Research Reports

You are here: Census.govSubjects A to ZResearch Reports Sorted by Year › Abstract of RRS 2010/03
Skip top of page navigation

Simultaneous Calibration and Nonresponse Adjustment

Eric V. Slud and Yves Thibaudeau



Single and joint inclusion probabilities are generally available and known for complex survey designs up to the point where survey weights are modified due to nonresponse and population controls. Best practice by sophisticated survey practitioners generally includes weight modifications, first by calibration, ratio adjustment or raking to correct for nonresponse, next by further steps to impose population survey controls; and also, often, by final steps involving weight truncation or cell-collapsing to constrain the modified weights, usually so that the largest and smallest weights do not differ by more than a designated multiplicative factor. These adjustments are sometimes made in successive stages, the order of which may differ from one survey to another. In this article, generalized-raking calibration methodology is adapted to allow all of these adjustments, and possibly additional nonlinear constraints, to be accomplished in a single stage, after which linearization-based large-sample variance formulas are available.


Consistency, inclusion probabilities, Lagrange multipliers, linearized variance, objective function, population controls, weight adjustment.


Slud, Eric V. and Yves Thibaudeau. (2010). Simultaneous Calibration and Nonresponse Adjustment. Statistical Research Division Research Report Series (Statistics #2010/03). U.S. Census Bureau. Available online at <>.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Research Division

Published online: February 22, 2010
Last revised: February 2, 2010


[PDF] or PDF denotes a file in Adobe’s Portable Document Format. To view the file, you will need the Adobe® Reader® Off Site available free from Adobe.

This symbol Off Site indicates a link to a non-government web site. Our linking to these sites does not constitute an endorsement of any products, services or the information found on them. Once you link to another site you are subject to the policies of the new site.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau | Statistical Research Division | (301) 763-3215 (or |   Last Revised: October 08, 2010