U.S. Census Bureau

Decennial Management Division Glossary


Abbreviations and Acronyms

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Glossary
Item Abbreviation/
Acronym
Definition
2010 Census Program for Evaluations and Experiments CPEX The 2010 CPEX will involve evaluations, experiments, and operational assessments that ultimately will evaluate the 2010 Census and inform planning for post-census testing and research.
'90 Plus Five   A Census 2000 public relations program and a component of the How America Knows What America Needs campaign that challenged governors, mayors, tribal leaders, and other officials to increase their communities' initial mail response rates by at least five percentage points over their 1990 response rates. See initial mail response rate.
A Streamlined Acquisition Process ASAP The process the Census Bureau uses to acquire services. There are six phases: 1) Bureau-integrated strategic plan and budget, 2) project plan, 3) market research, 4) selection of acquisition vehicle, 5) meeting of project objective and managing of acquisition, and 6) close-out.
Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation A.C.E. A coverage measurement method used to estimate the number of people and housing units missed or erroneously included in Census 2000. The A.C.E. is a nationwide sample survey conducted by the Census Bureau independent of the census.
Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation 2000 A.C.E. 2000 The automated system for assignment, control, and tracking of all A.C.E. field operations, including both paper (paper assisted personal interview) and automated (computer assisted telephone interview).
Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation Regional Office ACERO A separate office in each regional office, created to conduct the Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation.
ACS Coverage Program ACS-CP Alternative terminology for the Community Address Updating System, which was originally part of the American Community Survey (ACS), but is now part of the post-2000 enhancement of the Master Address File and TIGER® database. See Community Address Updating System.
active entity   A governmental unit that has officials who carry out legally prescribed functions, provide services, and/or raise revenues. The Census Bureau differentiates active entities by their fiscal independence and whether they provide general or limited, special services. See functional status, functioning entity, governmental unit, inactive entity, nonfunctioning entity.
add   A housing unit whose address was not on the Census Bureau's initial Decennial Master Address File, and that was retained in the final decennial census inventory. Adds can be found during block canvassing, address listing, Local Update of Census Addresses operations, update/leave, urban update/leave, update/enumerate, list/enumerate, Nonresponse Followup, and Coverage Improvement Followup field operations, as well as from the Be Counted and Telephone Questionnaire Assistance operations.
address   The house number and street or road name or other designation assigned to a housing unit, special place, business establishment, or other structure for purposes of mail delivery and/or to enable emergency services, delivery people, and visitors to find the structure. See basic street address, city-style address, E-911 address, fire number, house-number-and-street name address, location description, mailing address, and noncity-style address.
address binder AB A special version of an address register used for some Census 2000 field operations. The binder contained address register listing pages that were preprinted with addresses and related information acquired by previous census operations.
address break   The city-style address on each side of a boundary or at an intersection of a street with another feature; for example, 1234 Main Street is inside an incorporated place and 1236 is outside the place. See address range.
Address Coding Guide ACG A forerunner of the Geographic Base File/Dual Independent Map Encoding File and the TIGER® database. Used for the 1970 census.
Address Control File ACF The residential address list used by the Census Bureau to label questionnaires, control the mail response check-in operation, and determine the Nonresponse Followup workload for the 1990 census. See Master Address File.
Address List Map Review ALMR A January 1998 program that asked local and tribal government officials to review Census Bureau maps to identify incorrect and missing map features and names so that the Census Bureau could update the TIGER® database in time for the address listing operation. They also were asked to record address ranges for any street segments that used city-style mailing addresses and to identify city-style address breaks for streets and roads that intersected the legal boundary.
Address List Review   See Local Update of Census Addresses.
address listing AL A Census 2000 field operation to develop the address list in areas with predominantly noncity-style mailing addresses. A lister entered, in an address register, the address and/or a physical/location description for each living quarters within a specified area. The lister marked the location of each residential structure on a block map by drawing a map spot and assigning a map spot number. The lister also updated and corrected the map if necessary. Called "prelist" for the 1990 census.
address listing page   An individual page in an address register, with either no entries or preprinted addresses and related information.
address range   The lowest and highest address numbers used to identify structures along each side of a street segment that has city-style addresses. The Census Bureau usually expands the range to include all possible numbers, not just the existing ones (for example, the Census Bureau may expand the actual addresses of 105, 111, 123, and 131 on the odd-numbered side of a street to 101-199). Usually, an address range on one side of a street contains only even or only odd numbers, but sometimes it contains both. See address break, Automated Address Range Program.
address register AR A book used by field staff to record or verify addresses and related information for all living quarters in an assignment area. It also includes instructions on how to perform the job and a set of maps for the assignment area. See address binder.
address register area ARA A term used for the 1990 census. Called an assignment area for Census 2000, and enumeration district for preceding decennial censuses.
Address System Information Survey ASIS A Census Bureau survey, conducted by telephone in 1993 and 1996, to determine the type of mailing addresses used in a county or, in New England, an incorporated place or minor civil division. It applied to geographic entities that, according to the Census Bureau's records, used city-style addresses for fewer than 95 percent of their residential mailing addresses, or that previously reported that part of the entity was served by noncity-style mailing addresses. The purpose of the ASIS was to determine the most effective method of enumerating each geographic entity for Census 2000.
Administrative and Customer Services Division ACSD Census Bureau. Offers administrative services to internal customers. It prepares publications, such as the Statistical Abstract of the United States, and provides external customers with links to American FactFinder.
Advance Census Report ACR An unaddressed short-form questionnaire delivered by U.S. Postal Service letter carriers in advance of the actual enumeration in list/enumerate areas. Enumerators picked up completed ACRs, checked them for completeness and consistency, transferred the responses to standard census questionnaires, and completed any missing information or entire questionnaires if necessary. These were used for the 1990 census, but only in the Island Areas for Census 2000.
advance letter   The Census Bureau sent an advance letter to alert households that the census questionnaire would be sent or delivered to them soon (for every area except list/enumerate and update/enumerate areas). The advance letter enabled households to request a questionnaire in certain languages. See reminder card.
Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act ANCSA Legislation (Public Law 92-203, as amended) enacted in 1972 establishing Alaska Native Regional Corporations and Alaska Native villages to conduct business and nonprofit activities by and for Alaska Natives.
Alaska Native Regional Corporation ANRC A corporate entity established to conduct both business and nonprofit affairs of Alaska Natives, pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act.
Alaska Native village ANV A local governmental unit in Alaska that constitutes an association, band, clan, community, group, tribe, or village, recognized pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. ANVs do not have clearly defined boundaries. See Alaska Native village statistical area, governmental unit, and legal entity.
Alaska Native village statistical area ANVSA A statistical entity that represents the settled portion of an Alaska Native village for data presentation purposes.
American Community Survey ACS A monthly sample household survey conducted by the Census Bureau to obtain information similar to the long-form census questionnaire. It was first tested in 1995, and is expected to replace the long form for the 2010 Census. Beginning in 2004, the nationwide survey will provide annual data for social and economic characteristics for many geographic entities and population groups. In 2004, they must have a minimum population of 65,000; in 2006, 20,000; and in 2008, there will be no population limit, and the data also will be available for census tracts and perhaps block groups. See ACS Coverage Program.
American FactFinder AFF An electronic system for access and dissemination of Census Bureau data on the Internet. The system offers prepackaged data products and the ability to build user-selected tables and maps. The system serves as the vehicle for accessing and disseminating data from Census 2000 (as well as the 1990 census, the 1997 Economic Census, and the American Community Survey). The system was formerly known as the Data Access and Dissemination System (DADS).
American Indian/Alaska Native area AIANA A Census Bureau term that refers to these entity types: American Indian reservation, American Indian off-reservation trust land, Oklahoma tribal statistical area, joint use area, American Indian tribal subdivision, tribal designated statistical area, state designated American Indian statistical area, Alaska Native Regional Corporation, Alaska Native village, Alaska Native village statistical area.
American Indian area   A Census Bureau term that refers to any or all of the following entities: American Indian reservation, American Indian off-reservation trust land, Oklahoma tribal statistical area, joint use area, American Indian tribal subdivision, tribal designated statistical area, state designated American Indian statistical area.
American Indian area/Alaska Native area/Hawaiian home land AIANHH An all-encompassing Census Bureau term referring to American Indian entities, Alaska Native entities, and Hawaiian home lands. See American Indian/Alaska Native area, Hawaiian home land.
American Indian off-reservation trust land   The United States holds title for specific areas in trust for the benefit of federally recognized American Indian tribes (tribal trust land) or for individual American Indians (individual trust land). Although trust land may be located on or off a reservation, the Census Bureau recognizes and tabulates data only for off-reservation trust land. Census data always associate off-reservation trust land with a specific federally recognized reservation or tribal government. See American Indian trust land.
American Indian reservation   A federal American Indian reservation is an area that has been set aside by the United States for the use of one or more federally recognized American Indian tribes. It covers territory over which a tribe(s) has primary governmental authority. Its boundary is defined by tribal treaty, agreement, executive or secretarial order, federal statute, or judicial determination. A state American Indian reservation is an area that a state government has allocated to a tribe recognized by that state, but not by the federal government. See American Indian area, American Indian off-reservation trust land, joint use area.
American Indian tribal subdivision   A legal subdivision of a federally-recognized American Indian reservation, off-reservation trust land, or Oklahoma tribal statistical area. These entities are internal units of self-government or administration that serve social, cultural, and/or economic purposes for American Indians.
American Indian trust land TL Area for which the United States holds title in trust for the benefit of a federally recognized American Indian tribe (tribal trust land) or for an individual American Indian (individual trust land). Although trust land may be located on or off a reservation, the Census Bureau recognizes and tabulates data only for off-reservation trust land. See American Indian off-reservation trust land, Hawaiian home land.
ASCII   American Standard Code for Information Interchange. The most common format for text files in computers and on the Internet. Computers "read" ASCII codes, each of which can be represented by a 7-digit binary number from 0000000 through 111111, and produce them as letters, numbers or symbols; 128 possible characters are defined. ASCII was developed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI).
apportionment   There are two definitions for this term: The process of dividing the 435 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives among the 50 states based on the decennial census. See reapportionment, redistricting. A distribution by the Office of Management and Budget of funds available for obligation in appropriation or fund accounts of the Executive Branch. The distribution makes funds available on the basis of time periods (usually quarterly), programs, activities, projects, objects, or combinations thereof. The apportionment system is intended to achieve an effective and orderly use of federal funds. See appropriation, authorization, and continuing resolution.
apportionment calculation   The mathematical calculation to determine congressional representation by each state following a decennial census. The apportionment calculation uses the method of equal proportions. The calculation is based on the total resident population (citizens and noncitizens) of the 50 states. For some censuses, including Census 2000, the population includes U.S. Armed Forces personnel and federal civilian employees stationed outside the United States (and their dependents living with them) who can be allocated to a home state. The populations of the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and Island Areas are not included in the calculation.
apportionment counts   The first data product from the decennial census is the apportionment population for each state and the number of representatives each state is entitled to based on the apportionment calculation.
appropriation   An act of Congress that allows federal agencies to incur obligations and make payments from the U.S. Treasury for specified purposes. An appropriation is the most common means of providing budget authority, and usually follows the passage of an authorized bill. See apportionment, authorization, and continuing resolution.
assignment area AA A small geographic area, usually a block or group of blocks, established by the Census Bureau as a basic unit for data collection by a single enumerator, lister, or other field staff. AAs may be combined into field assignments for some operations. Formerly called an address register area (1990 census) and an enumeration district (earlier censuses). See assignment area map, collection geography, field assignment.
assignment area locator map AA locator map See locator map.
assignment area map AA map A map that shows the area assigned to a member of the field staff for a specific census operation. The map displays the individual roads, streets, and nonstreet features (and their names, if any); selected legal boundaries; and, if appropriate, the city-style address ranges of the roads and streets and the census collection block numbers within and adjacent to the AA. See assignment area, block map, and locator map.
assignment control   For selected field operations, this operation required clerks to check the accuracy and completeness of work returned from the field to the local census office, and to route materials to appropriate staff.
assignment preparation   The coordination, preparation, and assembly of all materials by assignment area (AA), including maps, address registers, and questionnaires. This operation was performed by the regional census centers for address listing and block canvassing and by the local census offices (LCOs) for other field operations. Map pouch labels and large or color maps were printed in the regional census centers; AA maps, block maps, and other 11"x17" maps were printed in the LCOs.
Assistant to the Associate Director AAD Census Bureau. The AAD for the Decennial Census reports to the Associate Director for the Decennial Census. The AAD is responsible for the Decennial Management Division, Decennial Statistical Studies Division, Geography Division, and Decennial Systems and Contract Management Office.
Associate Director AD Census Bureau. The AD for the Decennial Census reports to the Principal Associate Director for Programs. The AD directs, and is the spokesperson for, the decennial census of population and housing and the geographic support program that is the foundation for that census and most other economic and demographic programs of the Census Bureau.
Asynchronous Transfer Mode ATM A process that increases the amount of information that can be electronically transferred at one time between sites.
authorization   An act of Congress that establishes or continues a federal program or agency either for a specified period of time or indefinitely, specifies its general goals and conduct, and usually sets a ceiling on the amount of budget authority that can be provided in an annual appropriation. An authorization for an agency or program usually is required before an appropriation for that same agency or program can be passed. See appropriation, apportionment, and continuing resolution.
Automated Address Range Program AARP A program for achieving a consistent address/block number relationship between field-verified city-style addresses in the Master Address File and the address ranges in the TIGER® database. The AARP expanded address ranges to include all possible addresses on each side of a street segment.
automated data processing ADP The data processing operations performed by a system of electronic or electrical machines.
Automated Listing and Mapping Instrument ALMI A post-census 2000 system of files and software used by the Census Bureau to enable regional office field staff to update the address information in the Master Address File (MAF) and the street, address location, and related information in the TIGER® database for an area. The field staff use laptop computers to view address and map information derived from the TIGER® database and the MAF, and to record updates and corrections to those files. (There will be separate versions of the ALMI for use by staff at headquarters and in the regional offices.) As of spring 2002, the ALMI has three assignment types:

• "Update block," for which staff are assigned specified blocks to canvass in order to find and record addresses not in the MAF, correct and unduplicate information for the addresses recorded in the MAF, record or correct the approximate location of each address, and update and correct street/road information.

• "Locate address," for which staff are assigned specific addresses recorded in the MAF. Using the ALMI, they can display a map for a specific block, nearby blocks, and, if necessary, an overview or "locator" map of a county, census tract, governmental unit, etc., in an effort to try to find each address on the ground. They record in the ALMI the approximate location of each address that they find, identify addresses currently in the MAF that do not seem to exist or that duplicate another recorded address, and update and correct the address records and street/road information.

• "Find growth," for which staff are assigned an area suspected to contain new residential development. If they find new housing, they identify the census tract(s) and block(s), which will comprise a future "update block" assignment(s).

The primary intercensal users of the ALMI are the American Community Survey, other Census Bureau surveys, and the Local Update of Census Addresses Field Verification operation. The ALMI also may be used for incorporating into the MAF and the TIGER® database the updated information developed from other field operations, such as special censuses. See Group Quarters Automated Instrument for Listing.
Automated Master Address File Geocoding Office Resolution AMAFGOR A computer match that attempts to geocode city-style addresses in the Master Address File after street features, names, address ranges, and ZIP Code information have been inserted into the TIGER® database using digital files from a governmental or commercial source. See digital exchange file, Master Address File Geocoding Office Resolution.
bar code   A code consisting of a group of printed and patterned bars designed to be scanned and read into computer memory.
barrio   A minor civil division in Puerto Rico. See barrio-pueblo, county subdivision, legal entity, minor civil division, and subbarrio.
barrio-pueblo   A minor civil division in Puerto Rico. The barrio-pueblo is differentiated from other barrios because it is the historical center and seat of government of its municipio. See barrio, county subdivision, legal entity, minor civil division, and subbarrio. Note: The plural is barrios-pueblo.
basic street address BSA The house number and street or road name portion of an address, such as 11 Main Street. The BSA does not include designations for apartments, units, lots, etc. However, when the address for a specific structure is identified by a number followed by a fraction or letter, such as 11½ or 11A, the fraction or letter is part of the BSA. See address, city-style address, house-number-and-street-name-address, and mailing address.
Be Counted enumeration and Be Counted questionnaire BC The Be Counted program provided a means for people who believed they were not counted to be included in Census 2000. The Census Bureau placed unaddressed census questionnaires (Be Counted questionnaires) at selected sites that were easily accessible to and frequented by large numbers of people. The questionnaires also were distributed by the Questionnaire Assistance Centers and in response to requests received through Telephone Questionnaire Assistance.
Be Counted/ Telephone Questionnaire Assistance Field Verification BC/TQA FV An operation that verified the existence and residential status of addresses given to the Census Bureau by the Be Counted and Telephone Questionnaire Assistance programs. A verified address was added to the Master Address File and, if appropriate, its map-spotted location was added to the TIGER® database.
Because You Count   A census public relations program, and a component of the How America Knows What America Needs campaign, that encouraged people to cooperate with census takers in communities where the census was conducted in person only. It also encouraged those who did not complete and mail their census forms to work with census takers during the Nonresponse Followup operation.
best and final offer BAFO The final and best technical and price solution a vendor provides for a request for proposal in response to a request from a government contracting officer.
beta site   Located at Census Bureau headquarters, the beta site is an independent operation to test and assure the quality, completeness, and security of software systems, hardware systems, and network systems before their release to a production environment.
beta testing   Tests that ensure that hardware, software, and communication components are functioning properly before their release to the various decennial operating units.
blank return   A questionnaire returned with little or no information. Such a questionnaire did not qualify for check-in for Census 2000.
blanket mailing   The mailing of letters, questionnaires, or other forms to all addresses and/or all post office boxes in an area.
block   See census block.
block boundary   The features, both visible (street, road, stream, shoreline, and so forth) and invisible (county line, city limit, property line, and so forth), that delimit a census block. A boundary generally must include at least one addressable feature; that is, usually a street or road. The boundary of every legal and statistical entity recognized in the Census Bureau's standard data tabulations is a tabulation block boundary. See census block, collection block, and tabulation block.
Block Boundary Definition Project BBDP A program like the Block Boundary Suggestion Project. It applied only to Puerto Rico.
Block Boundary Suggestion Project BBSP The first phase of the Census Bureau's Public Law 94-171 program–the Redistricting Data Program–that provided an opportunity for state officials to identify map features that they wanted the Bureau to recognize as block boundaries for the decennial census. They also could identify 1) features they did not want held as block boundaries; 2) features they wanted held as block boundaries on a contingency basis, such as the imaginary extension of a street to a city limit if that legal boundary did not change by January 1 of the census year; and 3) the legal location of the boundaries of state legislative districts. See Block Boundary Definition Project, Block Definition Project, Redistricting Data Program.
block canvassing   A Census 2000 field operation to ensure the currency and completeness of the Master Address File within the mailout/mailback area. Listers traveled in their assignment areas to collect and verify information to ensure that their address listing pages (derived from the Master Address File) contained a mailing address for every living quarters. They especially looked for hidden housing units (such as attics, basements, or garages converted into housing units) and houses that appeared to be one unit but actually contained multiple housing units. They also updated and corrected their Census Bureau maps. Formerly called precanvass, Targeted Canvassing, and Targeted Multi-Unit Check. See blue line and canvass.
block cluster   A single block or a group of blocks, varying in size depending on the requirements of each census operation or survey.
Block Definition Project BDP A program like the Block Boundary Suggestion Project. It applied only to federally recognized American Indian reservations, off-reservation trust land, 1990 census tribal jurisdiction statistical areas, and the District of Columbia.
block group   A statistical subdivision of a census tract. A BG consists of all tabulation blocks whose numbers begin with the same digit in a census tract; for example, for Census 2000, BG 3 within a census tract includes all blocks numbered between 3000 and 3999. The block group is the lowest-level geographic entity for which the Census Bureau tabulates sample data from the decennial census. See tribal block group.
block locator map   A Census Bureau map that displays a census block and a substantial amount of surrounding area, to help users, such as field staff, identify where the block is located and determine an efficient route of travel to the block. See locator map.
block map   A large-scale map of a single census collection block, showing roads, streets, and other features, together with their names (if any) within and adjacent to the block. Field staff use block maps to guide them in their canvass of each block, to annotate map changes, and, in some areas, to mark (map spot) and number the location of each residential structure. See assignment area map, block locator map, block number, collection block, and map spot.
block number   A number assigned to each census block.

• For collecting information for Census 2000, each census block was identified uniquely within a county (or statistically equivalent entity) by a 4- or 5-digit number. All the collection blocks in a county used the same number of digits. As a result of changes to the TIGER® database after the Census Bureau had numbered the blocks in preparation for the Census 2000 field operations, the number could have an alphabetic suffix, to represent one portion of a physical block that was split by an added street or road or by the addition or change of the boundary of a county, American Indian reservation, off-reservation trust land, or military installation; for example, if an added street bisected Block 1005, the block was split into Blocks 1005A and 1005B to represent the portion of the orignal collection block on each side of that street.

• For tabulating data for Census 2000, each census block was identified uniquely within a census tract by a 4-digit number. A 1990 census block number had three digits, with a potential alphabetic suffix. The first digit identifies the block group in which the census block is located.

