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As in all recent censuses, the U.S. Census Bureau used statistical methods in the 2000 Census to account for missing or contradictory information concerning the number of people living in some identified housing units. These statistically corrected counts were used for Congressional apportionment and redistricting. In 2002, the Supreme Court ruled that this limited use of statistics was both lawful and constitutional. This paper provides a context for that decision by tracing the evolution of statistical methods in the U.S. Census, and the accompanying litigation. It then summarizes the statistical and legal arguments and issues raised in Utah v. Evans.">