Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey

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The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of Department of Energy sponsors the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) to provide detailed data on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector.


The manufacturing sector is defined according to the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). The manufacturing sector (NAICS Sector 31-33) consists of all manufacturing establishments in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. According to the NAICS, the manufacturing sector comprises establishments engaged in the mechanical, physical, or chemical transformation of materials, substances, or components into new products. The establishments in this sector are often described as plants, factories, or mills.


The Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey provides statistics on the consumption of electricity and other types of fuel. It also provides data on the capability of manufacturers to substitute alternative fuels for those actually consumed, end uses, the extent to which energy-related technologies are being used by manufacturers and other related topics.


The survey was conducted every 3 years from 1985 through 1991, and quadrennially beginning in 1994.


he Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey is a sample of approximately 15,000 manufacturing establishments selected from the Economic Census - Manufacturing Sector. Most establishments in the energy-intensive industries are selected with certainty. The remaining selected establishments are stratified by 3-digit NAICS, sub-sector, total energy consumption, and consumption of four major types of energy. Data are reported for activity taking place during the survey calendar year. However, all establishments in the frame have at least some chance of being selected. For more detailed information on the survey methods, please read the MECS methodology section on the EIA website at:


The Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey data are released every four years in tabular format. These data may be found on the EIA website: Comparable statistics are shown for the previous MECS years. The latest summary of the results can be found at Energy Use in Manufacturing 1998 to 2002 on the EIA web site.


These data are widely used throughout government, academia, industry, and the American public. The Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) uses the estimates as key components in their economic statistics such as industry inputs for the annual and benchmark input-output (I-O) accounts. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) uses the data in its National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) and Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) to benchmark manufacturing unit energy consumption estimates. In addition, MECS aggregate data are submitted regularly to the International Energy Agency as their point of reference for U.S. manufacturing energy consumption.

Industry and private sector firms regularly use the MECS data to analyze energy use trends. MECS estimates are also used routinely in many research projects being conducted by several national laboratories and other organizations.


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Annual Survey of Manufactures

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