See block group, census block, collection block, and tablulation block.
block numbering area BNA Prior to Census 2000, a statistical subdivision of a county or statistically equivalent entity, delineated by a state government agency or Census Bureau regional census center for the purpose of grouping and numbering census blocks in counties (and statistically equivalent entities) that did not have census tracts. BNAs were discontinued for Census 2000; they were replaced by census tracts in every county and statistically equivalent entity.
blue line   A boundary that defined the extent of the area covered by the block canvassing operation, and later was included in the mailout/mailback and urban update/leave enumerations. Most mailing addresses inside the blue line use a house number and street name.
boarded up   A housing condition in which the doors or windows of a building have been covered to prevent destruction or entry.
borough   A legal entity in Alaska that the Census Bureau treats as statistically equivalent to a county; a minor civil division in each of the five counties that comprise New York city; a type of incorporated place in Connecticut, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. See governmental unit.
boundary   A line that identifies the extent or limit of a geographic entity, such as a census block, census tract, county, or place. The legal boundaries the Census Bureau recognizes for a census are those in effect on January 1 of the census year. See block boundary.
Boundary and Annexation Survey BAS A survey of all counties and statistically equivalent entities, all or selected incorporated places and minor civil divisions, all or selected federally recognized American Indian reservations and off-reservation trust land, and Alaska Native Regional Corporations, to determine the location of legal limits and related information as of January 1 of the survey year. See Consolidated Boundary and Annexation Survey.
boundary change   The establishment, relocation, or deletion of a boundary. For legal entities, boundary changes are reported to the Census Bureau in a state, local, or tribal government's response to a Boundary and Annexation Survey, through a periodic or occasional survey to collect boundary information for a specific set of geographic entities, as an adjunct to obtaining other information about an area (such as updated street pattern or address information), or by some other reliable source. For statistical entities, boundary changes are provided in preparation for a specific census in response to the Census Bureau's Participant Statistical Areas Program or some other specific boundary collection program. The boundaries of legal entities are changed due to legal actions, whereas statistical entities may be changed by appropriate reviewers to reflect population growth or decline, or because of revisions either to visible or legal features used as boundaries or to Census Bureau procedures. A boundary change also can occur due to an error in recording a boundary for one census or survey, and showing it correctly for the next.
Boundary Validation Program BVP A Census Bureau followup to the Census 2000 Boundary and Annexation Survey that enabled local and tribal government officials to review and correct (but not update beyond January 1) the January 1, 2000 legal boundaries, and to add and correct city-style addresses at the point where streets and roads intersected the legal boundary. The Census Bureau conducted this program from June through August 2000.
building   See structure.
Bureau of Economic Analysis BEA Department of Commerce. Provides data on United States economy by preparing, developing, and interpreting national income and product accounts (summarized by the gross domestic product) as well as aggregate measures of international, regional, and state economic activity.
Bureau of Indian Affairs BIA Department of the Interior. Responsible for the administration of federal programs for federally recognized American Indian tribes and for promoting American Indian self-determination.
Bureau of Labor Statistics BLS Department of Labor. The principal fact-finding agency for the federal government in the broad field of labor economics and statistics.
Bureau of the Census BOC Department of Commerce. The country's preeminent statistical collection and dissemination agency. It publishes a wide variety of statistical data about people, housing, and the economy of the nation. The Census Bureau conducts approximately 200 annual surveys and conducts the decennial census of the United States population and housing and the quinquennial economic census and census of governments.
callback   One or more telephone calls and/or visits that an enumerator makes to a living quarters to obtain information.
callback record page   A page in an address register used to record information about each callback.
canvass   To systematically travel, block by block, every street, road, path, and the like in an assignment area to find and record information about every place where people live, stay, or could live and to update and correct the map of the assigned area.
casing check   See Postal Validation Check.
census   A complete enumeration of a population or the business and commercial establishments, factories, farms, or governments in an area. See decennial census.
Census 2000   The 22nd decennial census, taken as of April 1, 2000, for the United States, Puerto Rico, and several island areas under U.S. jurisdiction. Officially called the 2000 Census of Population and Housing. See decennial census.
Census 2000 Committee on Statistical Policy CCSP A committee composed of policy makers and technicians who provide external review and advice. The group reviews policy matters that affect decisions about statistical methods to be used by the Census Bureau.
Census 2000 library   A depository of key Census 2000 documents, using an electronic document tracking system. See Decennial Document Management System and Personal Computer Document Organization and Control System.
Census 2000 Publicity Office C2PO Census Bureau. Develops, implements, and coordinates an integrated marketing program for Census 2000, including paid advertising, direct mail, public relations, partnerships, and local outreach.
Census 2000 Road Tour   A marketing program in which recreational vehicles staffed by Census Bureau employees and contractors toured the nation to promote Census 2000.
Census 2000 Testing, Experimentation, and Evaluation Program TXE As part of each decennial census since 1950, the Census Bureau incorporated a testing, evaluation, and experimental program to evaluate the current census and to facilitate planning for the next decennial census - two important activities that strongly support the Census Bureau’s strategic plan. The objective of the Census 2000 Testing, Experimentation, and Evaluation (TXE) Program was to evaluate Census 2000 and to help guide planning for the 2010 Census. The Census 2000 TXE Program included tests, experiments, and evaluations that were conducted during Census 2000. For program results, go to: https://www.census.gov/pred/www/.
Census Address List Improvement Act of 1994   See Public Law 103-430.
Census Advisory Committee CAC The committee's official name is the Commerce Secretary's 2000 Census Advisory Committee. The committee is approved by the Secretary of Commerce and composed of members of the public. It meets two or more times a year to give advice to the Census Bureau.
census area   A statistical entity that serves as the equivalent of a county in Alaska. Census areas are delineated cooperatively with the state of Alaska for the purpose of presenting census data for the portion of Alaska that is not within an organized borough, city and borough, or municipality.
census block   An area bounded by visible and/or invisible features shown on Census Bureau maps. A block is the smallest geographic entity for which the Census Bureau collects and tabulates 100-percent decennial census data. See block boundary, block number, collection block, statistical entity, and tabulation block.
Census Bureau   See Bureau of the Census.
Census Bureau map   Any map, in electronic or paper form, produced by the U.S. Census Bureau. Such a map usually displays the boundaries and names and/or codes of the geographic entities that the Census Bureau uses to take a census or survey, or for which the Census Bureau tabulates data, and may include both visible and invisible features, feature names, and other information appropriate to the purpose for which the map was prepared. Some Census Bureau maps display statistical data in various thematic forms. Every Census Bureau map displays a credit note showing that it was produced by the U.S. Census Bureau. May be referred to as "census map" after first usage of the term.
census code   A code assigned by the Census Bureau to identify a specific geographic entity. The Bureau uses census codes for geographic entities for which a Federal Information Processing Standards code either does not exist or is inadequate to identify and/or sequence a type of entity. See Federal Information Processing Standards code, geographic code.
census county division CCD A statistical subdivision of a county, established and delineated cooperatively by the Census Bureau and state, local, and tribal officials for data presentation purposes. CCDs have been established in 21 states that do not have minor civil divisions suitable for data presentation; that is, minor civil divisions have not been legally established, do not have a governmental or administrative purpose, have boundaries that are ambiguous or change frequently, and/or generally are not well known to the public.
Census Coverage Measurement CCM A sample survey used to measure how well the census covered housing units and persons living in housing units. Sample areas are selected and the housing units in each sample area are listed independently of the census. A person interview, independent of any census results, is conducted at each sample housing unit in order to determine: (1) who lives at the housing unit at the time of the interview, (2) who lived at the housing unit on census day, and (3) other places where these people could have been counted in the census.

The results are matched to the census enumerations throughout the country. In addition, a search for duplicates among the census enumerations and among the persons rostered in the person interview is conducted. A person followup interview is conducted for CCM and census discrepancies, potential duplicates, and for cases where additional information is needed. A similar series of matching and followup operations is conducted for housing units. The results are used to form estimates of person and housing unit net coverage error for the census (i.e., undercount or overcount) and coverage error components (i.e., omissions and erroneous enumerations).

