, and publishing Federal statistics.
Find information about specific partnership programs and learn more about our partnerships with other organizations.
Definitions of geographic terms, why geographic areas are defined, and how the Census Bureau defines geographic areas.
We conduct research on geographic topics such as how to define geographic areas and how geography changes over time.
Visit our library of Census Bureau multimedia files. Collection formats include audio, video, mobile apps, images, and publications.
Collection of audio features and sound bites.
The Census Bureau packages data and information into easy-to-understand visuals.
Browse Census Bureau images.
Read briefs and reports from Census Bureau experts.
Watch Census Bureau vignettes, testimonials, and video files.
Read research analyses from Census Bureau experts.
Access data through products and tools including data visualizations, mobile apps, interactive web apps and other software.
Developer portal to access services and documentation for the Census Bureau's APIs.
Explore Census Bureau data on your mobile device with interactive tools.
Find a multitude of DVDs, CDs and publications in print by topic.
These external sites provide more data.
Download extraction tools to help you get the in-depth data you need.
Learn more about our data from this collection of e-tutorials, presentations, webinars and other training materials. Sign up for training sessions.
Explore Census data with interactive visualizations covering a broad range of topics.
Learn how we serve the public as the most reliable source of data about the nation's people and economy.
How we provide the best mix of timeliness, relevancy, quality, and cost for the data we collect.
Our researchers explore innovative ways to conduct surveys, increase respondent participation, reduce costs, and improve accuracy.
Our surveys provide periodic and comprehensive statistics about the nation, critical for government programs, policies, and decisionmaking.
Learn about other opportunities to collaborate with us.
Explore the rich historical background of an organization with roots almost as old as the nation.
Explore prospective positions available at the Census Bureau.
Explore Census programs targeted for particular needs.
Discover the latest in Census Bureau data releases, reports, and events.
The Census Bureau's Director writes on how we measure America's people, places and economy.
Find interesting and quirky statistics regarding national celebrations and major events.
Listen to audio files on fun facts, historical figures, and celebrations of the month.
Find media toolkits, advisories, and all the latest Census news.
See what's coming up in releases and reports.
KEY WORDS: American Indians, Cambodians, Chicago, ethnographic, Indian identity, settlement patterns, inner city neighborhoods, nomadic youth
The primary sources of minority undercount were missed people in missed housing units and inaccurate or incomplete demographic data for "race" or ethnicity. Here the census missed many occupied living quarters, as in other ethnographic evaluations sites in inner-city locations with characteristics similar to this Chicago site: poverty, high vacancy rate, boarded up buildings, high rates of residential mobility and building conversions (either abandonment or gentrification). "It is reasonable,then, to suggest that enumerators and outreach personnel in the next census be prepared to focus on the problem of identifying and enumerating all housing units.. (prior to) enumerating ". They need to be aware of the incongruity between housing units and mailboxes. They need to learn to expect the unexpected in terms of building plan and to be very careful about locating housing units within buildings. They need to be aware of the potential for unusual residences such as cars and of the likelihood of squatters in apparently abandoned buildings. It is important that enumerators not rely on administrative records in such neighborhoods as change is so rapid and building managers usually so distant that the records tend not to reflect reality."
Some American Indians enumerated were not identified in the census as American Indians. Straus notes "American Indian people are most likely to identify clearly as Indian in the context of interaction with another Indian. Because of the non-localized nature of the Chicago Indian community, Indian people are frequently not recognized by their neighbors as such and may not be concerned with asserting their Indian identity. A non-Indian enumerator, then, working from appearance or from a neighbor's testimony might well misjudge the racial classification of Indian people. A special and interesting issue relating to the undercount of American Indians is the nature of Indian communities in Chicago, other Indian communities and on reservations around the country. Indian communities are not localized in the manner which might be expected... Indian people live widely scattered through the city and (especially southern) suburbs and nowhere in concentration significantly greater than that found in the ethnographic site. Concentrations of 20% American Indian population on a single city block simply do not occur in Chicago. The Indian community here has a center but no external boundaries... The mobility and ambiguous or unconventional residence of young, single Indian men makes them the most likely individuals to be missed by the census. When this area was originally selected, young Indian men were living in a boarded up building and in cars in the back alley: these squatters were gone before the enumeration began. The mobility and indefinite residence of young Indian men is a cultural pattern with some historical precedent and one which certainly is relevant to the undercount of American Indian people in cities as well as on reservations. They are not "homeless" -- they are nomadic and thus very difficult to count.
Citation: Straus 1991, Ethnographic Evaluation of the 1990 Decennial Census Report # 2. Final Report, Joint Statistical Agreement 89-37 with Native American Educational Services College at Chicago, Illinois. Leslie A. Brownrigg (Technical Representative)