Census Day   The reference date for collection of information for a census. For the decennial census, this has been April 1 of the decade year (year ending with zero) since the 1930 census.
census designated place CDP A statistical entity that serves as a statistical counterpart of an incorporated place for the purpose of presenting census data for a concentration of population, housing, and commercial structures that is identifiable by name, but is not within an incorporated place. CDPs usually are delineated cooperatively with state, Puerto Rico, Island Area, local, and tribal government officials, based on Census Bureau guidelines. For Census 2000, CDPs did not have to meet a population threshold to qualify for the tabulation of census data. See comunidad, place, and zona urbana.
census division   A grouping of states and the District of Columbia, established by the Census Bureau for the presentation of census data. The nine divisions (East North Central, East South Central, Middle Atlantic, Mountain, New England, Pacific, South Atlantic, West North Central, and West South Central) represent areas that were relatively homogeneous areas when they were established in 1910. The divisions are subdivisions of the four census regions.
Census Edited File CEF Staff edits and imputes (item and whole household imputation) the Census Unedited File to create the Census Edited File. Staff edits, imputes (item imputation), and weights the Census Unedited File - Sample to create the Census Edited File - Sample.
census field office CFO A small temporary office established by the Census Bureau for Census 2000 to perform the address listing field work, conduct local recruiting, and create a local presence.
census geography   A collective term referring to the geographic entities used by the Census Bureau for data collection and tabulation. See collection geography, geographic hierarchy, and tabulation geography.
Census Hiring and Employment Check CHEC The CHEC system automates the electronic processing of name and fingerprint checks to screen out any potentially unsuitable employees. Designed to conduct background and suitability screening for decennial employees as well as permanent career and current survey personnel, the CHEC system provides a criminal history check on all Census employees and contractors while also verifying employment and education history. This collection of criminal history information and employment verification allows management officials to make timely and informed hiring decisions. Consequently, CHEC will support both the hiring of employees for the decennial census and the ongoing hiring of headquarters, regional and contract personnel.
census identification number   A number assigned by the Census Bureau to a housing unit at a specific address or location. This information is kept in the Master Address File. See no identification number.
Census in Schools   A program to distribute instructional materials about the census to school administrators, teachers, and children.
Census Information Center CIC A participant in a cooperative program between the Census Bureau and 57 national, regional, and local nonprofit organizations that represent the interests of underserved communities. The centers serve as repositories of census data and reports, making census information and data available to the public and the communities they serve. The CICs use census data in areas such as program planning, advocacy needs assessment, defining service areas, public policy development, developing new business enterprises, and conducting race/ethnic-related research.
Census Integration Group CIG An inter-divisional team responsible for 2010 Census program integration. The team will serve as the change control board. In addition, they will facilitate the resolution of issues that were identified by the OITs, ISTs, and IPTs. Finally, the team will serve as a liaison between the Decennial Leadership Group and OITs, ISTs, and IPTs.
census map   See Census Bureau map.
Census Map Preview CMP A Census 2000 program that gave local and tribal government officials an early opportunity (1996-1997) to review and update the features shown on the Census Bureau maps of their areas.
Census Monitoring Board   Established by Public Law 105-119, the function of the board was "to observe and monitor all aspects of the preparation and implementation of Census 2000 (including all dress rehearsals and other simulations of a census in preparation therefor)." By law, the board ceased to exist on September 30, 2001.
Census of Population and Housing reports CPH A series of 1990 census reports containing tables that report population and housing data.
Census Operational Managers COM Census Bureau. A steering group responsible for designing and conducting efficient operations consistent with Census 2000 policies, goals, objectives, and strategies. This group replaced the 1990 Program Steering Committees.
census region   A grouping of states and the District of Columbia, established by the Census Bureau for the presentation of census data. Each region (Midwest, Northeast, South, and West) is subdivided into census divisions.
census statistical areas committee CSAC For the 1990 and prior censuses, a committee established by local government officials and other interested individuals to identify, in cooperation with the Census Bureau, the census tracts, block groups, census designated places, and other statistical entities for the area it served.
census statistical areas key person CSAKP For the 1990 and prior censuses, a person designated by a census statistical areas committee to act as its contact person with the Census Bureau.
census subarea   A statistical subdivision of a borough, census area (county equivalent), or other entity that is the statistical equivalent of a county in Alaska. Census subareas are delineated cooperatively by the state of Alaska and the Census Bureau.
census tract   A small, relatively permanent statistical subdivision of a county or statistically equivalent entity, delineated for data presentation purposes by a local group of census data users or the geographic staff of a regional census center in accordance with Census Bureau guidelines. Designed to be relatively homogeneous units with respect to population characteristics, economic status, and living conditions at the time they are established, census tracts generally contain between 1,000 and 8,000 people, with an optimum size of 4,000 people. Census tract boundaries are delineated with the intention of being stable over many decades, so they generally follow relatively permanent visible features. However, they may follow governmental unit boundaries and other invisible features in some instances; the boundary of a state or county (or statistically equivalent entity) is always a census tract boundary. See block numbering area, tribal census tract.
census tract number   A 4-digit basic number, followed by an optional 2-digit decimal suffix, used to identify a census tract uniquely within a county or statistically equivalent entity. For Census 2000, census tract numbers ranged from 0001 to 9999, with 9400 to 9499 reserved for census tracts related to federally recognized American Indian reservations and off-reservation trust land–primarily reservations and trust land that cross county lines.
Census Tract Street Index CTSI An extract of the TIGER® File, made available to the public during the 1990s to enable users to relate a city-style address to a 1990 census tract and current Congressional district.
Census Unedited File CUF The Decennial Response File, the file containing all responses to Census 2000, is processed using the Primary Selection Algorithm. From this file, two files are created: the Census Unedited File, which contains the individual responses to the short-form questionnaires, and the Census Unedited File - Sample, which contains the individual responses to the long- form questionnaires. The long form, received by approximately one in six households nationwide, included the short-form questionnaire items and additional questions. The CUF is used to generate apportionment data as well as related "raw," or unedited, census data.
central city   In a metropolitan area (MA), the largest place and, in some areas, one or more additional places that meet official standards issued by the federal Office of Management and Budget. If a place extends beyond an MA, only the portion within the MA is a central city. A few primary metropolitan statistical areas do not have a central city.
central place   In an urban area (urbanized area or urban cluster), the largest place and, in some areas, one or more additional places that meet specific Census Bureau criteria. If a place is identified as an extended place, only the portion within the urban area represents the central place. For an urban area that does not contain an incorporated or census designated place, there is no central place, and the title of the urbanized area or urban cluster uses the name of a minor civil division, or a local place name recognized by the Board on Geographic Names and recorded by the U.S. Geological Survey.
check-in   An operation that records a census response into a computer database. Every type of response (mailed-in questionnaire, telephone response, Internet response, or enumerator interview response) is checked in at a data capture center. See check-in rate.
check-in rate   Questionnaires checked in at the four data capture centers represented the initial step for processing responses to Census 2000. Check-in at the data capture centers was an operation designed to record receipt of census questionnaires into a database for control and workflow management. It provided an estimate of the scanning workload. The check-in count of questionnaires included all mailed-in questionnaires, including responses from mailout/mailback, update/leave, and the Be Counted Program, and enumerator interview responses, including list/enumerate, update/enumerate, and Nonresponse Followup. The check-in count also included questionnaires returned as undeliverable-as-addressed by the U.S. Postal Service. Some questionnaires included in check-in may be duplicate forms from the same household, blank forms, and the like; because questionnaires from all of these sources constitute the questionnaire scanning workload, the Census Bureau does not reduce the check-in count by the number of unusable questionnaires.
city   A type of incorporated place in all states and the District of Columbia. In Virginia, all cities are not part of any county, and the Census Bureau treats them as county equivalents as well as places for purposes of data presentation; there also is one such independent city in each of three states: Maryland, Missouri, and Nevada. In 23 states and the District of Columbia, some or all cities are not part of any minor civil division, and the Census Bureau treats them as county subdivisions as well as places for purposes of data presentation. In agreement with the state of Hawaii, the Census Bureau does not recognize the city of Honolulu for presentation of decennial census data. See consolidated city, county equivalent, county subdivision, governmental unit, incorporated place, independent city, and independent place.
city and borough   A legally established geographic entity in Alaska. The Census Bureau treats a city and borough as equivalent to a county for data presentation purposes. The Bureau also treats a city and borough as an incorporated place in Alaska. This designation is new for Census 2000.
city delivery area   An area in which post offices deliver mail to addresses consisting of a house number and street name and that consists of "city delivery routes" as designated by the U.S. Postal Service. Some homes and establishments in a city delivery area may choose to use a post office/drawer or general delivery for their mail. See city-style address, nondelivery area, and rural delivery area.
city-style address   An address that consists of a house number and street or road name; for example, 201 Main Street. The address may or may not be used for the delivery of mail, and may include apartment numbers/designations or similar identifiers. See address, basic street address, house-number-and-street-name address, mailing address, and noncity-style address.
coefficient of variation CV The ratio of the standard error (square root of the variance) to the value being estimated, usually expressed in terms of a percentage (also known as the relative standard deviation). The lower the CV, the higher the relative reliability of the estimate.
collection block   A physical block enumerated as a single geographic area, regardless of any legal or statistical boundaries passing through it. (Note: State, county, American Indian area, and military base boundaries, as recorded in the TIGER® database at the time of assigning numbers to collection blocks, are always block boundaries.) See block number, census block, and tabulation block.
collection geography   The geographic entities used by the Census Bureau for taking a census. For Census 2000, the combination of census field office (CFO), early-opening local census office (ELCO), or local census office (LCO)/assignment area (AA)/collection block identified a unique geographic area. See tabulation geography.
Commerce Administrative Management System CAMS A system integrating financial and related subsystems for census management and administration.
Commerce Business Daily CBD A newspaper, published by the Department of Commerce, that lists all procurement notices and awards by the federal government.
commercial structure   A building used principally for business purposes. It may contain one or more living quarters.
commercially available off-the- shelf software COTS Software that may be purchased and implemented for a particular application with minimal or no modification required.
commonwealth   The legal designation for four states (Kentucky, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Virginia), Puerto Rico, and the Northern Mariana Islands. The Census Bureau does not use this term in presenting data.
Community Address Updating System CAUS A post-Census 2000 Census Bureau program that provides a systematic methodology for enhancement and update of address and street/road information in areas that the Census Bureau has identified as experiencing major new development. This is information that needs to be added to the TIGER® database and the Master Address File after Census 2000, but the information is either not available from or appears to be incomplete in the U.S. Postal Service's Delivery Sequence File. The Census Bureau issues an invitation to state, local, and tribal governments to encourage participation in the Local Update of Census Addresses program for their area. Where no participation is forthcoming, the CAUS prioritizes which areas should be assigned for field visits by regional office staff. CAUS also is referred to as the American Community Survey Coverage Program. See Automated Listing and Mapping Instrument, Demographic Area Address Listing, and Group Quarters Automated Instrument for Listing.
compact disk - read only memory CD-ROM An optical disk created by a mastering process and used for storing large amounts of data. Unlike standard computer disks and diskettes, CD-ROMs can be used only to read stored data, not to update or change the content.
Complete Count Committee CCC A volunteer committee established by local, tribal, and sometimes state governments to include a cross-section of community leaders, including representatives from government agencies; education, business, and religious organizations; community agencies; minority organizations; and the media. The committees were charged with developing and implementing a Census 2000 outreach, promotion, recruiting, and enumeration assistance plan of action designed to target and address the needs of their communities.
computer assisted personal interview CAPI A method of data collection in which the interviewer asks questions displayed on a laptop computer screen and enters the answers directly into a computer.
Computer Assisted Survey Research Office CASRO Census Bureau. Provides automation and telecommunication technologies to improve the collection, processing, and dissemination of data.
computer assisted telephone interview CATI A method of data collection using telephone interviews in which the questions to be asked are displayed on a computer screen and responses are entered directly into a computer. As a component of Telephone Questionnaire Assistance, a census employee offered to conduct a CATI and take responses over the telephone if it was too late to mail a questionnaire to the household or when requested by the caller in certain situations. Telephone interviews could be conducted only for households receiving a short-form questionnaire.
Computer Services Division CSvD Census Bureau. Operates and manages the electronic computers and related ancillary equipment of the Census Bureau; plans and provides the maintenance of this equipment at required hardware performance levels.
comunidad   A census designated place in Puerto Rico that is not related to a municipio's seat of government. See census designated place and zona urbana.
Concept of Operations CONOPS The U.S. Department of Commerce's acquisition process.
confidentiality   The guarantee made by law (Title 13, United States Code) to individuals who provide census information, ensuring nondisclosure of that information to others. See Privacy Act and special sworn status individual.
confidentiality edit   The name for the Census 2000 disclosure avoidance procedure, in which data for one person or household is switched with that of another person or household in order to maintain data confidentiality.
Congressional Affairs Office CAO Census Bureau. Acts as a liaison between the Congress and the Census Bureau.
Congressional district CD One of 435 areas established by law for the election of people to the U.S. House of Representatives. Each CD is to be as equal in population to all other CDs in the state as practicable, based on the decennial census counts.
Congressional District Data Summary Files   Data files generated for Congressional districts from the decennial census data and made available to the public. They contain the same types of data as the Hundred Percent Summary Files and Sample Data Summary Files.
Consolidated Boundary and Annexation Survey C-BAS Participation in the Boundary and Annexation Survey (BAS) by a single governmental unit (GU) for all or some of the GUs located within it; for example, a county may review and update the boundaries for all or some of the incorporated places and/or minor civil divisions located within it. The reviewing GU must have the consent of the other GUs, which are given the opportunity to review and approve their boundaries after the Census Bureau enters the information into the TIGER® database. See Boundary and Annexation Survey and Boundary Validation Program.
consolidated city   A type of incorporated place that contains one or more other incorporated places that continue to function as separate governmental units within a consolidated government. See consolidated government, incorporated place, and legal entity.
consolidated government   A governmental unit created when the functions of two or more types of governmental units are merged to form a single, common government; for example, a consolidated city-county government.
consolidated metropolitan statistical area CMSA A geographic entity designated by the federal Office of Management and Budget for use by federal statistical agencies. An area becomes a CMSA if it qualifies as a metropolitan area, has a census population of one million or more, has component parts that qualify as primary metropolitan statistical areas based on official standards, and local opinion favors the designation. CMSAs consist of whole counties except for the New England states, where they consist of county subdivisions (primarily cities and towns). See central city and statistical entity.
content edit   An operation that includes a review of questionnaires for missed answers or multiple entries. The edits are designed to improve data quality and reduce item nonresponse.
continuation form   A questionnaire used if there were seven or more people in a household. Each continuation form contained the same questions as the original short-form questionnaire for up to six additional household members.
continuing resolution   Legislation enacted by the Congress to provide budget authority for specific ongoing activities when the regular fiscal year appropriation for such activities has not been enacted by the beginning of the fiscal year. The continuing resolution usually specifies a maximum rate at which an agency may incur obligations, based on the rate of the prior year, the President's budget request, or an appropriation bill passed by either or both houses of Congress.
Continuity of Operations Plan COOP A method of providing response and disaster recovery plans for each data capture center.
Continuous Measurement System   A reengineering of the method for collecting the housing and socioeconomic data, traditionally collected in the decennial census, to provide data every year instead of once in ten years. This system includes a large monthly survey–the American Community Survey–and estimates through the use of administrative records in statistical models. It is in a developmental stage that started in 1996.
conventional census   See list/enumerate.
Cooperative Research and Development Agreement CRADA An agreement between the Census Bureau and one or more private companies for the purpose of improving databases and products for the benefit of both the Census Bureau and the company (ies).
Correspondence Management Staff CMS Census Bureau. Responsible for controlling and processing of incoming and outgoing correspondence directed to or signed by the Director or Deputy Director of the Census Bureau or the Secretary, Deputy Secretary, or an Assistant Secretary, or Under Secretary of the Department of Commerce.
Cost and Progress C&P C&P refers to both the system and the reports generated by the system. The C&P System is a component of the Management Information System that reports on the cost and progress of address list development and data collection, capture, processing, and dissemination for Census 2000. See Executive Information System, Management Information System, and Master Activity Schedule.
Count Question Resolution CQR A process whereby state, local, and tribal government officials could ask the Census Bureau to verify the accuracy of the legal boundaries used for Census 2000, the allocation of living quarters and their residents in relation to those boundaries, and the count of people recorded by the Census Bureau for specific living quarters.
county   The primary legal division of every state except Alaska and Louisiana. A number of geographic entities are not legally designated as a county, but are recognized by the Census Bureau as equivalent to a county for data presentation purposes. These include the boroughs, city and boroughs, municipality, and census areas in Alaska; parishes in Louisiana; and cities that are independent of any county (independent cities) in Maryland, Missouri, Nevada, and Virginia. They also include the municipios in Puerto Rico, districts and islands in American Samoa, municipalities in the Northern Mariana Islands, and islands in the Virgin Islands of the United States. Because they contain no primary legal divisions, the Census Bureau treats the District of Columbia and Guam each as equivalent to a county (as well as equivalent to a state) for data presentation purposes. In American Samoa, a county is a minor civil division.
county equivalent   See county.
county partition   See partition.
county subdivision   A legal or statistical division of a county recognized by the Census Bureau for data presentation. See barrio, barrio-pueblo, borough, census county division, census subarea, city, legal entity, minor civil division, statistical entity, town, township, unorganized territory, and village.
Coverage Edit Followup CEFU A telephone operation in which telephone agents contracted by the Census Bureau called households whose census responses failed population count discrepancies and large household edits. These edits were performed only for mailback and Internet responses. An example of a count discrepancy is a difference between the number of people reported in the household and the number of people for whom census information was provided on the questionnaire. This edit includes the Large Household Followup.
Coverage Improvement Followup CIFU A census field operation during which addresses previously identified as vacant or previously deleted from the Master Address File were verified to be sure that their "vacant" or "deleted" status was correct. If the unit was occupied on Census Day, a completed questionnaire was obtained. Also enumerated in CIFU were addresses identified by governmental units for the New Construction program, late-added addresses identified during update/leave and through update partnership efforts with the U.S. Postal Service, and addresses for which mail return questionnaires were lost or returned blank. Field staff visited these addresses to determine the status of each address as of Census Day. If the housing unit was occupied on Census Day, enumerators compledted a questionnaire for the address.
crew leader CL The immediate supervisor of a team of listers, enumerators, or other field staff for a decennial census. See crew leader assistant, crew leader district, and field operations supervisor.
crew leader assistant CLA For some field operations, a crew leader may be assigned one or more CLAs from the pool of enumerators, to perform specific crew leader functions.
crew leader district CLD The area assigned to a crew leader, formed by grouping together a number of enumerator assignment areas.
crews of vessels   The shipboard populations of U.S. Navy, U.S. Coast Guard, and merchant marine vessels. For geographic purposes, the population of each ship is assigned to a census tract and census block that includes the ship's home port (Navy, Coast Guard) or that contains the facility, pier, or dock associated with the ship.
Customer Liaison Office CLO Census Bureau. The point of contact between the Census Bureau and its external customers, both public and private. The external customers include government organizations, such as state data centers, business and industry data centers, census information centers, governors' liaisons for Census 2000, and tribal governmental leaders, and nongovernment entities, such as national labor unions and national nonprofit organizations.
dangerous settlement   A compound where census staff encounters or is aware of dangerous situations, such as militia groups. The listers or enumerators are instructed to note the living quarters as a special place and to not attempt to interview the residents. Though listed as a special place, special place operations are not conducted at these living quarters. Procedures for listing and enumerating these settlements include interviewing the local postmaster and public officials.
Data Access and Dissemination System DADS See American FactFinder.
data capture   The process by which respondent information is recorded from the census questionnaires and converted and stored in a computer-readable format. Data capture for Census 2000 was performed in the Census Bureau's data capture centers.
Data Capture Audit and Resolution DCAR An edit and review of the records of responses. An edit compares a derived count of persons to the questionnaire count. Edit failures may be resolved inhouse or referred to Coverage Edit Followup.
data capture center DCC A facility that checked in questionnaires, created images of all questionnaire pages, and converted responses to computer-readable format for Census 2000. The DCCs also performed other computer processing activities, including automated questionnaire edits, workflow management, and data storage. There is one permanent DCC, the National Processing Center. For Census 2000, the Census Bureau established three temporary DCCs, which were operated by a private contractor through the Data Capture Services Contract; these DCCs were located in Baltimore, Phoenix, and Pomona (CA). Referred to as a processing office for the 1990 census.
Data Capture Management Information System DMIS A computerized management information system developed for use in the data capture centers. It provided automated tools to facilitate and support the management of the centers.
Data Capture Services Contract DCSC The contract that provided the facilities for data capture center operations and services.
Data Capture System 2000 DCS 2000 The data capture system used to capture information from census forms. This system incorporated the following activities: processing more than 120 million incoming forms; digitally capturing and processing billions of bits of information on the forms; automatically converting the forms' images to text-based data; and editing/repairing data that the system was unable to decipher automatically.
Data Preparation Division DPD See National Processing Center.
Data Stewardship Executive Policy Committee DSEP (Committee) A Census Bureau committee established in 2001 to assure that the Census Bureau can effectively collect and use data about the nation's people and economy while fully meeting the Census Bureau's legal and ethical obligations to respondents to respect privacy and protect confidentiality. This includes fully meeting the legal, ethical, and reporting obligations required by the Census Act, the Privacy Act, and other applicable statutes, including those of governmental and other suppliers of data to the Census Bureau. The Stewardship Committee, consisting of members of the Census Bureau's Executive Staff, serves as the Census Bureau's focal point for decision-making and communication on policy issues releated to privacy, security, confidentiality, and administrative records.
Decennial Applicant Name Check DANC An automated system used to screen all applicants' backgrounds for criminal histories to facilitate the selection, hiring, promotion, and payrolling of qualified and suitable applicants for the conduct of Census 2000.
Decennial Applicant, Personnel, and Payroll System DAPPS DAPPS is a fully integrated human resources and payroll system that meets financial and regulatory reporting requirements for temporary decennial field staff. This web-based enterprise-wide system supports the recruiting and applicant process, hiring of employees, processing personnel actions, paying employees, providing reports and outputs, and maintaining historical data; that is, it tracks the careers of temporary decennial field employees from recruitment to background check to payroll.
decennial census   The census of population and housing, taken by the Census Bureau in each year ending in zero. Article 1, Section 2 of the Constitution requires that a census be taken every 10 years for the purpose of apportioning the U.S. House of Representatives. The first census of population was taken in 1790. The Census Bureau first conducted the census of housing in 1940.
Decennial Cost Model DCM The primary tool for documenting and analyzing budgetary resources needed to support program requirements for Census 2000. It contains assumptions and parameters used to describe and analyze the budget components.
Decennial Division Chiefs Steering Committee DDCSC Census Bureau. Consists of the various chiefs of the Census Bureau's divisions and offices, including the Census Operational Managers.
Decennial Document Management System DDMS An electronic library documenting the operations of Census 2000 using Personal Computer Document Organization and Control System software. The files are maintained by Decennial Communications, Decennial Management Division.
decennial field interface DFI The Census Bureau's control system for field operations for the dress rehearsal and Census 2000. It provided a framework for all software systems used in data collection-related control and tracking activities of the regional census centers, census field offices, early-opening local census offices, and local census offices. It included, among others, the operations control, payroll and personnel, map production, and management information systems. See Operations Control System 2000.
Decennial Management Division DMD Census Bureau. The DMD directs and monitors the decennial census. It coordinates and provides project management for all census operations; maintains the Cost Model and the Executive Information System, which includes the Master Activity Schedule and the Cost and Progress Reporting System; manages the decennial budget; manages decennial communications, issue resolution/change control, and requirements documentation; and directs development of the census plan.
Decennial Master Address File DMAF An extract of the Master Address File that the Census Bureau used, with added fields, to control and track the operations and programs of Census 2000. The DMAF supported long-form sampling, questionnaire mailout, response check-in, tracking and reporting, and field enumeration operations. For example, census staff used the DMAF to create address files for questionnaire labeling and delivery and for the check-in of questionnaires and enumerator interview form returns. The universes for field enumeration operations, notably Nonresponse Followup and Coverage Improvement Followup, were extracted from the DMAF. The Census Bureau periodically updated the DMAF with address additions, deletions, and corrections from census and other operations.
Decennial Outlook Report   A monthly report that presented information about the Census 2000 budget, operations, procurements, systems, personnel, and facilities.
Decennial Response File DRF A file that contains every response to the census from all sources. The Primary Selection Algorithm was applied to this file to unduplicate people from multiple returns for a housing unit and to determine the housing unit record and the people to include at the housing unit. The DRF was then combined with the Decennial Master Address File to create the Census Unedited File.
Decennial Response Integration System DRIS To help accomplish the 2010 Census, the Census Bureau requires the Decennial Response Integration System (DRIS) contractor to design, build, test, deploy, implement, operate, maintain, secure, and then dispose of the systems, infrastructure, staffing, procedures, and facilities needed to: (1) provide assistance to the public through the telephone; (2) receive, capture, and standardize census data provided by respondents via paper census forms and telephone agents; and (3) organize and standardize data collected in field operations via hand-held computers (HHCs). While the DRIS Contractor must standardize and organize response data from the HHCs, the DRIS contract does not include providing the systems or staffing used for the field operations. The Census Bureau awarded the DRIS contract to Lockheed Martin in October 2005.
Decennial Statistical Studies Division DSSD Census Bureau. Develops mathematical and statistical techniques for the design and conduct of a census.
Decennial Systems and Contracts Management Office DSCMO Census Bureau. Develops and manages major Census 2000 contracts to process Census 2000 data and disseminate data to the public.
Decennial Systems Architecture Team DSAT This team is responsible for facilitating communication among the 2010 Census system providers. In addition the team facilitates the documentation of the system architecture and detailed description of the system interfaces.
Decision Memoranda Series   A set of memoranda that document major policy and design decisions as well as major changes to the Census 2000 operational plans. They are issued by the Issue Resolution/Change Control Board, the Census Operational Managers, and the executive staff.
delete   The status for an address in the Master Address File that does not qualify as a living quarters.
Delivery Sequence File DSF A U.S. Postal Service (USPS) computer file containing all mailing addresses serviced by the USPS. The USPS continuously updates the DSF as its letter carriers identify addresses for new delivery points and changes in the status of existing addresses. The Census Bureau uses the DSF as a source for maintaining and updating its Master Address File.
demographic analysis DA An independent, macro-level approach to validate the census results. Estimates using demographic analysis are based on aggregate sets of administrative data including birth and death records, immigration statistics, and Medicare data.
Demographic Area Address Listing DAAL A post-Census 2000 program that coordinates various operations related to the review and automated update of the geographic content of the TIGER® database and the addresses in the Master Address File; the results of the reviews and updates are recorded using laptop computers. See Automated Listing and Mapping Instrument, Community Address Updating System, Group Quarters Automated Instrument for Listing.
Demographic Profile   Five tables that provide Census 2000 population and housing characteristics for geographic entities.
Demographic Statistical Methods Division DSMD Census Bureau. Develops mathematical and statistical techniques for the design and conduct of demographic sample surveys.
Demographic Surveys Division DSD Census Bureau. Performs a wide range of demographic surveys, including the American Community Survey.
Department of Commerce DOC U.S. Government. Promotes job creation, economic growth, sustainable development, and improved living standards for all Americans. The Department of Commerce includes the Bureau of Export Administration, Economic Development Administration, International Trade Administration, Patent and Trademark Office, Minority Business Development Agency, National Telecommunications and Information Administration, Economics and Statistics Administration, Bureau of the Census, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Technology Administration, National Institute of Standards and Technology, National Technical Information Service, and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the various agencies NOAA oversees.
Department of Defense DOD U.S. Government. Provides the military forces needed to deter war and to protect the security of the United States.
Deputy Director   Census Bureau. Assists the Director in the direction of the Census Bureau and performs the functions of the Director in his/her absence.
digital exchange file DEX file An electronic map file of roads and streets, together with their names, address ranges, and ZIP Codes, obtained from a local government or commercial source and used to update the TIGER® database. See Automated Master Address File Geocoding Office Resolution.
digital line graph DLG Digital information derived by the U.S. Geological Survey from its maps.
direct access   An entrance to a living quarters directly from the outside of a building or through a common or public hall (such as in an apartment building).
direct sample followup   A methodology used in Nonresponse Followup sampling, whereby the initial response period stops at a specified date and a sample is selected from all remaining nonresponding units.
Director   Census Bureau. Determines policies and directs the programs of the Census Bureau, taking into account applicable legislative requirements and the needs of users of statistical information.
disclosure avoidance DA Statistical methods used in the tabulation of data prior to releasing data products to ensure the confidentiality of responses. See confidentiality.
district office DO A pre-Census 2000 term for local offices established by the Census Bureau to conduct the decennial census.
division (census geographic)   See census division.
dress rehearsal DR A census of population and housing conducted by the Census Bureau in selected areas prior to a decennial census to determine and validate the effectiveness of planned census operations, procedures, and systems. The "United States Census 2000 Dress Rehearsal" was conducted in 1998 in Sacramento city, California; Menominee County, Wisconsin, including the Menominee Indian Reservation; and 11 counties and part of a twelfth in South Carolina, including the city of Columbia. Other census field operations in preparation for a census may also be referred to as "dress rehearsals." See test census.
Dual Independent Map Encoding DIME This term was used for the 1990 census. See Geographic Base File/Dual Independent Map Encoding.
Dual System Estimation DSE The estimation method used for the Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation (A.C.E.). This operation uses a geographic sample of block clusters to find people missed by the census or A.C.E. and any errors from the census. The people from the Census Unedited Files are computer matched and then clerically matched to the data collected from the A.C.E. person interviews. After the computer and clerical matching, the person matching continues through Field Followup to resolve discrepancies and a final clerical matching.
E-911 address   A number assigned to a structure that, in conjunction with a street or road name, identifies the location of the structure in the event of an emergency. E-911 addresses generally are posted on or near the structure, primarily in rural and outlying suburban areas, and may or may not be used for mail delivery. See address, fire number, house-number/street-name address, mailing address.
E Sample   Housing units enumerated in sample block clusters for the Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation survey.
early opening local census office ELCO A temporary census office that opened earlier than other local census offices to conduct selected Census 2000 precensus operations, primarily in mailout/mailback areas. See local census office.
economic census EC The collective name for the censuses of construction, manufactures, minerals, minority- and women-owned businesses, retail trade, service industries, transportation, and wholesale trade, conducted by the Census Bureau every five years in years ending in 2 and 7.
Economic Development Administration EDA Department of Commerce. Helps generate new jobs, protect existing jobs, and stimulate commercial and industrial growth in economically distressed areas in the United States.
Economics and Statistics Administration ESA Department of Commerce. Much of the statistical, economic, and demographic information collected by the federal government is made available to the public through the ESA. The ESA has two principal agencies: the Bureau of the Census and the Bureau of Economic Analysis.
embedded housing unit EHU One of two kinds of housing units found at a special place. An embedded housing unit is a housing unit situated within a group quarters, but whose occupants live separately from people living in the group quarters. An example of an embedded housing unit is a house parent's room in a dormitory. "Embedded" means located within the building and not freestanding. See freestanding housing unit. The concept of embedded housing unit will not be used for the 2010 Census.
emergency shelter   A shelter that operates on a first-come, first-served basis, and people must leave in the morning and have no guaranteed beds for the next night, or where people know they have a bed for a specified period of time even if they leave the building every day. Shelters also include facilities that provide temporary shelter during extremely cold weather (such as churches) and facilities that provide emergency shelter for runaway or neglected children or abused women. See hotels, motels, and other facilities; regularly scheduled mobile food van; shelter for children who are runaways, neglected, or without housing; soup kitchen; and transitional shelter.
Enterprise Information System EIS See Executive Information System.
enumeration   The process of interviewing people and recording the information on census forms.
enumeration district ED Obsolete term. Now called an assignment area.
enumerator   A Census Bureau employee who interviews people to obtain information for a census or survey questionnaire. Enumerators also may update address registers and Census Bureau maps. The term also applies to field personnel who perform activities associated with update/leave and urban update/leave.
enumerator questionnaire   See simplified enumerator questionnaire.
Executive Information System EIS A software tool used to access reports and data in the Census 2000 Management Information System. The EIS is used to report to the Department of Commerce on decennial issues, the schedule, and the cost framework. The Department of Commerce's EIS is an Intranet application providing information from the Management Information System. See Cost and Progress, Management Information System, and Master Activity Schedule.
Executive State of the Census report ESOC A weekly report that summarized major accomplishments, issues, upcoming events, and other important information about Census 2000.
Executive Steering Committee   Census Bureau. Consists of the Assistant to the Associate Director for the Decennial Census, Associate Director for the Decennial Census, Principal Associate Director for Programs, Principal Associate Director/Chief Financial Officer, Associate Director of Field Operations, and Deputy Director.
Executive Steering Committee for A.C.E. Policy ESCAP Census Bureau. Established to advise the Director in determining policy for the Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation (A.C.E.) and the integration of A.C.E. results into the census for all purposes except Congressional reapportionment.
expert coding   Unusual text responses on census questionnaires are directed to an expert team for coding into a numerical classification. See general coding.
extended city   See extended place.
extended place   A place that contains both urban and rural territory; i.e., an incorporated place or census designated place that is partially within and partially outside of an urbanized area or urban cluster. The term is first used for Census 2000. Previously referred to as an "extended city," which applied only to incorporated places, subject to very specific criteria.
Facility Questionnaire   See Special Place Facility Questionnaire.
false entity   A legal geographic entity of one type that is used to complete the coverage of another part of the Census Bureau's geographic hierarchy. The Census Bureau uses these false entities to ensure complete area coverage for certain levels of the hierarchy; for example, to ensure that all area in the nation is assigned to a geographic entity at the county level.
feature   See map feature, nonstreet feature.
Feature and Reference Source Assessment Survey FARSAS A 1994-95 Census Bureau survey of governments and commercial organizations to determine the availability and usefulness of reference sources that would enable the Census Bureau to geocode city-style addresses in the Master Address File that did not geocode when matched to the TIGER® database.
Federal Information Processing Standards FIPS A set of numeric and/or alphabetic codes issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology to ensure uniform identification of geographic entities (and other electronic data) throughout all federal government agencies. The entities covered are states, counties, metropolitan areas, Congressional districts, named populated and other locational entities (such as places, county subdivisions, and American Indian and Alaska Native areas), and geopolitical entities of the world. See census code and geographic code.
field assignment FA A combination of the assignment areas used in a previous operation to form a better workload for an enumerator.
Field Data Collection Automation Program FDCA The Field Data Collection Automation (FDCA) program consists of automation resources, applications, and infrastructure necessary to support field data collection operations in the 2010 Census. FDCA includes office automation at Regional Census Centers (RCCs) and Local Census Offices (LCOs); a secure mobile computing environment for over 500,000 field workers; communications services linking together field workers, office staff, and Census headquarters; interfaces to other census systems; and a variety of support services. It supports all field data collection operations in the RCCs/LCOs regardless of whether they are conducted using paper and pen or using an automated device.
Field Division FLD Census Bureau. Plans and directs the collection of national sample survey, census, and other information at the local level. Information is collected through a field organization of regional offices in 12 cities across the country. The offices employ part-time interviewers who gather data for survey and special operations by direct contact with the public. During a decennial census, the FLD administers temporary regional census centers and local offices.
Field Followup FFU A data collection procedure involving personal visits by enumerators to housing units in list/enumerate and update/enumerate areas, to perform the following operations: resolve inconsistent and/or missing data items on returned questionnaires identified during content edit and possible enumeration errors discovered in coverage edit; conduct a vacant/delete check; obtain information for blank or missing questionnaires; and visit housing units for which no questionnaire was checked in.
field operations supervisor FOS A Census Bureau employee who directs the activities of crew leaders and enumerators.
field operations supervisor district FOS district A group of crew leader districts assigned to one field operations supervisor.
field verification FV For questionnaires without Master Address File identification numbers, enumerators verified the existence of units that had been geocoded to a census block, but did not match an address in the Master Address File. See no identification number, Invalid Return Detection, and Local Update of Census Addresses Field Verification.
Film Optical Sensing Device for Input to Computers FOSDIC A device that reads microfilmed questionnaires and transfers the information to magnetic tape for the Census Bureau's mainframe computers. This device was created by the Census Bureau for the 1960 census.
Final Housing Unit Matching   An Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation operation. This operation followed the Housing Unit After Followup Matching. During the census, addresses were added and deleted in the DMAF. For the Final Housing Unit Match, the final Census Housing Unit file from the DMAF was matched to the A.C.E. independent address list. The results were used to estimate the number of housing units missed or erroneously included in the census.
fire number   A number assigned to a structure to identify it for firefighters. It is not a house-number-and-street-name address, but a special identification assigned by a local fire department.
fiscal year FY Any yearly accounting period. The fiscal year for the federal government begins on October 1 and ends on September 30.
followup FU A secondary census or survey operation carried out to successfully complete an initial census or survey operation. It is usually a telephone or personal visit interview to obtain missing information or clarify original responses. See Field Followup, Coverage Improvement Followup, and Nonresponse Followup.
Foreign Language Assistance Guide   Documents in more than 50 languages that explained how to complete an English-language census questionnaire. The guides were distributed at Questionnaire Assistance Centers and other sites identified by the Census Bureau's local partners, on request through Telephone Questionnaire Assistance, and via the Internet.
Freedom of Information Act FOIA Legislation enacted in 1974 to require federal agencies to provide access to and copies of existing agency records to the public. Access can be denied only if records are within specific exempted categories, such as Title 13 information.
freestanding housing unit FSHU One of two kinds of housing units found at a special place. A freestanding housing unit is a living quarters that is physically separate from the group quarters at a special place. An example of a freestanding housing unit is the president's house at a college. See embedded housing unit. The concept of freestanding housing unit will not be used for the 2010 Census.
frontloading   The Census Bureau's practice of hiring and training approximately twice as many enumerators as needed for decennial field operations to compensate for no-shows, dropouts, and expected turnover.
functional status   The classification of a geographic entity as a legal or statistical entity. It further identifies a legal entity as an active, inactive, false, functioning, or nonfunctioning entity and, if active, denotes its fiscal independence and whether it provides general or limited, special services. Functional status determines an entity's eligibility to participate in various Census Bureau programs.
functioning entity   A generic term that refers to both active and inactive governmental units. See active entity, governmental unit, inactive entity, nonfunctioning entity. (Even though inactive, a governmental unit has the legal capacity to carry out governmental functions; local people simply choose not to do so.)
gated community   A community composed of houses, duplexes, townhouses, and/or apartment buildings that are surrounded by a secured fence or other barrier to limit access to a secured gate.
General Accounting Office GAO U.S. Government. An investigative arm of the Congress that performs audits and evaluations of federal government programs and activities.
general coding   A software program that matches responses to language, ancestry, race, and Hispanic or Latino origin from the census questionnaires into a numerical classification and a dictionary. Unmatched responses are directed to a team of experts for coding. See expert coding.
General Services Administration GSA U.S. Government. A central management agency that sets federal policy in such areas as federal procurement, real property management, and information resources management.
geocode (geographic code)   A code used to identify a specific geographic entity. For example, the geocodes needed to identify a census block for Census 2000 data are the state code, county code, census tract number, and block number. Every geographic entity recognized by the Census Bureau is assigned one or more geographic codes. "To geocode" means to assign an address, living quarters, establishment, etc., to one or more geographic codes that identify the geographic entity(ies) in which it is located. See census code, Federal Information Processing Standards, geocoding.
geocoding   The assignment of an address, structure, key geographic location, or business name to a location that is identified by one or more geographic codes. For living quarters, geocoding usually requires identification of a specific census block.
Geographic Base File/Dual Independent Map Encoding GBF/DIME The predecessor of the TIGER® database. Used for the 1980 census.
Geographic Catalog of Legal and Statistical Entities GEO-CAT A file that controls and describes the inventory of the higher-level geographic entities maintained by the Census Bureau, including their names, codes, and hierarchical relationships. The GEO-CAT, which is part of the TIGER System, does not include lower-level entities, such as census tracts, block groups, and census blocks.
geographic code   See geocode.
Geographic Comparison Table GCT A table in the American FactFinder that provides census data for one or more selected sets of geographic entities of the same type; e.g., data for all counties in a state.
geographic entity   A spatial unit of any type, legal or statistical, such as a state, county, place, county subdivision, census tract, or census block. See census geography, geographic hierarchy, legal entity, and statistical entity.
geographic hierarchy   A geographic presentation that shows the geographic entities in a superior/subordinate structure. In this system of relationships among geographic entities, each entity (except the smallest one) is subdivided into lower-order units that in turn may be subdivided further. The Census Bureau uses three sets of hierarchies; one is based on states and counties; another on American Indian areas, Alaska Native areas, and Hawaiian home lands; and a third on metropolitan or urban areas. See census geography, tabulation geography.
geographic identifier   A code, name, geographic coordinate value, etc., relevant to a geographic entity.
geographic information system GIS A computer system for the input, storage, processing, applications development, retrieval, and maintenance of information about the points, lines, and areas that represent the streets and roads, rivers, railroads, geographic entities, and other features on the surface of the Earth–information that previously was available only on paper maps.
Geographic Program Participant database GPP A database that contains information about governmental units and organizations eligible to participate in the Census Bureau's geographic programs that expand and/or improve the content of the TIGER® database and/or the Master Address File. The database links a contact person, where available, and related information to a geographic entity and/or an organization.
Geographic Quick Report GQR An economic census report that displays all industries for a geographic entity.
Geographic Reference File GRF A generic term for a file containing geographic information, such as area names, geographic codes, and selected coordinate (latitude and longitude) values. The Census Bureau uses these files to organize the address list for field activities and for the tabulation and presentation of census data. The Geographic Reference File-Codes (GRF-C) is a computer file that lists the geographic codes associated with each census block record and contains the code combinations that relates the collection geographic entities to the tabulation geographic entities; the Geographic Reference File-Names (GRF-N) is a computer file that lists the name of each geographic entity and its associated attributes (code, type, etc.).
Geographic Support System GSS The TIGER® System plus all other geographic activities supporting the Census Bureau's censuses and surveys.
Geographic Update System GUS The operations in the regional offices (ROs) and regional census centers (RCCs) that implemented the update of the information in the TIGER® database. Also, a computer software package for the 1990 census that enabled census staff in the Census Bureau's ROs/RCCs and the National Processing Center to view, analyze, and interactively update and revise the information in the TIGER® database as a result of various field operations; see Geographic Update System for X Window.
Geographic Update System for X Window GusX The Census 2000 version of the Geographic Update System (GUS) software. It is more flexible, object-oriented, and user-friendly than the GUS, with operators at various decentralized sites using the Bureau's UNIX workstations to access and manipulate information in the TIGER® database. The X refers to the software that runs the X Window Utility Program, together with a Motif graphical user interface, on a UNIX platform.
Geographic Update System in Support of Intercensal Estimates GUSSIE A post-Census 2000 computer system used by the Population Division to update the estimates geographic base, which supports the estimates and projections for selected general-purpose governmental units and school districts. The geographic updates are based on corrections and updates applied by the Geography Division to the TIGER® database and the Master Address File. See Geographically Updated Population Certification Program, Population Estimates Program.
Geographically Updated Population Certification Program GUPCP A fee-paid program sponsored by the Population Division that, during the intercensal period after Census 2000, provides certified Census 2000-based population counts to government officials requesting such information for new governmental units or specific geographic areas, or to reflect revised boundaries for previously existing governmental units. See Geographic Update System in Support of Intercensal Estimates, Population Estimates Program.
Geography Division GEO Census Bureau. Identifies and collects or delineates the boundaries and attributes of decennial census geography; creates and maintains the Master Address File; spatially locates addresses using the TIGER® database; maintains and updates the TIGER® database; and provides geographic support for government censuses and surveys.
geoprocessing   The computer and/or clerical processing of geographic and address information in order to refine and update a geographic database, such as the TIGER® and GEO-CAT databases.
Government Printing Office GPO U.S. Government. Informs the nation by producing, procuring, and disseminating printed and electronic publications of the Congress as well as the executive departments and establishments of the federal government.
governmental unit GU A geographic entity established by legal action for the purpose of implementing specified general- or special-purpose governmental functions. Most governmental units have legally established boundaries and names, and have officials (elected or appointed) who have the power to carry out legally prescribed functions, provide services for the residents, and raise revenues. To meet Census Bureau criteria, a government must be an organized entity that, in addition to having governmental character, has sufficient discretion in the management of its own affairs to distinguish it as separate from the administrative structure of any other governmental unit. To have governmental character, an entity must exist as a legally organized entity and have legally defined responsibilities to its residents. See active entity, false entity, functioning entity, functional status, inactive entity, legal entity, and nonfuctioning entity.
group quarters GQ A group quarters is a place where people live or stay that is normally owned or managed by an entity or organization providing housing and/or services for the residents. These services may include custodial or medical care as well as other types of assistance, and residency is commonly restricted to those receiving these services. People living in group quarters are usually not related to each other. Group quarters include such places as college residence halls, residential treatment centers, skilled nursing facilities, group homes, military barracks, correctional facilities, workers’ dormitories, and facilities for people experiencing homelessness.
Group Quarters Advance Visit GQAV An operation designed to confirm the location of a group quarters and other information to aid in the preparation for enumeration and to establish a pre-enumeration contact with an official to facilitate the actual enumeration.
Group Quarters Automated Instrument for Listing GAIL Post-Census 2000 software that enables regional office and headquarters staff to use laptop computers to record address, location, and related information about group quarters and special places in the Special Place/Group Quarters Master File, which is subsequently reflected in the Master Address File and, often, in the TIGER® database. During the Census Bureau's post-Census 2000 current surveys, when the Automated Listing and Mapping Instrument (ALMI) encounters a group quarters, it automatically requests the GAIL so information can be reviewed and recorded for the facility. The GAIL can be used for other programs without reference to the ALMI when the Census Bureau updates information only for group quarters. Eventually, the GAIL will be accessed automatically to record information about group quarters found during other Census Bureau operations. See Automated Listing and Mapping Instrument, Demographic Area Address Listing, group quarters, special place.
group quarters enumeration GQE A method of data collection designed to count people living or staying in group quarters. Enumerators visit each group quarters, list the names of the people living or staying in the group quarters (including staff who live or stay there), and leave an Individual Census Report for each person or a staff member to complete. Enumerators return at a later date to pick up the questionnaires and, if necessary, conduct interviews to obtain any missing information and conduct interviews with nonrespondents.
group quarters population   The portion of the population of a geographic entity that is living in group quarters on the official date of a census or survey.
group quarters validation GQV A field operation designed to verify and classify Other Living Quarters (OLQs) identified in Address Canvassing. Listers from the GQV staff will visit each identified OLQ, and through a series of questions, determine if the address is a group quarters, a housing unit, or not a living quarters, such as a commercial property. During the interview, the lister will be able to correctly classify and type code the address determined to be group quarters.
hand held computer HHC A small electronic device used by field staff to conduct several decennial census address listing, update and field data collection activities. The current plan is for our field staff to use these to collect data for Address Canvassing, Nonresponse Followup and Census Coverage Measurement Person Interviewing. Software applications on the device allow enumerators to:
  • Review and update maps and listings of their assignment areas
  • Receive and display list of cases in assignment
  • Collect latitude and longitude coordinates and map spots at designated addresses using a GPS receiver
  • Complete an electronic questionnaire for each data collection case
  • Transmit completed and receive new assignments and
  • Complete and transmit their daily time and expense report.
hard to enumerate HTE An area for which the environment or population may present difficulties for enumeration.
Hawaiian home land HHL An area created and held in trust for the benefit of native Hawaiians by the state of Hawaii, pursuant to the Hawaiian Homes Commission Act of 1920, as amended. Hawaiian home lands are a new type of geographic entity for Census 2000.
headquarters HQ A term sometimes used to designate the Census Bureau facility, staff, and operations located primarily in Suitland, MD.
headquarters data processing HQDP HQDP provides a number of functions, including the software that interacts with the Master Address File, Operations Control System, Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation operations, data capture centers, Telephone Questionnaire Assistance, Internet Data Collection, and multiple divisions (at headquarters). HQDP conducts editing operations as well as operations that convert address updates found in the field into computer- readable form. HQDP operations include the headquarters check-in and followup control activities for census data.
heterogeneity   Heterogeneity occurs when housing units assigned to sampling strata or groupings do not have equal chances of being included or missed by a census or survey. Heterogeneity creates difficulty for the small-area estimation process because the correction factor is applied to all people with the specified characteristic in that sampling poststratum even though some of them do not actually have the coverage characteristics. See homogeneity.
highest elected official HEO The elected or appointed person who is the chief executive official of a governmental unit and is most responsible for the governmental activities of the governmental unit, such as the governor of a state, chair of a county commission, or mayor of an incorporated place.
Historic Areas of Oklahoma   A term used in the 1980 census for an area encompassing the former American Indian reservations that had legally established boundaries during the period 1900 through 1907, but were dissolved during the 2- to 3-year period preceding the establishment of Oklahoma as a state in 1907. It excluded territory within urbanized areas delineated for the 1980 census. The 1980 census tabulated data for this entity, which was replaced for the 1990 census by tribal jurisdiction statistical areas. See Oklahoma tribal statistical area.
homogeneity   Homogeneity assumes that all people in a particular sampling stratum or poststratum have an equal chance of being included or missed by a census or survey. A lack of homogeneity in a particular sample block is not an error, but it does create difficulty for the small-area estimation process. This happens because the correction factor is applied to all people with the specified characteristic in that poststratum even though some of them do not exhibit the same coverage characteristic. See heterogeneity.
hotels, motels, and other facilities   Hotels, motels, and other facilities for which vouchers are provided or that operate under contract to provide shelter to people without housing are included in the service-based enumeration. See emergency shelter; regularly scheduled mobile food van; shelter for children who are runaways, neglected, or without housing; soup kitchen; and transitional shelter.
house-number-and-street-name address or house-number/street-name address HN/SN address An address assigned to a specific structure, consisting of a number and the street name with which the structure is associated. The address may or may not be used for mail delivery. See address, basic street address, city-style address, E-911 addresses, and mailing address.
household HH A person or group of people who occupy a housing unit as their usual place of residence. The number of households equals the number of occupied housing units in a census.
Household and Address Field Verification HA FV See Invalid Return Detection.
householder   The member of a household who lives at a housing unit and owns, is buying, or rents the housing unit. If there is no such person present when the Census Bureau contacts the household, any household member who is at least 15 years old can serve as the householder for the purposes of a census or survey.
Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division HHES Census Bureau. For a census or survey, compiles, analyzes, and publishes data on the physical, social, and financial characteristics of the nation's housing and on the socioeconomic characteristics of the nation's population.
housing unit HU A single-family house, townhouse, mobile home or trailer, apartment, group of rooms, or single room that is occupied as a separate living quarters or, if vacant, is intended for occupancy as a separate living quarters. See separate living quarters.
Housing Unit After Followup Matching   An Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation operation. After the Housing Unit Field Followup is complete, clerks use the information collected to resolve the remaining unmatched cases and assign an After Followup match code to each address. The next operation is the Final Housing Unit Matching.
Housing Unit Followup HUFU An Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation operation. After the Housing Unit Matching, the addresses that remain unmatched and require additional information are sent to Housing Unit Followup for interviewing. The followup interviews attempt to gather more information about unmatched housing units in order to resolve differences between the A.C.E. listing and the census listing. The next operation is Housing Unit After Followup Matching.
Housing Unit Matching   An Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation operation. The independent list of housing units from the A.C.E. is matched to the census inventory of housing units, first by a computer match and then by a clerical match. Cases still unmatched after this operation go to the Housing Unit Followup for resolution. See independent listing.
How America Knows What America Needs HAKWAN A Census 2000 public relations program that disseminated response rates for governmental units on a Census 2000 Internet site. It included the '90 Plus Five program and the Because You Count program.
Hundred Percent Census Edited File HCEF A computer file that contains the edited characteristics and records for all households and people in Census 2000. The edits are performed on the Hundred Percent Census Unedited File. The edits include consistency edits and imputation for items or people where the data are insufficient for the hundred percent data items from both the short- and long-form questionnaires. The HCEF provided the census counts for apportionment purposes.
Hundred Percent Census Unedited File HCUF The Decennial Response File was combined with the Decennial Master Address File to create the HCUF and the Sample Census Unedited File. The HCUF contains the individual responses to the hundred percent data items from both the short- and long-form questionnaires.
hundred percent data   Population and housing information collected for all living quarters in the United States as of Census Day. These questions appeared on both the short- and long-form questionnaires. The questions include age, Hispanic or Latino origin, race, relationship to the householder, sex, and whether the housing unit is owned or rented. See sample data, long form, and short form.
Hundred Percent Detail File HDF A file resulting from the application of disclosure avoidance and tabulation geography to the Hundred Percent Census Edited File.
Hundred Percent Edited Detail File HEDF A file resulting from the application of Small Area Estimation to the Hundred Percent Detail File.
hundred percent general coding   See general coding.
Hundred Percent Summary File   There are two types of Hundred Percent Summary Files: 1) Statistically corrected data derived from the hundred percent data items. These data include the corrections measured in the Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation survey. 2) To fulfill the requirements of Public Law 105-119, data derived from the hundred percent data items without statistical correction.
hybrid mailing   A national concept, considered for Census 2000 but not implemented, that involved a combination of targeted and blanket mailings of replacement questionnaires within the mailout/mailback, update/leave, and urban update/leave areas covered by a local census office.
identification number   See census identification number.
imputation   The assignment of values by the Census Bureau when information is missing or inconsistent. Imputation relies on the tendency of households of the same size within a small geographic area to be similar in most characteristics. For example, the value of "rented" is likely to be imputed for a housing unit not reporting on owner/renter status in a neighborhood with multi-unit structures for which other respondents reported "rented" on the census questionnaire. There are two major types of imputation: 1) allocation, in which missing values for individual items are entered on the basis of other reported information for the person or household (or from other persons or households with similar characteristics) and 2) substitution, in which all of the information for a person or household is created from other persons or households with similar characteristics.
inactive entity   A legal entity that has the power to have officials to carry out legally prescribed functions, but is not currently exercising those powers. See active entity, functioning entity, governmental unit.
incorporated place   A type of governmental unit, incorporated under state law as a city, city and borough, municipality, town (except in New England, New York, and Wisconsin), borough (except in Alaska and New York), or village, that has legally prescribed limits, powers, and functions. A few incorporated places do not have a legal description. See consolidated city, governmental unit, independent city, independent place, legal entity, and place.
independent city   An incorporated place that is independent - that is, not part - of any county. All incorporated places classified as cities in Virginia are independent cities, as are Baltimore, Maryland; St. Louis, Missouri; and Carson City, Nevada. The Census Bureau treats an independent city as an incorporated place and as equivalent to a county, and, where appropriate, as a county subdivision for data presentation purposes. See city, county, county subdivision, incorporated place, and independent place.
independent listing   An Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation operation that creates a list of housing units in an operation that is separate from the decennial census.
independent place   In a state in which the Census Bureau recognizes minor civil divisions (MCDs), an incorporated place that is not legally part of any MCD. The Bureau treats an independent place as equivalent to a county subdivision and as an incorporated place for data presentation purposes. Independent places exist in 23 states and the District of Columbia.
index map   A map that shows the relationship between the map sheets, including inset maps, that cover a specific mapped geographic entity.
Indian reservation   See American Indian reservation.
Individual Census Questionnaire ICQ A Census 2000 questionnaire that contains population questions for one person. The questionnaire was used for soup kitchens and regularly scheduled mobile food vans. It asked if the person had a usual residence, but did not ask housing questions. It also asked about his/her use of services at shelters, soup kitchens, and mobile food vans. Enumerators conducted personal interviews using this questionnaire. See service-based enumeration and targeted nonsheltered outdoor location. The Individual Census Questionnaire will not be used for the 2010 Census.
Individual Census Report ICR A census questionnaire used during group quarters enumeration, including service-based enumeration. It contains population questions for one person. The questionnaire asks if the person has a usual residence, but does not ask housing questions. Enumerators distribute this questionnaire. At targeted nonsheltered outdoor locations, enumerators conduct personal interviews using this questionnaire. In Census 2000, there were both long- and short-form versions of the ICR. For the 2010 Census, the ICR will be used at all Group Quarters Enumeration sites and will contain only short-form version.
industry and occupation I&O A person's current or most recent job activity reported on the long-form questionnaire. The responses require coding and classification processing.
Information Systems Support and Review Office ISSRO Census Bureau. Provides program management of information technology budgeting, procurements, and administrative support.
information technology IT Refers to telecommunications and computer hardware and software. See Information Systems Support and Review Office.
Informational Memorandum Series   Memoranda issued by the Decennial Management Division to document Census 2000 information other than that documented in the Decision Memorandum Series. The series includes Program Master Plans.
initial mail response rate   The percentage of responses in relation to the mailout or delivery of the Census 2000 questionnaires, based on early returns of the questionnaires. The Census Bureau released the results to local and tribal governments as part of the '90 Plus 5 portion of the How America Knows What America Needs program.
inmover   A person who moved into a housing unit after Census Day.
inset map   A Census Bureau map that displays an area at a larger scale that the scale of its parent sheet. Inset maps generally cover a densely developed area that cannot be shown clearly at the map scale of the parent sheet. See map inset.
Inspector General IG Department of Commerce. Conducts and supervises audits, inspections, and investigations of Department of Commerce programs and operations.
institutionalized population   People under formally authorized, supervised care or custody in institutions at the time of enumeration. Such people are referred to as patients or inmates. See group quarters.
Integrated Coverage Measurement ICM An operation that was proposed for Census 2000, but was not implemented. The objective of this operation was to measure how well the Census Bureau counted people and housing in the census through a large-scale sample survey conducted independently of regular census operations. This operation also was called the Quality Check Survey.
Integrated Product Team IPT An inter-divisional team responsible for project management over a development of a product. The teams will develop a schedule, initiate change request, ensure the development of product workflows, define and document functional requirements, document issues and resolve and/or elevate them to the CIG, and facilitate communication among the teams (OITs, ISTs, and IPTs).
Integrated System Team IST An inter-divisional team responsible for project management over a system. The teams will develop a schedule, initiate change request, ensure the development of system workflows, define and document functional requirements, document issues and resolve and/or elevate them to the CIG, and facilitate communication among the teams (OITs, ISTs, and IPTs). These teams will work on the 2008 Dress Rehearsal and the 2010 Census.
Integrated Working Group IWG An inter-divisional team responsible for project management over development of a system. The team will develop a schedule, initiate change request, ensure the development of system workflows, define and document functional requirements, document issues and resolve and/or elevate them to the CIG, and facilitate communication among the other Dress Rehearsal teams (OITs, ISTs, and IPTs).
interactive voice recognition IVR An automated telephone system that offers callers different menu choices covering a variety of predetermined topics.
interim census tract   A 1990 census tract or block numbering area used for Census 2000 data collection operations. Its boundary may have been revised by the Census Bureau to reflect the boundaries of Census 2000 collection blocks. These were temporary areas used for some early field operations pending the final delineation of Census 2000 census tracts and their subsequent insertion into the TIGER® database. Also referred to as a pseudo-tract.
internal point   A set of geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude) that is located within a specified geographic entity. For many entities, this point represents the approximate center of the entity; for some, the shape of the entity or the presence of a body of water causes the central location to fall outside the entity or in water, in which case the point is relocated to land area within the entity. The geographic coordinates are shown in degrees to six decimal places in census products.
International Trade Administration ITA Department of Commerce. Responsible for nonagricultural United States trade issues; works with the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative in coordinating trade policy.
Internet Questionnaire Assistance (and Data Collection) IQA An operation that allowed people to use the Census Bureau's Internet site to seek information about the census questionnaire, job opportunities, and the general purpose of the census, and to provide responses to the short form.
Invalid Return Detection IRD A procedure for identifying invalid questionnaires without Master Address File identification numbers; that is, forms returned for Census 2000 as an attempt to introduce error into the population count. See Be Counted/Telephone Questionnaire Assistance Field Verification.
invisible feature   A map feature that is not visible on the ground, such as the boundary of a legal entity (a county line, city limit, etc.), a property line, an imaginary street extension, or a point-to-point line. See feature, nonstreet feature, and visible feature.
Island Areas IAs For Census 2000, several legal entities under the jurisdiction of the United States: American Samoa, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Virgin Islands of the United States. The Census Bureau treats these entities as equivalent to states for data presentation purposes. The term also includes several small islands in the Caribbean Sea and Pacific Ocean. Government agencies outside the Census Bureau may refer to the Island Areas as "Island Territories" or "Insular Areas." Formerly referred to as the Outlying Areas.
Issue Resolution/Change Control Board IR/CC Board Census Bureau. Handles operational decisions having major budget and policy implications. The Census Operational Managers refers issues outside its scope to this board.
joint use area   Territory that is administered, claimed, and/or used by two or more American Indian tribes–either adjoining American Indian reservations or adjoining Oklahoma tribal statistical areas. Such territory was referred to as joint area for the 1990 census.
journey to work   The decennial census provides data on where people work and on their commute between home and workplace.
Key From Image KFI An operation in which keyers enter questionnaire responses by referring to a scanned image of a questionnaire for which entries could not be recognized by optical character recognition with sufficient confidence.
Key From Paper KFP An operation in which keyers enter information directly from a hard-copy questionnaire that could not be read by optical character recognition.
kit   A collection of materials gathered together to give to each enumerator, lister, or other field staff to accomplish a specific job within a particular operation. The materials are packaged together to make their distribution easier, consistent, and more efficient.
large household LHH A housing unit with more than six persons.
Large Household Followup LHFU A Census 2000 operation in which a telephone interview was conducted to obtain additional information for households that reported, on the census questionnaire, that more than six people lived in that housing unit. Because the questionnaire allowed the reporting of information for only six people in a household, this operation had to be implemented to obtain information for the other residents. This operation was included in the Coverage Edit Followup. See continuation form.
late mail return LMR A questionnaire received by mail after the cutoff date for identifying nonresponding housing units for the Nonresponse Followup operation.
legal entity   A geographic entity whose origin, boundary, name, and description result from charters, laws, treaties, or other administrative or governmental action, such as the United States, states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Island Areas, counties, cities, boroughs, towns, villages, townships, American Indian reservations, Alaska Native villages, Congressional districts, and school districts. The legal entities and their boundaries that the Census Bureau recognizes for a census are those in existence on January 1 of the census year. See functional status, governmental unit, and statistical entity.
legal/statistical area description LSAD The type of a geographic entity in terms of its legal status or the Census Bureau's statistical area terminology. The LSAD for an entity is appended to the entity's name as a prefix or suffix, and may be truncated; the LSAD can be blank if an entity does not have a legal description. Previously referred to as political statistical area description (PSAD).
list/enumerate L/E A method of data collection in some of the more remote, sparsely populated areas of the United States and the Island Areas, where many of the households do not have mail delivery to city-style addresses. Enumerators list the residential addresses within their assignment areas on blank address register pages, map spot the location of the residential structures on Census Bureau maps, and conduct an interview for each household using either a short- or long-form enumerator questionnaire. See Remote Alaska enumeration.
lister   A census employee who obtains addresses and related information and records the information on address listing pages and Census Bureau maps.
living quarters LQ Any site where people live, stay, or could live. Living quarters are classified as housing units or group quarters. They are usually found in structures intended for residential use, but also may be found in structures intended for nonresidential use as well as tents, vans, shelters for people without housing, dormitories, barracks, and so forth, or they might not be associated with a structure at all. See separate living quarters.
local area network LAN A group of computers linked within a network to exchange and share information within a building or among several buildings. See wide area network.
local census office LCO A temporary office established for Census 2000 data collection purposes. These offices managed address listing field work, conducted local recruiting, and visited living quarters to conduct various Census 2000 operations. Called district office in previous censuses. See early opening local census office, pseudo-LCO.
Local Knowledge Update LKU For this Census 2000 operation, the special place staff at each local census office reviewed the special place inventory for completeness and accuracy by using local sources and reference materials and their own knowledge of the facilities and locations in their area. This concept does not apply to the 2010 Census.
Local Update of Census Addresses LUCA A Census 2000 program, established in response to requirements of Public Law 103-430, that provided an opportunity for local and tribal governments to review and update individual address information or block-by-block address counts from the Master Address File and associated geographic information in the TIGER® database. The goal was to improve the completeness and accuracy of both computer files. Individuals working with the addresses had to sign a confidentiality agreement before a government could participate. Also called the Address List Review program.
Local Update of Census Addresses Field Verification LUCA FV An operation to determine the existence and residential status of addresses reported by local officials for the Local Update of Census Addresses program.
location description   See physical/location description.
locator map   A Census Bureau map that displays an assignment area and a substantial amount of surrounding area, to help users, such as field staff, identify where the assignment is located and determine an efficient route of travel to it. The assignment area is shown as shaded area. See block locator map.
long form LF The decennial census questionnaire containing 100-percent and sample questions. See hundred percent data, sample data, and short form.
long-form sampling   Distribution of the long form uses a variable-rate sampling plan to determine which households receive the long form. The Census Bureau samples housing units within each governmental unit using one of four rates, as determined by the precensus count of housing units for governmental units. Nationwide, one in six housing units and people in group quarters received a long form.
mail census area   The area covered by the mailout/mailback, update/leave, and urban update/leave methods of enumeration.
mail return questionnaire   A questionnaire returned by a respondent by mail. These questionnaires were received from mailout/mailback and update/leave areas, and also included questionnaires obtained through the Be Counted program.
mail return rate   The total number of households returning a questionnaire by mail divided by the number of occupied housing units that received a questionnaire by mail or from a census enumerator (the only units that can return a questionnaire). This measure cannot be derived until the enumeration is completed and the final number of occupied housing units is determined.
mailing address   The address used by a living quarters, special place, business establishment, and the like to receive mail. It can be a house number and street or road name, which may be followed by an apartment, unit, or trailer lot designation; a building or apartment complex name and apartment designation; a trailer park name and lot number; a special place/group quarters name; a post office box or drawer; a rural route or highway contract route, which may include a box number; or general delivery. A mailing address includes a post office name, state abbreviation, and ZIP Code.® A mailing address may serve more than one living quarters, establishment, etc. See basic street address, city delvery area, city-style address, house-number-and-street-name address, noncity-style address, nondelivery area, rural delivery area, and ZIP Code.
mailing package   A package that includes a short- or long-form questionnaire, an introductory letter, and a postage-paid return envelope preprinted with the data capture center address corresponding to a housing unit's geographic location.
mailout/mailback MO/MB A method of data collection in which the U.S. Postal Service delivers addressed questionnaires to housing units, based on geocoded addresses (usually city-style mailing addresses) recorded in the Census Bureau's Decennial Master Address File. Residents are asked to complete and mail the questionnaires to a specified data capture center. For Census 2000, this method was used for more than 80 percent of the housing units in the United States.
Management Information System MIS A computer system that provides the Census Bureau with decision support functions, such as critical-path analysis and what-if analysis. It provides information on dates, the responsible organization, budget, cost to date, and current progress of Census 2000 operations. It includes the Master Activity Schedule and the Cost and Progress System. See Cost and Progress, Executive Information System, and Master Activity Schedule.
Management Integration Team MIT Census Bureau. The MIT and the Program Steering Committee provided the structure for the early planning of Census 2000. They were replaced by the Census Operational Managers, the Issue Resolution/Change Control Board, and the Decennial Division Chiefs Steering Committee.
map feature   Any part of the landscape that is portrayed on a map as a point, line, or area, including invisible boundaries of legal entities, such as city limits or county lines. See invisible feature, nonstreet feature, and visible feature.
Map Image Metafile® MIM® A computer file that provides a full-image description of a Census Bureau map in digital form (a human-readable format). The regional offices, regional census centers, and National Processing Center use MIMs to create printed maps or to record maps on CD-ROMs, from which other offices (especially local census offices for Census 2000) can print maps. See Single MIM-Based Integrated Mapping System.
map inset   A sketch map drawn by an enumerator, lister, etc., to represent an enlargement of an area that, on the original Census Bureau map, is too small to clearly display added streets and/or map spots and map spot numbers. The map usually is drawn on the back of the map sheet that contains the enlarged area, but a separate sheet of paper may be used for this purpose. See inset map.
map legend   An illustrated list of map content: the symbols, type styles, and, if appropriate, shading or colors shown on a map or map series, and the meaning of each.
Map Plotting System MAPS The MAPS site or area is the portion of the regional office/regional census center in which maps are produced, assembled, and stored. The terminology is a carryover from the 1990 census.
map scale   The mathematical relationship between a distance on a map compared with the actual distance on the ground. This relationship is shown in the margin of each Census Bureau map by several bar scales that represent distance in miles, kilometers, yards, feet, etc., on the map. The relationship also can be expressed as a ratio, showing the actual numeric relationship between distance on the map and on the ground; e.g., 1:2400 means that 1 inch on the map equals 2,400 inches, or 200 feet, on the ground.
map sheet   One of a set of sheets that comprise a Census Bureau map. Many Census Bureau maps consist of a single map sheet.
map spot   A dot drawn on a census block map by a lister or enumerator to show the location of a structure that contains one or more living quarters. The enumerator assigns a number, unique within the census collection block, to each map spot to correspond to the entry(s) in the address register for a basic street address or residential structure. The map spots and numbers are entered into the TIGER® database, and are printed on subsequent block maps as a box, oval, or combination with the map spot number inside. For Census 2000, map spots are identified primarily by census listers and enumerators during address listing and list/enumerate operations, but also may be created during the Local Update of Census Addresses Field Verification, update/enumerate, update/leave, and some followup operations.
map spot number   The number assigned uniquely to each map spot within a census collection block. The same number can represent more than one living quarters located in a multi-unit structure, in which case the number on the map is followed parenthetically by the number of living quarters in that structure.
maritime/military vessel enumeration   A type of group quarters enumeration for which the Census Bureau conducts a special operation to enumerate the crews of ships. The Census Bureau worked with the U.S. Department of Defense, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Maritime Administration, and others to identify military and maritime vessels homeported to, or in port or leaving a port in, the United States, Puerto Rico, or the Island Areas at the time of the census. The Census Bureau mailed enumeration materials to those vessels for completion by individual crew members.
Marketing Services Office MSO Census Bureau. Creates innovative and effective marketing communication channels, enhances the corporate marketing infrastructure, infuses a marketing culture and customer orientation, institutionalizes internal customer information systems, and assists in new product development.
Master Activity Schedule MAS A schedule of the activities involved in the planning, preparation, conduct, and data capture, processing, and dissemination of Census 2000. See Cost and Progress, Executive Information System, and Management Information System.
Master Address File MAF A computer file of every address and physical/location description known to the Census Bureau, including their geographic locations. The file was created by combining the addresses in the 1990 address file with U.S. Postal Service Delivery Sequence Files, and supplementing this with address information provided by state, local, and tribal governments. Census Bureau staff updated and supplemented the file with address information obtained by several census programs. The MAF is linked to the TIGER® database. The MAF was used to create the Decennial Master Address File, which provided the addresses for mailing and delivery of Census 2000 questionnaires. See Decennial Master Address File.
Master Address File Geocoding Office Resolution MAFGOR An operation in which the regional offices and regional census centers try to find the location of addresses from the U.S. Postal Service that did not match to the records in the TIGER® database. Staff use atlases, maps, city directories, and the like to locate these addresses and add their streets and address ranges to the TIGER® database.
Master Address File Identification Number MAFID A number associated with each living quarters or special place recorded in the Master Address File. It also is called the census identification number. See no identification number.
Master Address File Quality Improvement Program MAF QIP An operation designed to assess the completeness and accuracy of the coverage, as well as the block-level geocoding, of the addresses in the initial MAF before the Census Bureau conducted its Census 2000 coverage improvement operations. After a pilot study in six counties in 1997, field staff listed addresses in selected mailout/mailback areas in 1998 for this program.
Master Address File Update File MAFUF Census Bureau staff do not individually key new addresses and address revisions directly into the Master Address File (MAF). Instead, using a specified format, they key the relevant information into a file–MAFUF–that stores the information until the Geography Division is ready to merge the complete updated file into the MAF in a batch process.
Master Control System MCS A system for the Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation survey for tracking the assignments, computer assisted personal interviews, and data transmission.
Matching, Reviewing, and Coding System MaRCS A two-part system used for the Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation survey. First, the computer matches housing units and persons. Second, cases not resolved by the computer matching are assigned to clerks in the National Processing Center in Jeffersonville, IN, for review and coding.
mean   The arithmetic average of a set of numbers.
median   The middle value in a set of numbers.
memorandum of understanding MOU A formal memorandum defining and explaining agreements and decisions reached on specific issues by two or more parties.
method of equal proportions   A mathematical function that computes priority values based on each state's apportionment population. The priority values are calculated by dividing the population of each state by the geometric mean of its current and next seats. The priority values are ranked and used to assign seats in the House of Representatives to the states starting with the 51st seat. (The Constitution provides each state with a minimum of one seat in the House.)
metropolitan area MA A large population nucleus, together with adjacent communities that have a high degree of economic and social integration with that nucleus. This collective term was established by the federal Office of Management and Budget (OMB) in 1990 to refer to metropolitan statistical areas, consolidated metropolitan areas, primary metropolitan statistical areas, and New England County Metropolitan Areas. The OMB establishes MAs based on census data related to a set of published official standards.
metropolitan statistical area MSA A geographic entity designated by the federal Office of Management and Budget for use by federal statistical agencies. An MSA consists of one or more counties, except in New England, where MSAs are defined in terms of county subdivisions (primarily cities and towns). See central city, consolidated metropolitan statistical area, metropolitan area, New England County Metropolitan Area, primary metropolitan statistical area, and statistical entity.
migration MIG A change of a household's or person's residence from 5 years ago.
Military Census Report MCR A questionnaire used to enumerate persons living or staying in military group quarters.
military enumeration   In Census 2000, a type of group quarters enumeration for which the Census Bureau conducted a special operation to enumerate military personnel and others living or staying on military bases. The Census Bureau worked with the U.S. Department of Defense and the U.S. Coast Guard to identify housing units and other living quarters on their installations. Various enumeration methods, such as mailing census questionnaires to housing units on military installations and enumerating people at their work station, were used. See maritime/military vessel enumeration.

For the 2010 Census, the Census Bureau will conduct a special operation to enumerate military personnel living or staying in military group quarters. The Census Bureau works with the U.S. Department of Defense and the U.S. Coast Guard for this operation. People living in group quarters are enumerated using a Military Census Report. People living in housing units are mailed a census questionnaire.

minor civil division MCD A type of governmental unit that is the primary governmental or administrative division of a county or statistically equivalent entity in 28 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Island Areas. MCDs are represented by several types of legal entities, such as townships, towns (in eight states), and districts. See county subdivision and governmental unit.
Minority Business Development Agency MBDA Department of Commerce. Helps minority-owned and operated businesses achieve effective and equal participation in the American free enterprise system.
mobile computing device MCD An MCD is a small electronic device that has self-contained processing units, contains wireless telecommunications capabilities, and is easily transportable. These devices also are referred to as personal digital assistants, palm tops, and hand-held computers.
mobile home/trailer park   A group of five or more mobile homes/trailers or sites, occupied or intended for occupancy at a single location.
Multiple Response Processing MRP A two-stage operation that identifies and flags for removal person and housing unit records that are redundant. The stages are the Within-Block Search and the Primary Selection Algorithm. More than one response can be received for a person or housing unit because the Census Bureau offers several methods for responding to the census. These methods include Be Counted questionnaires, Telephone Questionnaire Assistance, Internet responses, and non-English language forms. The Within-Block Search looks within the census block for person records for the same person appearing on two questionnaires. The Primary Selection Algorithm eliminates duplicate responses for the same identification number (housing unit) and determines the final housing unit record and the people to include at the housing unit.
multiplicity estimation   A statistical procedure that adds an estimate of people not enumerated on the day of enumeration to the count of people missed (because the enumeration was limited to one visit) during the enumeration of shelters and soup kitchens. This estimator was not used for Census 2000.
multi-unit structure   A building that contains more than one housing unit (for example, an apartment building). Townhouses are not considered to be multi-unit structures for census purposes.
municipality   A legally established entity in Alaska and the Northern Mariana Islands. The Census Bureau treats a municipality as equivalent to a county for data presentation purposes. The municipality (Anchorage) in Alaska is also treated as an incorporated place; this designation in Alaska is new for Census 2000.
municipio   A governmental unit that is the primary legal subdivision of Puerto Rico. The Census Bureau treats a municipio as equivalent to a county in the United States for data presentation purposes.
National Academy of Sciences NAS U.S. Government. A private, nonprofit society of scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare.
National Archives and Records Administration NARA U.S. Government. Oversees the management of federal government records, including individual census records after 72 years, presidential diaries, historic correspondence, and a display of presidential gifts from around the world.
National Content Survey (1996)   One of the test censuses performed by the Census Bureau in its planning and testing for Census 2000. It was the principal vehicle for testing and evaluating subject content for Census 2000. It also provided information on questionnaire design and on mailing strategy and techniques to improve coverage.
National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST Department of Commerce. An organization under the Technology Administration. The NIST promotes United States economic growth by working with industry to develop and apply technology, measurements, and standards.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA Department of Commerce. Studies climate and global change, ensures protection of coastal oceans and management of marine resources, provides weather services, and manages worldwide environmental data.
National Operations Center NOC Census Bureau. The staff and facilities at the National Processing Center that served as one of the data capture centers for the decennial census.
National Processing Center NPC Census Bureau. The permanent Census Bureau processing facility in Jeffersonville, Indiana. It includes the National Operations Center. Until 1998, it was called the Data Preparation Division (DPD).
National Research Council NRC U.S. Government. The principal agency of the National Academy of Sciences for advising the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities.
National Technical Information Service NTIS Department of Commerce. An organization under the Technology Administration. The NTIS promotes the nation's economic growth and job creation by providing access to federally produced information for the public and production services to federal agencies.
National Telecommuni-cations and Information Administration NTIA Department of Commerce. The Executive Branch's principal voice on domestic and international telecommunications and information technology issues.
New Construction program   An operation conducted shortly before Census 2000 to capture addresses of recently built living quarters. Address lists were sent to local and tribal governments in mailout/mailback areas. They could report new living quarters built since the Local Update of Census Addresses (LUCA) operation through April 1, 2000. The adds identified by the governments were matched to the Master Address File, which was updated with valid adds.
New England County Metropolitan Area NECMA A county-based area designated by the federal Office of Management and Budget to provide an alternative to the county subdivision-based metropolitan areas in New England.
no identification number non-ID A completed census questionnaire without a census identification number. The census identification number associates the response with a specific address in the Master Address File. Non-ID'd addresses may be obtained from Be Counted questionnaires, Individual Census Reports, Individual Census Questionnaires, Shipboard Census Reports, Military Census Reports, and questionnaires from Telephone Questionnaire Assistance. In addition, some questionnaires from census enumerator operations did not have an ID number.
noncity-style address   A mailing address that does not use a house number and street or road name. This includes rural routes and highway contract routes, which may include a box number; post office boxes and drawers; and general delivery. See address, city-style address, E-911 address, fire number, mailing address, nondelivery area, and rural delivery area.
nondelivery area   An area in which the U.S. Postal Service does not deliver mail to homes, businesses, etc. Instead, the residents must pick up their mail at a local post office, using either a post office box or drawer or general delivery. See city delivery area, noncity-style address, and rural delivery area.
nonfunctioning entity   A legal entity that cannot have elected or appointed officials to provide services or raise revenues. Such entities include administrative areas, such as voting districts, and areas from which people are elected to a legislative body, such as Congressional districts and state legislative districts. Some counties and minor civil divisions are nonfunctioning entities. See legal entity.
nongovernment organization NGO A national or local organization or community group that is not under the jurisdiction of a government. See partnership.
noninstitutionalized population   People who live in group quarters other than institutions. See group quarters, institutionalized population.
nonmover   A person who lived in the same housing unit at the time of an interview and on Census Day.
nonproxy   An interview in which the respondent is a member of the household being enumerated.
nonresponse NR A housing unit for which the Census Bureau does not have a completed questionnaire and from which the Bureau did not receive a telephone or Internet response.
Nonresponse Conversion Operation NRCO A step in the Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation survey process during Person Interviewing. At a cutoff date, all Person Interviewing cases are brought in from the field. The best interviewers are assigned to the unresolved cases. This is a last attempt to convert refusals to responses.
Nonresponse Followup NRFU An operation whose objective is to obtain completed questionnaires from housing units for which the Census Bureau did not have a completed questionnaire in mail census areas (mailout/mailback, update/leave, and urban update/leave). Enumerators visited addresses for which the Census Bureau had no questionnaire and no Internet or telephone response.
nonsampling error   Any error that occurs during the measuring or data collection process. Nonsampling errors can yield biased results when most of the errors distort the results in the same direction. The full extent of nonsampling error is unknown. Decennial censuses traditionally have experienced nonsampling errors, most notably undercount, resulting from people being missed in the enumeration processes.
nonstreet feature   A natural or manmade part of the landscape, such as a stream, ridge, railroad, or power line, that is not used primarily by cars, trucks, or similar vehicles. A legal or imaginary boundary (point-to-point line, imaginary street extension, etc.) also is a nonstreet feature. See feature, invisible feature, and visible feature.
occupied housing unit   A housing unit that is the usual place of residence of the person or people living in it at the time of enumeration, even if the occupants are only temporarily absent; for example, away on vacation. Occupied rooms or suites of rooms in hotels, motels, and similar places are classified as housing units only when occupied by permanent residents; that is, individuals for whom the facility is their usual place of residence.
off-reservation trust land   See American Indian off-reservation trust land.
Office of Management and Budget OMB U.S. Government. Assists the President in overseeing the preparation of the federal budget and to supervise its administration in Executive Branch agencies.
Office of Personnel Management OPM U.S. Government. The federal government's human resources agency.
Office of Technology Policy OTP Department of Commerce. An organization under the Technology Administration. The OTP promotes technology-based industry through a variety of programs.
Oklahoma tribal statistical area OTSA A statistical entity identified and delineated by the Census Bureau in consultation with federally recognized American Indian tribes in Oklahoma that once had a reservation in that state. Called a tribal jurisdiction statistical area for the 1990 census. Also see Historic Areas of Oklahoma.
one-number census   A single set of census results based on a predetermined enumeration process, which might employ any combination of traditional counting methods, administrative records, and statistical estimation.
Operational Integration Team OIT An inter-divisional team responsible for project management over a set of operations. The teams will develop and monitor the schedule, track the development and production of deliverables, initiate change request, ensure the development of operational workflows, define and document operational requirements, document issues and resolve and/or elevate them to the CIG, and facilitate communication among the teams (OITs, ISTs, and IPTs). These teams will work on the 2008 Dress Rehearsal and the 2010 Census.
Operational Status and Assessment Meetings OSAM Meetings of census managers with executive staff during the height of the census to report on the status of activities and to engage in real-time problem-solving.
Operational Test Dry Run OTDR A practice test of the operations of the data capture centers.
Operations Control System 2000 OCS 2000 One of the decennial field interface systems used for control, tracking, and progress reporting for all field operations conducted for the census, including production of materials used by field staff to do their work. It was one system of the Decennial Field Interface.
optical character recognition OCR Technology that uses an optical scanner and computer software to "read" human handwriting and converts it into electronic form.
optical mark recognition OMR Technology that uses an optical scanner and computer software to scan a page, recognize the presence of marks in predesignated areas, and assign a value to the mark depending on its specific location and intensity on a page.
Outlying Areas   The 1990 census term for the Island Areas.
outmover   A person who lived in a specific housing unit on Census Day, but lived elsewhere at the time of the census interview.
overseas enumeration   A method of data collection for counting federal employees assigned overseas (including members of the Armed Forces) and their dependents, and persons on board United States military ships assigned to a foreign home port.
Oversight and Appropriations O&A Senate:
• The Committee on Appropriations and its subcommittees, including the Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, State, and the Judiciary
• The Committee on Governmental Affairs

House of Representatives:
• The Committee on Appropriations and its subcommittees, including the Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, State, and the Judiciary
• The Committee on Government Reform and its subcommittees, including the Subcommittee on the Census
P Sample   People who were residents of an Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation survey housing unit on Census Day and were enumerated by the Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation survey.
paper assisted personal interview PAPI A method of data collection in which the enumerator uses a paper form to record information.
parish   A type of governmental unit that is the primary legal subdivision of Louisiana, similar to a county in other states.
Participant Statistical Areas Program PSAP A Census 2000 program that provided local and tribal officials with the opportunity to review and revise existing statistical entities and identify new ones. The program included census tracts, block groups, census designated places, and census county divisions. See statistical entity.
partition   A portion of the TIGER® database separated to effectively manage the size of that database in order to support operations such as updating, processing, and mapping of a specific part of the database. A partition usually consists of an entire county or statistically equivalent entity, but a county that has many records in the database may be divided into multiple partitions to allow the computer to process, and enable staff to work with, smaller files. Also referred to as a county partiti
partnership   An agreement with a state, local, or tribal government or a community group that gave such an organization an opportunity to participate in various ways in Census 2000.
Patent and Trademark Office PTO Department of Commerce. Administers the nation's patent and trademark laws.
Person After Followup Coding   An Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation operation. This operation followed the Person Followup Interview operation. During After Followup Coding, the results of the person followup interviews were used to assign a final residence or enumeration status for each person. These final status codes were used for Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation estimation.
Person Followup Interview   An Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation operation. The Person Followup Interview was conducted after Person Matching. Interviewers conducted person followup interviews for persons or households for which the Census Bureau required more information for coding and matching. The next operation was Person After Followup Coding.
Person Interviewing   An Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation operation. Interviewers collected information about the current resident(s) of each housing unit and anyone who had moved out of the sample block between Census Day and the time of the interview. The interviewers asked questions about alternate residences to establish where people lived on Census Day according to census residence rules. Interviews were conducted either by telephone or personal visit, both using a computer assisted personal interview (CAPI) instrument. The next operation was Person Matching.
Person Matching   An Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation operation. This operation was conducted after Person Interviewing. Information about individuals obtained during Person Interviewing was matched to the information collected in the census for the same geographic entities. Residence or enumeration status codes were assigned for each A.C.E. and census person. These codes were used during the estimation operations to determine the number of people missed or erroneously included in the census. The next operation was the Person Followup Interview.
person record   A record for an individual created from data captured from a census form.
Personal Computer Document Organization and Control System PCDOCS Software for maintaining and accessing an electronic library of documents. See Decennial Document Management System.
personal visit PV Face-to-face contact between a member of the public and a Census Bureau enumerator to obtain information.
physical/location description   A short written description of the location and physical characteristics of a living quarters that does not have a house-number/street-name address, to help Census Bureau staff recognize this living quarters. For post-2000 operations, this term has been changed to "physical description," and a location description is no longer required; the location of the map spot provides the location information.
P.L.   See entries under "Public Law."
place   A concentration of population either legally bounded as an incorporated place or delineated for statistical purposes as a census designated place. See census designated place, comunidad, consolidated city, incorporated place, independent city, independent place, legal entity, statistical entity, and zona urbana.
place of birth POB The state, District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Island Area, or foreign country in which a person was born.
place of work POW The street address, establishment name, or location where a person worked on Census Day or the target date for a Census Bureau survey.
planned dates   The start and finish dates in the Master Activity Schedule, determined by the Census Operational Managers to be the desired times to start and complete an activity.
planning database   A geographic database containing prior census housing, demographic, and socioeconomic variables correlated with nonresponse and undercounting data and used to identify specific geographic areas (for example, interim census tracts) that could benefit from special enumeration methods to improve coverage.
Planning, Research, and Evaluation Division PRED Census Bureau. Provides technical expertise and executive leadership for planning future censuses and surveys. Coordinates policy and program-related activities for future censuses and surveys.
Policy Office POL Census Bureau. The central coordinating point for the analysis, development, and implementation of Bureau-wide policy in the program and legislative areas.
political entity   See governmental unit and legal entity.
population   All people living in a geographic area.
Population and Housing Characteristics reports PHC A series of Census 2000 reports containing tables that report population and housing data. The series is available in printed form and on the Internet in PDF format. It is comparable to the 1990 census's CPH (Census of Population and Housing) series of reports.
population density   The population of an area divided by the number of square miles or square kilometers of land area.
Population Division POP Census Bureau. Provides regularly updated information on the population of the United States and its demographic, geographic, and social characteristics. The division's International Programs Center conducts demographic and socioeconomic studies, strengthens statistical development around the world through technical assistance, training, and software products, and provides demographic and socioeconomic data on foreign countries as well as the United States.
Population Estimates and Projections Program PEPP A post-Census 2000 Census Bureau program sponsored by the Population Division to produce annual estimates and projections of population, households, and housing units for selected governmental units. For population estimates, the program includes the United States; states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico; counties and statistically equivalent entities; governmentally functioning minor civil divisions; incorporated places, including consolidated cities; metropolitan areas and their successor entities; and school districts. Estimates for households and housing units are porduced for states and the District of Columbia, and the Bureau plans to do so for counties and statistically equivalent entities. Projections cover population, voting age population, households, and families for the United States, states, and the District of Columbia. The program reflects new governmental units and boundary changes reported to the Census Bureau for previously existing governmental units. See Geographic Update System in Support of Intercensal Estimates, Geographically Updated Population Certification Program.
Postal Validation Check PVC The review and update of mailing addresses in the Census Bureau's address file by U.S. Postal Service (USPS) workers within selected ZIP Codes in the mailout/mailback area. This check was not conducted for Census 2000; instead, the USPS took special steps to improve the completeness of its Delivery Sequence File.
Postcensus Local Review PCLR A 1990 census program that enabled local governments to review counts of housing units and the group quarters population after the census in order to identify missed and mis-allocated living quarters and unusual situations. They also reviewed the Census Bureau maps for errors. Not conducted for Census 2000. See Count Question Resolution.
Post-Enumeration Survey PES A survey used for the 1990 census to evaluate census coverage on a case-by-case basis, using the Dual System Estimation method. It provided undercount information for detailed categories, such as renter/homeowner and racial and ethnic group, which is not possible with demographic analysis.
Postmaster Return PMR See undeliverable-as-addressed.
poststratum   The grouping of people within a particular stratum; for example, all white, non-Hispanic male renters ages 18-22 (poststratum) in a rural area (stratum).
Pre-appointment Management System/Automated Decennial Administrative Management System PAMS/ADAMS An integrated structure of administrative management programs that supports applicant tracking and processing, background checks, selection records, recruiting reports, personnel and payroll processing, and archiving of historical information. This system is used by the Census Bureau in the hiring of temporary workers for a census.
precanvass   See block canvassing.
prelist   See address listing.
primary metropolitan statistical area PMSA A geographic entity designated by the federal Office of Management and Budget for use by federal statistical agencies. If an area that qualifies as a metropolitan statistical area has a census population of 1 million or more, two or more PMSAs may be designated within it if they meet published official standards and local opinion favors the designation. When PMSAs are established within a metropolitan area, that metropolitan area is designated a consolidated metropolitan statistical area (CMSA). See central city, consolidated metropolitan statistical area and statistical entity.
Primary Selection Algorithm PSA A computer program applied to the Decennial Response File (DRF) to eliminate duplicate responses for the same identification number and to determine the housing unit record and the people to include for a housing unit. After this procedure, the DRF is merged with the Decennial Master Address File to create the Census Unedited File.
Primavera Project Planner P3 The project management and scheduling software used to develop the Census 2000 Master Activity Schedule.
Principal Associate Director PAD Census Bureau. The Principal Associate Director/Chief Financial Officer reports to the Director and Deputy Director, and is responsible for the overall management activities of the Census Bureau. The Principal Associate Director for Programs reports to the Director and Deputy Director, and is responsible for the overall management of demographic programs, the decennial census, economic programs, and statistical methodology and standards.
Privacy Act   A 1974 law (Title 5, Section 5520) that places restrictions on the collection, use, maintenance, and release of information about individuals, their household, and their place of residence. It gives individuals the right to see records about themselves, to obtain copies of their records, to have records corrected or amended with Census Bureau approval, and to have a statement of disagreement filed in their records if the Census Bureau does not approve the correction or amendment. See confidentiality and special sworn status individual.
Privacy Act Notice   A document that advises people of the authority under which the Census Bureau collects information, how it will use the information, and the effect of not answering a question. Also called Form D-31.
processing office   See data capture center.
production rate   A performance measure calculated as the number of cases completed within a specified time period; for example, cases completed per hour or cases completed per day.
profiles   Tables showing demographic and housing characteristics for various geographic entities.
Program for Address List Supplementation PALS A program conducted in 1996 to provide governmental units and regional and metropolitan agencies an early opportunity to submit lists of city-style mailing addresses for their areas to the Census Bureau for use in building the Master Address File for Census 2000.
Program Master Plan PMP A document that explains the preparatory, field, processing, and statistical requirements for each major Census 2000 operation. The plans are coordinated by the Decennial Management Division's Program Management Staff.
Program Steering Committee PSC Census Bureau. The PSC and the Management Integration Team provided the structure for the early planning of Census 2000. They were replaced by the Census Operational Managers, the Issue Resolution/Change Control Board, and the Decennial Division Chiefs Steering Committee.
proxy   An interview in which the respondent is not a member of the household being enumerated. The respondent might be a neighbor or some other knowledgeable person.
pseudo-LCO   For Census 2000, where the land area under the authority of an American Indian tribe or the populated area of a military base was situated in more than one state or included widespread noncontiguous parcels of land that could not satisfactorily be included within the boundary of a single local census office (LCO), the Census Bureau assigned such lands to the LCO that contained the administrative offices or headquarters of the tribe or base. As a result, each tribe or base worked with only one LCO for the census. The Bureau informally referred to the lands involved in the reassigned areas as pseudo-LCOs, since they were not actually LCOs in their own right. Each pseudo-LCO was assigned a unique code.
pseudo-tract   See interim census tract.
pseudo-voting district pseudo-VTD An area for which the Census Bureau reports voting district (VTD) data, even though the boundary of the actual VTD was adjusted by the reviewing officials for purposes of data presentation, so that it no longer matches the legally established boundary. See voting district.
Public Information Office PIO Census Bureau. Manages relations with the news media, produces radio and video news releases, distributes daily newspaper clippings of census-related stories, administers the foreign visitors program, and writes and edits a variety of publications, including Counterparts, Census and You, and Census Briefs.
Public Law 94-171 P.L. 94-171 A 1975 law that requires the Census Bureau to provide state governments with selected decennial census data tabulations and related geographic products for specific geographic entities by April 1 of the year following the census. These data and products are used by the states to redefine their Congressional districts and the areas used for state and local elections–a process called redistricting.
Public Law 94-171 Summary Files   Data provided in response to the requirements of P.L. 94-171, by census tract and census block, including four matrixes: data for race, Hispanic or Latino and not Hispanic or Latino, race for the population 18 years and older, and Hispanic or Latino and not Hispanic or Latino for the population 18 years and older.
Public Law 94-311 P.L. 94-311 A 1976 law that requires the use of Spanish-language forms and Spanish-speaking interviewers in areas having a significant concentration of Hispanic population.
Public Law 103-430 P.L. 103-430 Federal legislation–the Census Address List Improvement Act of 1994–that amends Title 13, U.S. Code, to allow local and tribal government officials to review the address information in the Census Bureau's Master Address File to verify its accuracy and completeness, subject to the Census Bureau's confidential requirements. This law also requires the U.S. Postal Service to provide its address information to the Census Bureau to improve the Master Address File.
Public Law 105-119 P.L. 105-119 A 1997 appropriations bill that also established the Census Monitoring Board and required the Census Bureau to make publicly available, for specific levels of geography, "the number of persons enumerated without using statistical methods."
public use form PUF A form issued by a federal agency to obtain information from the public. A PUF that is to be administered to ten or more persons requires prior approval and clearance by the Office of Management and Budget.
public use microdata area PUMA A geographic entity for which the Census Bureau provides specially selected extracts of raw information from a small sample of long-form census records. PUMAs, which must have a minimum census population of 100,000 and cannot cross a state line, receive a 5-percent sample of the long-form records; these records are presented in state files. These PUMAs are aggregated into "super-PUMAs," which must have a minimum census population of 400,000 and receive a 1-percent sample in a national file. PUMAs for Census 2000 were delineated by state officials, and comparable officials in the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico. The Census Bureau provided a single 10-percent sample file each for Guam and the Virgin Islands of the United States. See public use microdata sample.
public use microdata sample PUMS Computerized files containing a small sample of individual long-form census records showing the population and housing characteristics for the unidentified people included on those forms. The records are screened to maintain confidentiality. See public use microdata area.
Puerto Rico Area Office PRAO An office established in Puerto Rico to take the decennial census. It was equivalent to a mini-regional census center, and oversaw nine local census offices for Census 2000.
quality assurance QA A systematic approach to building accuracy and completeness into a process.
quality check   See Integrated Coverage Measurement.
quality control QC Various statistical methods that validate that products or operations meet specified standards.
questionnaire   The census or survey form on which a respondent or enumerator records information requested by the Census Bureau for a specific census or special survey.
Questionnaire Assistance Center QAC A center established by a local census office to assist people with completing their questionnaires. For Census 2000, the centers were established in community centers, large apartment buildings, and so forth. The centers are staffed by volunteers and Census Bureau employees. Also called walk-in questionnaire assistance centers.
questionnaire mailing strategy   For Census 2000, an advance notice letter, a questionnaire, and a reminder/thank-you postcard sent to every address in mailout/mailback census areas.
Questionnaire Reference Book QRB A document that provides detailed instructions to enumerators on how to fill out a census form.
Quick Tables QT Predefined tables that display selected population and housing characteristics for a single geographic area selected by a data user.
Race and Ethnic Advisory Committees REAC An in-house term referring to the five separate advisory committees on the race and ethnic populations: the Census Advisory Committee on the African American Population, Census Advisory Committee on the American Indian and Alaska Native Populations, Census Advisory Committee on the Asian Population, Census Advisory Committee on Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Populations, and Census Advisory Committee on the Hispanic Population.
Race and Ethnicity Targeted Test RAETT A test conducted in selected areas of the United States to evaluate alternative formats and sequencing of the race, Hispanic, and ancestry questions for the Census 2000 questionnaire.
ready for use RFU The installation of hardware and software when it has passed testing and is ready to be used.
reapportionment   The redistribution of seats in the U.S. House of Representatives among the several states on the basis of the most recent decennial census, as required by Article 1, Section 2 of the Constitution. See apportionment and redistricting.
reconciliation   There are two definitions for this term: The U.S. Postal Service's resolution and verification of additions and deletions to the Census Bureau's Master Address File. The resolution and verification of addresses obtained by the Census Bureau during the Local Update of Census Addresses program.
recycle   A process a questionnaire undergoes when it fails an edit. The record is examined by a clerical process and corrected, if possible, or sent to a telephone followup operation. The questionnaire is captured again and edits are run on this new capture. This process continues until the record passes.
redistricting   The process of revising the geographic boundaries of areas from which people elect representatives to the U.S. Congress, a state legislature, a county or city council, a school board, and the like to meet the legal requirement that such areas be as equal in population as possible following a census. See apportionment and reapportionment.
Redistricting Data Program   A decennial census program that permitted state officials to identify selected map features they wanted the Census Bureau to use (or not use) as census block boundaries and specific areas, such as voting districts and state legislative districts, for which they need census data. See Block Boundary Suggestion Project, redistricting, and Voting District Project.
refusal   Reluctance by residents, apartment managers, local officials, or others to cooperate with Census Bureau employees.
region (census geographic)   See census region.
regional census center RCC One of 12 temporary Census Bureau offices established for Census 2000 to manage census field office and local census office activities, and to conduct geographic programs and support operations. The Census Bureau also opened an "area office" to manage census operations in Puerto Rico. See Puerto Rico Area Office and regional office.
Regional Director RD Census Bureau. The head of a regional office and regional census center.
Regional Elected Officials Meeting REOM One of a series of regional meetings conducted by the Census Bureau with elected officials of local and state governments to encourage their support for Census 2000.
regional office RO One of 12 permanent Census Bureau offices established for the management of all census operations for the Census Bureau's censuses and surveys in specified areas.
regularly scheduled mobile food van   A van that regularly visits designated street locations for the primary purpose of providing food to people without housing. See emergency shelter; hotels, motels, and other facilities; shelter for children who are runaways, neglected, or without housing; soup kitchen; and transitional shelter.
reinterview   A quality control operation to verify that enumerators collected accurate information. A sample of households in an assignment area is contacted again in person or by telephone. An enumerator re-asks certain questions and compares the answers to the original questionnaire. This verifies that the enumerator visited the correct address and that the original questionnaire was completed accurately. This operation is performed after list/enumerate, update/enumerate, and Nonresponse Followup.
reminder/thank you card   A postcard sent to addresses on the Decennial Master Address File to remind people to return their Census 2000 questionnaires and to thank them if they already did. All addresses in mailout/mailback areas received a postcard. The Census Bureau also had the U.S. Postal Service deliver unaddressed postcards to all residential postal patrons in update/leave areas. See advance letter.
Remote Alaska enumeration   A modified version of the list/enumerate methodology used to enumerate the most sparsely settled, isolated parts of Alaska–areas accessible only by small plane, boat, snowmobile, 4-wheel-drive vehicle, dog sled, or a combination of these–in January-April 2000. Remote Alaska enumeration begins in mid-January so enumerators can reach people living in these remote locations before the spring thaw. (Once the spring thaw begins, travel to these areas may be difficult.) Questions are asked as of Census Day.
replacement questionnaire   A second questionnaire that was to be sent to addresses on the Decennial Master Address File in mailout/mailback areas to increase mail response rates as part of the questionnaire mailing strategy. This strategy was not used for Census 2000.
request for proposal RFP A government announcement in the Commerce Business Daily and on the Internet requesting vendors to propose a technical solution, with costs, for a statement of need or a statement of work.
requirements initiative RI The documentation of business plans in support of expenditure of funds for acquisition of information technology products and services.
research and experimentation REX The program of studies used to evaluate a census, to research new procedures and techniques, and to conduct experiments under true census conditions.
residence status   A code identifying each person as either a resident or nonresident of a housing unit on Census Day.
Residential Finance Survey RFS A Census Bureau survey conducted in the year following the decennial census since 1951. The survey collects information about the acquisition and financing of 68,000 non-farm residential properties in the United States for the Department of Housing and Urban Development.
respondent   The person supplying survey or census information about his or her living quarters and its occupants, or a knowledgeable person if a resident is not available. See householder and proxy.
response rate   The percentage of housing units for which the Census Bureau received completed questionnaires for an area. The numerator includes responses from the following sources: mailed-in questionnaires (including responses from mailout/mailback, update/leave, and urban update/leave areas, and the Be Counted Program), responses collected from Telephone Questionnaire Assistance, and Internet responses. To avoid double-counting, the Census Bureau tallies only one response (the first valid response received) for each census identification number. The denominator represents the total number of housing unit identification numbers (a code assigned to each unique address) from the mailout/mailback, update/leave, and urban update/leave universes.
restricted access building/secured building   An apartment building (that is, a multi-unit building) that can be entered only through doors that are locked to the public or through an entrance where a guard is stationed. See gated community.
return rate   See initial mail response rate, mail return rate, and response rate.
Reverse CATI   See telephone interview (reverse CATI).
Road Tour   A Census 2000 public relations operation conducted between February 15 and April 15, 2000, for which the Census Bureau used 12 recreational vehicles to promote Census 2000 across the conterminous United States.
rural   All territory, population, and housing units located outside of urbanized areas and urban clusters. Because "urban" and "rural" are delineated independent of any geographic entity except census block, the rural classification may cut across all other geographic entities; for example, there is generally both urban and rural territory within both metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas. See urban.
Rural Addressing Program RAP An early-1990s program to update the information in the TIGER® database as local governments established new city-style address systems, and to determine the feasibility of using local information to insert geocodable noncity-style addresses into the Master Address File and their address ranges in the TIGER® database. It was replaced by the 1996 Address System Information Survey.
rural delivery area   An area within which a post office delivers mail to residents living on rural delivery routes, as designated by the U.S. Postal Service. While many housing units in a rural delivery area use noncity-style addresses, some rural delivery routes deliver mail to a substantial number of housing units that use house-number- and-street-name addresses. See address, city delivery area, E-911 address, noncity-style address, and nondelivery area.
Sample Census Edited File SCEF A file containing 100-percent and sample characteristics for housing units and people in the long-form sample. Processing for the SCEF included merging the results of industry and occupation coding and place-of-work and migration coding, coding several other items, and weighting the long forms.
Sample Census Unedited File SCUF The Decennial Response File is combined with the Decennial Master Address File to create the Hundred Percent Census Unedited File and the Sample Census Unedited File. The SCUF contains the individual responses to items on the long-form questionnaires.
sample coding   Coding and classification of write-in responses (for example, place of work) for the tabulation of sample data.
sample data   Census data derived from additional questions asked of about 17 percent of the population on the long-form questionnaire for Census 2000, and on a continuous basis for areas covered by the American Community Survey. The person questions cover social characteristics, such as ancestry, disability, grandparents as caregivers, education, marital status, and veteran status, and economic characteristics, such as 1999 income and work status and industry, occupation, and class of worker. The housing questions cover physical characteristics, such as the number of rooms, type of heating fuel, and telephone service availability, and financial characteristics, such as rent, mortgage, utilities, taxes, and fuel costs. See hundred percent data and long form.
sample data products   See Sample Data Summary Files.
Sample Data Summary Files   Files generated from the decennial census data and made available to the public. They include social, housing, and economic characteristics. Summary File 3 presents population counts for ancestry groups. Summary File 4 presents population and housing unit characteristics iterated for many detailed race and Hispanic or Latino categories, American Indian and Alaska Native tribes, and ancestry groups. See sample data.
Sample Edited Detail File SEDF The census data file resulting from application of disclosure avoidance techniques to the individual responses and assignment of tabulation geography to the housing units in the Census Edited File and Sample Census Edited File. Staff applies the results of the Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation survey to these files to create the Hundred Percent Edited Detail File (HEDF) for the short-form questionnaire items and the Sample Edited Detail File (SEDF) for the long-form questionnaire items. These files are used for tabulation purposes only and are not released to the public.
sampling error   An error that occurs because only part of the population is contacted directly. As with any sample, differences are likely to exist between the characteristics of the sampled population and the larger group from which the sample was chosen. Sampling error, unlike nonsampling error, is measurable.
sampling stratum   A grouping or classification that has a similar set of characteristics, based on the previous census.
scanner   Equipment used to capture images from documents for the purpose of entering the information into an electronic format. For Census 2000, scanners replaced some keying operations.
school district   A geographic entity delineated by state, county, or local officials, the U.S. Department of Defense, or the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs to designate the school(s) that students in a particular locale must attend. Census 2000 provides data for elementary, secondary, unified, and selected special school districts.
seasonal/recreational-occasional use housing unit   A housing unit held for occupancy only during limited portions of the year, such as a beach cottage, ski cabin, or time-share condominium.
segment   A cluster of one or more housing units used in a sample survey conducted by the Census Bureau. For example, the Current Population Survey uses segments or clusters of 4 housing units. The reliability of an estimate from a sample survey is affected by the cluster size. Assuming clusters of all sizes are the same for a given characteristic, the larger the cluster, the higher the variance; in practice, for economic purposes, smaller clusters are preferred. See street segment.
self-enumerating place   A group quarters, such as a hospital or prison, where the safety of the residents and/or the enumerators is a concern. A staff member of the facility lists the names of all people staying in each group quarters at the facility, and he/she or the residents complete the Individual Census Report packets. A crew leader returns to collect the completed materials. Note: Military Census Reports are used at military installations and Shipboard Census Reports are used for crews of vessels.
separate living quarters   Living quarters in which one or more occupants live separately from any other individual(s) in the building and have direct access to the living quarters without going through another living quarters, such as from outside the building or through a common hall. For vacant units, the criteria of separateness and direct access are applied to the intended occupants.
service-based enumeration SBE A method of data collection designed to count people at facilities that primarily serve people without conventional housing in the United States and Puerto Rico. These facilities include emergency or transitional shelters, soup kitchens, and regularly scheduled mobile food van stops. In addition, service-based enumeration counts people at targeted nonsheltered outdoor locations where people might have been living in March (before Census Day, April 1) without paying to stay there and who did not usually receive services at soup kitchens, shelters, or mobile food vans. These facilities and locations need special procedures separate from the group quarters enumeration.
shelter for children who are runaways, neglected, or without housing   Includes shelters and group homes that provide temporary sleeping facilities for juveniles. See emergency shelter; hotels, motels, and other facilities; regularly scheduled mobile food van; soup kitchen; and transitional shelter.
Shelter/Street Night S-Night This operation was not used for Census 2000. It was a national operation during the 1990 census to count the homeless and others not covered by usual census procedures. The operation had a shelter phase and a street phase. See service-based enumeration and Transient Night Enumeration.
Shipboard Census Report SCR A census questionnaire used for military and maritime (civilian) personnel aboard ships on Census Day.
short form SF The decennial census questionnaire containing only the 100-percent questions. See hundred percent data and long form.
Simplified Enumerator Questionnaire SEQ A questionnaire that enumerators used for Transient, or T-Night, Enumeration, Nonresponse Followup, and Coverage Improvement Followup.
Single MIM-Based Integrated Mapping System SMIMS A software system that enables the Census Bureau's Geography Division to create Map Image Metafiles (MIMs) from the TIGER® database according to the cartographic design for a specific mapping project.
Small-Area Estimation   The process of applying the results of the Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation survey's estimation process to the Hundred Percent Detail File to create the Hundred Percent Edited Detail File. The process provides population estimates for selected geographic entities, such as census blocks, census tracts, counties, and Congressional districts.
soup kitchen   A soup kitchen, food line, or other program that distributes prepared breakfasts, lunches, and/or dinners. These programs may be organized as food service lines, bag or box lunches, or tables where people are seated and served by program personnel. These programs may or may not have a place for clients to sit and eat the meal. See emergency shelter; hotels, motels, and other facilities; regularly scheduled mobile food van; shelter for children who are runaways, neglected, or without housing; and transitional shelter.
Source Selection Evaluation Board SSEB A group of professionals who evaluate proposals to perform work for the Census Bureau and select the source for a contract award.
source selection official SSO A person who uses the factors established by the Source Selection Evaluation Board to evaluate and select contracts for award purposes.
special census   A federal census conducted at the request and expense of a local governmental agency to obtain a population count between decennial censuses.
special notice   A page in an address register or address binder to remind the enumerator of the confidentiality of the information being collected and to remind the enumerator to make legible entries.
special place SP A facility containing one or more group quarters where people live or stay, such as a college or university, nursing home, hospital, prison, hotel, migrant or seasonal farm worker camp, or military installation or ship. While a special place usually consists of one or more group quarters, and may contain embedded or free-standing housing units, it may consist entirely of housing units, such as a campground that has only trailer, RV, and/or tent sites. See embedded housing unit, freestanding housing unit, group quarters, and housing unit. The concept of special place will not be used for the 2010 Census.
Special Place Advance Visit SPAV An operation designed to confirm the location of a group quarters and other information to aid in the preparation for enumeration, and to establish a pre-enumeration contact with an official at a special place (including military bases) to facilitate the actual enumeration. This concept does not apply to the 2010 Census. See Group Quarters Advance Visit.
Special Place Facility Questionnaire SPFQ In Census 2000, this was a questionnaire used to interview an official at a special place for the purpose of collecting and updating name and address information for the special place and associated group quarters and housing units, determining the type of special place/group quarters, and collecting additional administrative information about each group quarters at the special place. See Special Place Facility Questionnaire operation
Special Place Facility Questionnaire operation SPFQ operation For Census 2000, this was a census operation for which interviewers at telephone centers call each special place on the Census Bureau's special place file to conduct computer assisted telephone interviews. They collect or update address information for the special place and associated group quarters and housing units, determine the type of special place and associated group quarters, and collect additional information about each group quarters at the special place. If the interview cannot be completed by telephone, an enumerator visits the facility to conduct the interview. See Special Place Facility Questionnaire.
special sworn status SSS The designation for a temporary employee hired to assist the Census Bureau on work authorized by Title 13, subject to the same confidentiality requirements as regular Census Bureau employees. See confidentiality and Privacy Act.
standard deviation   A measure of the dispersion of values in a frequency distribution from the average; i.e., it shows the average variability of a population from the mean.
standard error   A measure of the deviation of a sample estimate from the average of all possible samples.
state   The primary governmental division of the United States. The Census Bureau treats the District of Columbia as the equivalent of a state for data presentation purposes. It also treats a number of entities that are not legal divisions of the United States (Puerto Rico and the Island Areas) as equivalent to a state for data presentation purposes. See Island Areas.
state certifying official SCO An official designated by the governor of each state to review and certify that the Census Bureau's inventory of local governmental units in that state is accurate, and that reported boundary changes were accomplished in accordance with state law. See Boundary and Annexation Survey.
state code   A 2-digit Federal Information Processing Standards code assigned by the National Institute of Standards and Technology to identify each state and statistically equivalent entity. Also, a 2-digit code assigned by the Census Bureau to sort states geographically within census divisions. See code, Federal Information Processing Standards code, and geographic code.
State Data Center SDC A state agency or university facility identified by the governor of each state or statistically equivalent entity to participate in the Census Bureau's cooperative network for the dissemination of census data. An SDC also may provide demographic data to local agencies participating in the Census Bureau's statistical areas programs and may assist the Census Bureau in the identification and delineation of various geographic entities.
state designated American Indian statistical area SDAISA A statistical entity delineated for an American Indian tribe that does not have a land base (reservation) and is recognized as a tribe by a state government, but not the federal government. SDAISAs are identified and delineated for the Census Bureau by a liaison identified by a state's governor's office. A SDAISA generally encompasses a compact and contiguous area that contains a concentration of people who identify with a state recognized American Indian tribe and in which there is structured or organized tribal activity. A SDAISA may not be located in more than one state unless the tribe is recognized by both state governments, and it may not include area within an American Indian reservation, off-reservation trust land, Oklahoma tribal statistical area, tribal designated statistical area, or Alaska Native village statistical area. SDAISAs were included with tribal designated statistical areas for the 1990 census; this designation is new for Census 2000.
state legislative district SLD The area represented by a member of the upper or lower chamber of a state legislature (or, for Nebraska, its unicameral legislature).
statement of need SON A description of the services and/or final product solicited by a government agency. See statement of work.
statement of work SOW A description of the objectives and/or tasks required to be accomplished as part of a request for proposal or in a contract for professional services. See statement of need.
Statistical Administrative Records System StARS The StARS is a research project designed to build annual databases of personal and address data using administrative records from various government agencies.
statistical design   The development of the methods for all statistical programs in the census.
statistical entity   A specially defined and delineated geographic entity, such as a metropolitan area, urbanized area, tribal designated statistical area, census county division, census designated place, census tract, block group, or census block, for which the Census Bureau tabulates data. Statistical entity boundaries generally are not legally defined, and designation as a statistical entity neither conveys nor confers legal ownership, entitlement, or jurisdictional authority. See legal entity.
Statistical Research Division SRD Census Bureau. Conducts statistical and methodological research motivated by practical problems arising in all phases of data collection, processing, and dissemination.
street segment   The portion of a street or road between two features that intersect that street/road, such as other streets/roads, railroad tracks, streams, and governmental unit boundaries.
structure   Usually a separate building that has open space on all sides. However, the Census Bureau treats each townhouse as a separate structure. Some nonresidential structures may contain one or more residences, as in the case of an apartment located above a grocery store or in the basement of a church.
sub-MCD   A legal subdivision of a minor civil division (MCD). For Census 2000, only Puerto Rico has sub-MCDs (subbarrios).
subbarrio   The primary legal subdivision of a barrio or barrio-pueblo in 23 municipios in Puerto Rico. See sub-MCD.
Summary File SF One of series of Census 2000 state and national computer files containing great subject matter detail for a large number of geographic entities, ranging down to the block group or census block.
Summary File 1 SF 1 This Census 2000 file presents 100-percent population and housing data for the total population, for 63 race categories, and for many other race and Hispanic or Latino categories. The data include age, sex, households, household relationship, housing units, and tenure (whether the residence is owned or rented). Also included are selected characteristics for a limited number of race and Hispanic or Latino categories. The data are available for the U.S., census regions, census divisions, states and statistically equivalent entities, counties and statistically equivalent entities, county subdivisions, places, census tracts, block groups, census blocks, metropolitan areas, urban areas, American Indian and Alaska Native areas, tribal subdivisions, Hawaiian home lands, Congressional districts, and ZIP Code tabulation areas. Data are available down to the block level for many tabulations, but only to the census tract level for others. Available on CD-ROM, DVD, and American FactFinder.
Summary File 2 SF 2 This Census 2000 file presents data similar to the information included in Summary File 1. These data are shown down to the census tract level for 250 race, Hispanic or Latino, and American Indian and Alaska Native categories. For data to be shown in SF 2, a population category must meet a population size threshold of 100 or more people of that specific population category in a specific geographic entity. Available on CD-ROM, DVD, and American FactFinder.
Summary File 3 SF 3 This Census 2000 file presents data on population and housing long-form subjects, such as income and education. It includes population totals for ancestry groups. It also includes selected characteristics for a limited number of race and Hispanic or Latino categories. The data are available for the U.S., census regions, census divisions, states and statistically equivalent entities, counties and statistically equivalent entities, county subdivisions, places, census tracts, block groups, metropolitan areas, urban areas, American Indian and Alaska Native areas, tribal subdivisions, Hawaiian home lands, Congressional districts, and ZIP Code tabulation areas. Available on CD-ROM, DVD, and American FactFinder.
Summary File 4 SF 4 This Census 2000 file presents data similar to the information included in Summary File 3. The data are shown down to the census tract level for 336 race, Hispanic or Latino, American Indian and Alaska Native, and ancestry categories. For data to be shown in SF 4, there must be at least 50 unweighted sample cases of a specific population category in a specific geographic entity. In addition, data for the specific population category for the specific geographic entity must have been available in Summary File 2. Available on CD-ROM, DVD, and American FactFinder.
summary table   A collection of one or more data elements that are classified into some logical structure, either as dimensions or data points.
Summary Tape File STF One of series of four 1990 census summary tabulations of hundred percent data and sample population and housing data, available for public use on computer tape, CD-ROM, and the Internet. These files will not be produced for Census 2000.
super-PUMA   See public use microdata area.
switching   The name for a 1990 census disclosure avoidance procedure. Called the confidentiality edit for Census 2000.
tabulation block   The smallest area for which the Census Bureau provides decennial census data. A tabulation block cannot be split by the boundary of any legal or statistical entity recognized by the Census Bureau for data presentation. See block number, census block, and collection block.
tabulation geography   The geographic entities for which the Census Bureau tabulates and presents data, such as the United States, American Indian and Alaska Native areas, states and statistically equivalent entities, counties and statistically equivalent entities, county subdivisions, places, Congressional districts, metropolitan areas, census tracts, block groups, and census blocks. See collection geography, geographic entity, and geographic hierarchy.
Targeted Canvassing TC A procedure used in the Census 2000 Dress Rehearsal to find addresses missing in selected blocks in mailout/mailback areas. Replaced by block canvassing for Census 2000.
Targeted Extended Search TES An Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation (A.C.E.) operation to offset geocoding problems in the census. During person matching, the search area for nonmatches was expanded to blocks surrounding the A.C.E. sample blocks. Enumerators conducted interviews to gather additional information to aid in matching addresses on census records to addresses on the ground.
Targeted Field Address Conversion TFAC A post-Census 2000 attempt to improve the Master Address File by having field staff visit blocks that contain housing units whose MAF address consists only of a physical/location description, and have a high probability of containing residential structures with city-style addresses. The goal was to record a city-style address if field staff could observe one posted on or near a targeted housing unit.
targeted mailing   The mailing of replacement questionnaires to Census 2000 nonrespondents in mailback areas; that is, households that did not return a completed questionnaire by a certain time. The Census Bureau decided not to implement this operation for Census 2000.
Targeted Map Update TMU An operation for which census employees ("updaters") go into the field to find city-style address ranges that the regional offices and regional census centers (RCCs) were unable to resolve by Master Address File Geocoding Office Resolution. The updaters identify the streets and address ranges by annotating Census Bureau maps and lists of uncoded address ranges. They return the maps and lists to the RCCs, which insert the information into the TIGER® database and flag errors in the Master Address File.
Targeted Multi-Unit Check TMUC A procedure used in the Census 2000 Dress Rehearsal to find missing units in multi-unit structures in mailout/mailback areas. Replaced by block canvassing in Census 2000.
targeted nonsheltered outdoor location TNSOL A geographically identifiable outdoor location, open to the elements, where there is evidence that people might be living without paying to stay and without receiving services at soup kitchens, shelters, or mobile food vans. The sites must have a specific location description that allows a census enumeration team to physically locate the site; for example, "under Brooklyn Bridge at the corner of Bristol Drive" or "700 block of Taylor Street behind Smith Warehouse." These locations are enumerated during service-based enumeration. Excludes pay-for-use campgrounds, drop-in centers, post offices, hospital emergency rooms, and commercial sites (including all-night theaters and all-night diners).
targeting database   See planning database.
Technologies Management Office TMO Census Bureau. Develops and implements computer assisted data collection and related support operations. Oversees the development of automated instruments for computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) applications. Serves as liaison with production software contractors. Coordinates the activities of the data collection centers.
Technology Administration TA Department of Commerce. Serves the needs of technology-based industry. It includes three major organizations: the Office of Technology Policy, National Institute of Standards and Technology, and National Technical Information Service.
Telecommunications Office TCO Census Bureau. Provides telecommunications support throughout the Census Bureau, including support for Field Division surveys, and provides external customers with access to the Internet.
telephone followup TFU Telephone contact from a local census office or a data capture center to an occupied housing unit to complete or correct inadequate entries for mail-return questionnaires that failed an edit.
telephone interview (reverse CATI)   When the assistance provided by the menu-driven recording in Telephone Questionnaire Assistance is not sufficient in assisting a caller to complete his or her census questionnaire, a census operator offers to take an interview over the telephone.
Telephone Questionnaire Assistance TQA A service provided by telephone centers contracted by the Census Bureau to answer questions about Census 2000 or the census questionnaire. People could call six foreign-language toll-free telephone numbers (English, Spanish, Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Tagalog) to obtain assistance with filling out their questionnaires, obtain replacement questionnaires, obtain language assistance guides, or provide their census questionnaire information. Interactive voice recognition (a menu-driven recording) offered a first level of assistance, and a live census operator offered a second level of assistance. The National Processing Center's telephone center offered Telephone Device for the Deaf. The telephone centers could support approximately 11 million calls.
Telephone Questionnaire Assistance Field Verification TQA FV An operation to verify the existence and residential status of addresses given to the Census Bureau from the TQA operation. Addresses verified by an enumerator were added to the Master Address File.
tenure   The status of an occupied housing unit as either owner-occupied or renter-occupied.
test census   A partial or complete census of population and housing that the Census Bureau conducts in selected areas prior to a full-scale census to test the validity and effectiveness of a variety of operations, including alternatives. See dress rehearsal.
TIGER®   See Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing database.
TIGER® Improvement Program TIP An operation that provided local and tribal governments and regional and metropolitan agencies in mailout/mailback areas the opportunity to assist the Census Bureau in locating and updating street features, street names, and address ranges in the TIGER® database. This information enabled the Census Bureau to link U.S. Postal Service addresses with the TIGER® database.
TIGER/Line® file   A computer-readable extract of the TIGER® database that the Census Bureau makes available to the public. It contains data representing the position of roads and streets, railroads, bodies of water, boundaries of legal and statistical entities, and other visible and invisible features, along with selected attributes (names, address ranges, geographic codes, census feature class codes, and the like).
Title 13 (U.S. Code)   The law under which the Census Bureau operates. The law guarantees the confidentiality of census information, and establishes penalties for disclosing this information. It also provides the authorization for conducting censuses in Puerto Rico and the Island Areas.
tool kit   Special census methods and procedures available for improving cooperation or enumeration in hard-to-enumerate areas. These are not normally scheduled operation, but are available to the regional census centers as needed.
Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing database TIGER® database A digital (computer-readable) geographic database that automates the mapping and related geographic activities required to support the Census Bureau's census and survey programs. The database contains a digital representation of all census-required map features (streets and roads; railroads; hydrographic features, such as rivers and lakes; boundaries of legal, statistical, and data collection entities; etc.) and the attributes associated with each feature and geographic entity (name, city-style address ranges, map spots and map spot numbers, appropriate codes, etc.). It is stored in multiple partitions (counties or portions of counties), which together represent all the territory covered by the decennial census-the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Island Areas-as a single seamless data inventory. Previously referred to as the TIGER File. TIGER was preceded by the GBF/DIME (Geographic Base File/Dual Independent Map Encoding) Files and Address Coding Guides (ACGs). See TIGER/Line® file.
Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing System TIGER® System The TIGER® database plus the specifications, procedures, computer programs, and related source (input) files and materials required to build, use, and maintain it.
Touchtone data entry TDE An automated data capture technology that allows a respondent, using the keypad of a touchtone telephone, to reply to computer generated prompts.
town   A type of minor civil division in the New England states, New York, and Wisconsin; a type of incorporated place in 30 states and the Virgin Islands of the United States. In New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and South Dakota, towns are incorporated places that are not part of any minor civil division, and the Census Bureau treats them as county subdivisions as well as places for data presentation purposes.
township   A type of minor civil division in 16 states. In some states, many or all townships are nonfunctioning entities. In Michigan, some townships are legally designated as "charter townships."
tract   See census tract.
tract number   See census tract number.
traditional census   See list/enumerate.
traffic analysis zone TAZ A statistical entity delineated by state and/or local transportation officials for tabulating traffic-related data– especially journey-to-work and place-of-work statistics–from a decennial census. A TAZ usually consists of one or more census blocks, block groups, or census tracts.
trailer park   See mobile home/trailer park.
transient location   Living quarters for people who have no usual home elsewhere. They were enumerated during Transient Night Enumeration. Examples include YMCAs, YWCAs, campgrounds at racetracks, recreational vehicle campgrounds and parks, commercial and public campgrounds, fairs and carnivals, and marinas.
Transient Night T-Night A type of group quarters enumeration in which special procedures are used to count people at transient locations, such as campgrounds at racetracks, recreational vehicle campgrounds and parks, commercial and public campgrounds, fairs and carnivals, and marinas. Enumerators conduct a personal interview using a (Simplified) Enumerator Questionnaire.
transitional shelter   A shelter providing a maximum stay for clients of up to two years and offering support services to promote self-sufficiency and to help clients obtain permanent housing. See emergency shelter; hotels, motels, and other facilities; regularly scheduled mobile food van; shelter for children who are runaways, neglected, or without housing; and soup kitchen.
tribal block group tribal BG A block group within a tribal census tract. Where a census tract numbered in the 9400 series crosses a county line, a tribal BG may be located on both sides of that boundary. See block group and tribal census tract.
tribal census tract   A census tract or a portion of a census tract located within a federally recognized American Indian reservation and/or off-reservation trust land. Thus, the boundary of a federally recognized American Indian reservation and off-reservation trust land is always a tribal census tract boundary. Some of these census tracts are numbered in the 9400 series, primarily if they cross a county line. See census tract and tribal block group.
tribal designated statistical area TDSA A statistical entity delineated for the Census Bureau by a federally recognized American Indian tribe that does not have a land base (a federally recognized reservation or off-reservation trust land). A TDSA generally encompasses a compact and contiguous area that contains a concentration of people who identify with a federally recognized American Indian tribe and in which there is structured or organized tribal activity. A TDSA may not include area within an American Indian reservation, off-reservation trust land, Oklahoma tribal statistical area, state designated American Indian statistical area, or Alaska Native village statistical area. For the 1990 census, it could not cross a state line, but it may do so for Census 2000. For the 1990 census, TDSAs included state recognized tribes without a land base; these are now called state designated American Indian statistical areas.
tribal jurisdiction statistical area TJSA See Oklahoma tribal statistical area.
Tribal Review Program   A Census Bureau program that in 1997 enabled officials of all federally recognized American Indian tribes with a land base and the tribes in Oklahoma to review and update the Census Bureau maps for their areas. Beginning with the 1998 Boundary and Annexation Survey, federal tribes with a land base were included in that survey. Other programs involving map review for American Indian/Alaska Native areas included Address Listing Map Review, Block Definition Project, Boundary and Annexation Survey, Census Map Preview, and Local Update of Census Addresses.
tribal subdivision   See American Indian tribal subdivision.
trust land   See American Indian off-reservation trust land.
turnover rate   The total number of enumerators who quit during a field operation divided by the total number of enumerators hired for that operation.
Two Pass   A data capture procedure in which the hundred percent data are keyed from image in a first pass and the sample data are keyed from image in a second pass. The objective was to ensure collection of the hundred percent data prior to operational deadlines.
type of enumeration area TEA A classification identifying how the Census Bureau obtained addresses for, and subsequently took the decennial census of, a census collection block. The TEA for a block could be changed after a precensus operation. The Census Bureau identified nine TEAs for Census 2000. Examples of TEAs include: • block canvassing, and then mailout/mailback areas • address listing, and then update/leave areas • list/enumerate areas
undeliverable-as-addressed UAA A U.S. Postal Service notification that a mailing piece could not be delivered to the designated address. Formerly called a Postmaster Return.
Undeliverable-as-Addressed Redistribution   An operation that was a cooperative effort between the Census Bureau and the U.S. Postal Service to attempt to have Census Bureau field staff redistribute a portion of the questionnaire packages that the U.S. Postal Service could not deliver because of incorrect ZIP Codes, lack of residential delivery in the area, and other reasons.
unit designation   The number or letter of a specific unit in a multi-unit structure, such as Apt 101, 102; Apt A, B, C; or Basement, Left, Lower, Right, Upper. Also refers to a lot number in a mobile home/trailer park.
United States U.S., US The 50 states and the District of Columbia.
United States Geological Survey USGS U.S. Government. Provides reliable scientific information to describe and understand the Earth, especially the United States, including preparation of topographic, geologic, and other maps; to minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters; and to manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources.
United States Postal Service USPS U.S. Government. The organization responsible for delivering pre-addressed questionnaires in mailout/mailback areas for Census 2000 and the producer of the Delivery Sequence File and associated files.
unorganized territory UT In a state in which the Census Bureau provides data for minor civil divisions (MCDs), the portion of a county that is not included in a legally established MCD or in an incorporated place that is independent of an MCD. For data presentation purposes, the Census Bureau recognizes such area as one or more separate county subdivisions, each designated as an unorganized territory. See county subdivision and statistical entity.
update/enumerate U/E A method of data collection conducted in communities with special enumeration needs and where many housing units may not have house-number-and-street-name mailing addresses. Enumerators canvassed assignment areas to update residential addresses, including adding living quarters that were not included on the address listing pages, update Census Bureau maps, and complete a questionnaire for each housing unit. For Census 2000, these areas included selected American Indian reservations, colonias (small, usually rural Spanish-speaking communities), and resort areas with high concentrations of seasonally vacant living quarters.
update/leave U/L A method of data collection in which enumerators canvassed assignment areas to deliver a census questionnaire to each housing unit. At the same time, enumerators updated the address listing pages and Census Bureau maps. The household was asked to complete and return the questionnaire by mail. This method was used primarily in areas where many homes do not receive mail at a city-style address; that is, the majority of United States households not included in mailout/mailback. Update/leave was used for all of Puerto Rico in Census 2000. See urban update/leave.
urban   For Census 2000, all territory, population, and housing units in urbanized areas and urban clusters. Because "urban" and "rural" are delineated independent of any other geographic entity, the urban classification may cut across other geographic entities; for example, there is generally both urban and rural territory within both metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas. Prior to Census 2000, "urban" referred to all territory, population, and housing units located within urbanized areas and, outside of urbanized areas, most incorporated places with a population of 2,500 or more. See rural and urban area.
urban area   A generic term that refers to both urbanized areas and urban clusters. This terminology is new for Census 2000.
urban cluster UC A densely settled area that has a census population of 2,500 to 49,999. This entity is new for Census 2000. See central place, urban area and urbanized area. NOTE: Any urban area delineated in Guam is classified as an urban cluster regardless of its population size.
urban growth area, urban growth boundary UGA, UGB In Oregon, an "urban growth boundary" is delineated around each incorporated place or a group of incorporated places by state and local officials, and subsequently confirmed in state law, to control urban development. The U.S. Census Bureau refers to the resulting geographic entities as "urban growth areas" (UGAs). UGAs are new for Census 2000. ("Urban growth boundary" is a legal term; "urban growth area" is a Census Bureau term.)
urban update/enumerate UU/E A 1990 census method of data collection within mailout/mailback areas in selected cities to enumerate blocks occupied almost entirely by boarded-up structures. Enumerators completed a census questionnaire for each occupied and inhabitable vacant housing unit, and updated their address registers and Census Bureau maps. The Census Bureau did not use this type of enumeration for Census 2000.
urban update/leave UU/L A method of data collection used in selected mailout/mailback collection blocks where mail delivery may be a problem, such as apartment buildings where the mail carrier may leave the questionnaires in a common area. Enumerators canvassed each block, delivered census questionnaires for residents to complete and mail, and updated their address registers and Census Bureau maps. See update/leave.
urbanized area UA A densely settled area that has a census population of at least 50,000. See central place, urban areas and urban cluster. NOTE: Any urban area delineated in Guam is classified as an urban cluster regardless of its population size
User-Defined Areas Program UDAP A 1990 census program that provided data for geographic areas that did not correspond to standard census geographic areas. Users identified the geographic areas of interest to them by compiling census blocks. The Census Bureau then performed special tabulations to create a set of predefined tables of information for these areas. The Bureau charged a fee for compiling the data. For Census 2000, in many cases, the data user can obtain or create the needed data via the American FactFinder
usual home elsewhere UHE A housing unit that is temporarily occupied by one or more people who have a usual residence elsewhere. The unit is classified as vacant, and the residents are counted at their usual residence.
usual residence   The living quarters where a person spends more nights during a year than any other place.
vacant housing unit   A housing unit in which no one is living on Census Day, unless its occupants are only temporarily absent. Units temporarily occupied at the time of enumeration by individuals who have a usual home elsewhere are classified as vacant. (Transient quarters, such as hotels, are housing units only if occupied. Thus, there are no vacant housing units at hotels and the like.) New units not yet occupied are classified as vacant housing units if construction has reached a point where all exterior windows and doors are installed and final usable floors are in place. Vacant units are excluded from the housing unit inventory if they are open to the elements, have a posted "condemned" sign, or are used entirely for nonresidential purposes (except storage of household furniture).
village   A type of incorporated place in 20 states and American Samoa. All villages in New Jersey, South Dakota, and Wisconsin, and some villages in Ohio, are incorporated places that are not part of any minor civil division, and the Census Bureau treats them as county subdivisions for data preparation purposes.
visible feature   A feature that can be seen on the ground, such as a street or road, railroad track, power line, stream, shoreline, fence, ridge, or cliff. A visible feature can be a manmade (cultural) or natural (physical) feature. See map feature and invisible feature.
voice recognition entry VRE An automated data capture technology that allows a respondent, speaking over a telephone, to reply to computer generated prompts. It is a component in the modular data management network maintained by the Computer Assisted Survey Research Office.
voting district VTD The generic name for a geographic entity, such as an election district, precinct, or ward, established by state, local, and tribal governments for the purpose of conducting elections.
Voting District Project VTDP This is the second phase of the Census Bureau's Redistricting Data Program for Census 2000. It provided state officials with the opportunity to identify the state legislative districts–for each house of their legislative body, if appropriate–and the voting districts or similar areas for which they want the Bureau to provide census data. See Block Boundary Suggestion Project, Public Law 94-171, Redistricting Data Program, voting district.
walk-in questionnaire assistance center   A site, such as a post office, library, store, shopping mall, school, community center, or other place that people frequent, where unaddressed questionnaires, called Be Counted forms, were offered in an attempt to ensure everyone had an opportunity to be counted in Census 2000. The centers were staffed by volunteers and Census Bureau employees.
whole household usual home elsewhere WHUHE See usual home elsewhere.
wide area network WAN A group of computers linked within a network, such as, the Census Bureau's regional offices, to exchange and share information. A local area network may link computers within a building or among several buildings, whereas a WAN covers more area and distance. See local area network.
Within-Block Search   A Census 2000 operation that searched within a census block for a person record for the same person appearing on two or more questionnaires.
work breakdown structure WBS An organized list, in outline form, of all tasks needed to complete a project. For the Master Activity Schedule, the tasks are organized by major programs or functions. All Census 2000 program documentation and planning are keyed to this. For example, the scope and content of the Program Master Plans are keyed to lines in the WBS, and documents in the Census 2000 library are referenced to the WBS.
ZIP+4®   A 4-digit code that follows a 5-digit ZIP Code® established by the U.S. Postal Service for the purpose of expediting and automating mail delivery. The 9-digit code generally identifies a small postal delivery area, such as one side of a street segment, an entire cul-de-sac or similar dead-end street, a group of post office boxes, a floor within a commercial building, or a division within a company.
ZIP Code®   An administrative unit established by the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) for the distribution of mail. It is a 5-, 7-, 9-, or 11-digit code assigned by the USPS to a street or portion of a street, a collection of streets, a business or other establishment or structure, or a group of post office boxes to expedite the delivery of mail. The Census Bureau used only 5-digit ZIP Codes® for the addresses and address ranges in most Census 2000 operations. ZIP stands for Zone Improvement Plan. See ZIP Code area.
ZIP Code® area   The addresses served by a 5-digit ZIP Code® established by the U.S. Postal Service to expedite the delivery of mail. Most ZIP Codes do not have specific boundaries, and their implied boundaries do not necessarily follow clearly identifiable visible or invisible map features; also, the carrier routes for one ZIP Code may intertwine with those of one or more other ZIP Codes, and therefore this "area" is more conceptual than geographic. See ZIP+4, ZIP Code, ZIP Code tabulation area.
ZIP Code® tabulation area ZCTA™ A statistical entity developed by the Census Bureau to approximate the delivery area for a U.S. Postal Service 5-digit ZIP Code,® based on the residential mailing addresses in the Census Bureau's Master Address File. ZCTAs are aggregations of census blocks that have the same predominant ZIP Code associated with their addresses. Thus, the Postal Service's delivery areas have been adjusted to encompass whole census blocks so that the Census Bureau can tabulate census data for the ZCTAs. Where the Census Bureau did not have 5-digit ZIP Code information, it used 3-digit codes followed by a suffix of HH for water area and XX for land area so that a ZCTA would be assigned to every block in the United States and Pureto Rico. The 3-digit ZCTAs for the dress rehearsal used two blank spaces instead of suffixes. ZCTAs do not include all ZIP Codes used for mail delivery. The Bureau first created ZCTAs for the Census 2000 Dress Rehearsal census. See ZIP Code, ZIP Code area.
zona urbana ZU In Puerto Rico, a census designated place consisting of the municipio seat of government and the adjacent builtup area. A zona urbana cannot cross its municipio's boundary. See census designated place and comunidad.

Top

Abbreviations/Acronyms
Name Definition
AA assignment area
AAD Assistant to the Associate Director
AARP Automated Address Range Program
AB address binder
A.C.E. Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation
A.C.E. 2000 Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation 2000
ACERO Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation Regional Office
ACF Address Control File
ACG Address Coding Guide
ACR Advance Census Report
ACS American Community Survey
ACS-CP American Community Survey-Coverage Program
ACSD Administrative and Customer Services Division
AD Associate Director
ADP automated data processing
AFF American FactFinder
AIANA American Indian/Alaska Native area
AIANAHH American Indian area/Alaska Native area/Hawaiian home land
AL address listing
ALMI Automated Listing and Mapping Instrument
ALMR Address Listing Map Review
AMAFGOR Automated Master Address File Geocoding Office Resolution
ANCSA Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act
ANRC Alaska Native Regional Corporation
ANV Alaska Native village
ANVSA Alaska Native village statistical area
AR address register
ARA address register area
ASAP A Streamlined Acquisition Process
ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASIS Address System Information Survey
ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode
BAFO best and final offer
BAS Boundary and Annexation Survey
BBDP Block Boundary Definition Project
BBSP Block Boundary Suggestion Project
BC Be Counted
BC/TQA FV Be Counted/Telephone Questionnaire Assistance Field Verification
BDP Block Definition Project
BEA Bureau of Economic Analysis
BG block group
BIA Bureau of Indian Affairs
BLS Bureau of Labor Statistics
BNA block numbering area
BOC Bureau of the Census
BSA basic street address
BVP Boundary Validation Program
C2PO Census 2000 Publicity Office
C&P Cost and Progress System for Census 2000
CAC Census Advisory Committee
CAMS Commerce Administrative Management System
CAO Congressional Affairs Office
CAPI computer assisted personal interview
CASRO Computer Assisted Survey Research Office
CATI computer assisted telephone interview
CAUS Community Address Updating System
C-BAS Consolidated Boundary and Annexation Survey
CBD Commerce Business Daily
CCC Complete Count Committee
CCD census county division
CCM census coverage measurement
CCSP Census 2000 Committee on Statistical Policy
CD Congressional district; compact disk
CDP census designated place
CD-ROM compact disk - read-only memory
CEF Census Edited File
CEFU Coverage Edit Followup
CFO census field office
CHEC census hiring and employment check
CIC Census Information Center
CIFU Coverage Improvement Followup
CIG Census Integration Group
CL crew leader
CLA crew leader assistant
CLD crew leader district
CLO Customer Liaison Office
CMP Census Map Preview
CMS Correspondence Management Staff
CMSA consolidated metropolitan statistical area
CNMI Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands
COM Census Operational Managers
CONOPS Concept of Operations
COOP Continuity of Operations Plan
COTS commercially available off-the-shelf software
CPEX 2010 Census Program for Evaluations and Experiments
CPH Census of Population and Housing
CQR Count Question Resolution
CRADA Cooperative Research and Development Agreement
CRP classroom pilot (scenarios)
CSAC census statistical areas committee
CSAKP census statistical areas key person
CSvD Computer Services Division
CUF Census Unedited File
CV coefficient of variation
DA demographic analysis; disclosure avoidance
DAAL Demographic Area Address Listing
DADS Data Access and Dissemination System
DANC Decennial Applicant Name Check
DAPPS Decennial Applicant, Personnel, and Payroll System
DCAR Data Capture Audit and Resolution
DCC data capture center
DCM Decennial Cost Model
DCS 2000 Data Capture System 2000
DCSC Data Capture Services Contract
DDCSC Decennial Division Chiefs Steering Committee
DDMS Decennial Document Management System
DEX digital exchange file
DFI decennial field interface
DIME Dual Independent Map Encoding
DLG digital line graph
DMAF Decennial Master Address File
DMD Decennial Management Division
DMIS Data Capture Management Information System
DO district office
DOC Department of Commerce
DoD Department of Defense
DPD Data Preparation Division (see NPC)
DR dress rehearsal
DRF Decennial Response File
DRIS Decennial Response Integration System
DSAT Decennial Systems Architecture Team
DSCMO Decennial Systems and Contracts Management Office
DSD Demographic Surveys Division
DSE Dual System Estimation
DSEP Data Stewardship Executive Policy Committee
DSF Delivery Sequence File
DSMD Demographic Statistical Methods Division
DSSD Decennial Statistical Studies Division
EC economic census
ED enumeration district
EDA Economic Development Administration
EHU embedded housing unit
EIS Executive Information System; Enterprise Information System
ELCO early opening local census office
ESA Economics and Statistics Administration
ESCAP Executive Steering Committee for A.C.E. Policy
ESOC Executive State of the Census
FA field assignment
FARSAS Feature and Address Reference Source Assessment Survey
FDCA Field Data Collection Automation Program
FFU Field Followup
FIPS Federal Information Processing Standard(s)
FLD Field Division
FOIA Freedom of Information Act
FOS field operations supervisor
FOSDIC Film Optical Sensing Device for Input to Computers
FSHU freestanding housing unit
FU followup
FV field verification
FY fiscal year
GAIL Group Quarters Automated Instrument for Listing
GAO Government Accounting Office
GBF/DIME Geographic Base File/Dual Independent Map Encoding
GCT Geographic Comparison Table
GEO Geography Division
GEO-CAT Geographic Catalog of Legal and Statistical Entities
GIS geographic information system
GPO Government Printing Office
GPP Geographic Program Participant (database)
GQ group quarters
GQAV group quarters advance visit
GQE group quarters enumeration
GQR Geographic Quick Report
GQV group quarters validation
GRF Geographic Reference File
GRF-C Geographic Reference File - Codes
GRF-N Geographic Reference File - Names
GSA General Services Agency
GSS Geographic Support System
GU governmental unit
GUPCP Geographically Updated Population Certification Program
GUS Geographic Update System
GUSSIE Geographic Update System in Support of Intercensal Estimates
GusX Geographic Update System for X Window
HA FV Household and Address Field Verification
HAKWAN How America Knows What America Needs
HCEF Hundred Percent Census Edited File
HCUF Hundred Percent Census Unedited File
HDF Hundred Detail File
HEDF Hundred Percent Edited Detail File
HEO highest elected official
HH household
HHC hand held computer
HHES Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division
HHL Hawaiian home land
HN/SN house number and street name (address)
HQ headquarters
HQDP headquarters data processing
HTE hard-to-enumerate
HU housing unit
HUFU Housing Unit Followup
IAs Island Areas
I&O industry and occupation
ICM Integrated Coverage Measurement
ICQ Individual Census Questionnaire
ICR Individual Census Report
IG Inspector General
IPT Integrated Product Team
IQA Internet Questionnaire Assistance
IR/CC Board Issue Resolution/Change Control Board
IRD Invalid Return Detection
ISSRO Information Systems Support and Review Office
IST Integrated System Team
IT information technology
ITA International Trade Administration
IVR interactive voice recognition
KFI key from image
KFP key from paper
LAN local area network
LCO local census office
L/E list/enumerate
LF long form
LHFU Large Household Followup
LHH large household
LKU Local Knowledge Update
LMR late mail return
LQ living quarters
LSAD legal/statistical area description
LUCA Local Update of Census Addresses
LUCA FV Local Update of Census Addresses Field Verification
MA metropolitan area
MAF Master Address File
MAF QIP Master Address File Quality Improvement Program
MAFGOR Master Address File Geocoding Office Resolution
MAFID Master Address File identification number
MAFUF Master Address File update file
MAPS Map Plotting System
MaRCS Matching and Review Coding System
MAS Master Activity Schedule
MBDA Minority Business Development Agency
MCD minor civil division; mobile computing device
MCR Military Census Report
MCS Master Control System
MIG migration
MIM® Map Image Metafile
MIS Management Information System
MIT Management Integration Team
MO/MB mailout/mailback
MOU memorandum of understanding
MRP Multiple Response Processing
MSA metropolitan statistical area
MSO Marketing Services Office
NARA National Archives and Records Administration
NAS National Academy of Sciences
NECMA New England County Metropolitan Area
NGO nongovernment organization
NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology
NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NOC National Operations Center
non-ID no identification number
NPC National Processing Center
NR nonresponse
NRC National Research Council
NRCO nonresponse conversion operation
NRFU Nonresponse Followup
NTIA National Telecommunications and Information Administration
NTIS National Technical Information Service
O&A Oversight and Appropriations Committees
OCR optical character recognition
OCS 2000 Operations Control System 2000
OIT Operational Integration Team
OMB Office of Management and Budget
OMR optical mark recognition
OPM Office of Personnel Management
OSAM Operational Status and Assessment Meeting
OTDR Operational Test Dry Run
OTP Office of Technology Policy
OTSA Oklahoma tribal statistical area
P3 Primavera Project Planner
PAD Principal Associate Director
PALS Program for Address List Supplementation
PAMS/ ADAMS Pre-appointment Management System/ Automated Decennial Administrative Management System
PAPI paper assisted personal interview
PCDOCS Personal Computer Document Organization and Control System
PCLR Postcensus Local Review
PEPP Population Estimates and Projections Program
PES Post-Enumeration Survey
PHC Population and Housing Characteristics
PIO Public Information Office
P.L. Public Law
PMP Program Master Plan
PMR Postmaster Return
PMSA primary metropolitan statistical area
POB place of birth
POL Policy Office
POP Population Division
POW place of work
PRAO Puerto Rico Area Office
PRED Planning, Research, and Evaluation Division
PSA primary selection algorithm
PSAP Participant Statistical Areas Program
PSC Program Steering Committee
pseudo-VTD pseudo-voting district
PTO Patent and Trademark Office
PUF public use form
PUMA public use microdata area
PUMS public use microdata sample
PV personal visit
PVC Postal Validation Check
QA quality assurance
QAC Questionnaire Assistance Center
QC quality control
QRB Questionnaire Reference Book
QT Quick Tables
RAETT Race and Ethnicity Targeted Test
RAP Rural Addressing Program
RCC regional census center
RD regional director
REAC Race and Ethnic Advisory Committee
REOM Regional Elected Officials Meeting
REX research and experimentation
RFP request for proposal
RFS Residential Finance Survey
RFU ready for use
RI requirements initiative
RO regional office
SBE Service-Based Enumeration
SCEF Sample Census Edited File
SCO state certifying official
SCR Shipboard Census Report
SCUF Sample Census Unedited File
SDAISA state designated American Indian statistical area
SDC State Data Center
SEDF Sample Edited Detail File
SEQ Simplified Enumerator Questionnaire
SF short form; Summary File
SLD state legislative district
SMIMS Single MIM-Based Integrated Mapping System
S-Night Shelter/Street Night (enumeration)
SON statement of need
SOW statement of work
SP special place
SPAV Special Place Advance Visit
SPFQ Special Place Facility Questionnaire
SRD Statistical Research Division
SSEB Source Selection Evaluation Board
SSO source selection official
SSS special sworn status (individual)
StARS Statistical Administrative Records System
STF Summary Tape File
TA Technology Administration
TAZ traffic analysis zone
TC Targeted Canvassing
TCO Telecommunications Office
TDE Touchtone data entry
TDSA tribal designated statistical area
TEA type of enumeration area
TES Targeted Extended Search
TFAC Targeted Field Address Conversion
TFU telephone followup
TIGER® Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing
TIP TIGER« Improvement Program
TJSA tribal jurisdiction statistical area
TL (American Indian) trust land
TMO Technologies Management Office
TMU Targeted Map Update
TMUC Targeted Multi-Unit Check
T-Night Transient Night (enumeration)
TNSOL targeted nonsheltered outdoor location
TQA Telephone Questionnaire Assistance
TQA FV Telephone Questionnaire Assistance Field Verification
TXE Census 2000 Testing, Experimentation, and Evaluation Program
UA urbanized area
UAA undeliverable as addressed
UC urban cluster
UDAP User-Defined Areas Program
U/E update/enumerate
UGA, UGB urban growth area, urban growth boundary
UHE usual home elsewhere
U/L update/leave
U.S. or US United States
USGS U.S. Geological Survey
USPS U.S. Postal Service
UT unorganized territory
UU/E urban update/enumerate
UU/L urban update/leave
VRE voice recognition entry
VTD voting district
VTDP Voting District Project
WAN wide area network
WBS work breakdown structure
WHUHE whole household usual home elsewhere
ZCTA™ ZIP Code tabulation area
ZIP Code® Zone Improvement Program Code
ZU zona urbana
Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Contact: James L. Dinwiddie, Assistant Division Chief for Communications, Decennial Management Division, at (301) 763-1346.

Skip this main site navigation menu Census 2000  |  Subjects A to Z  |  Search  |  Product Catalog  |  Data Tools  |  FOIA  |  Quality  |  Privacy · Policies  |  Contact Us  |  Home

U.S. Census Bureau: Helping You Make Informed Decisions