Groups in the Surveys of Minority- and Women-Owned Business Enterprises (SMOBE/SWOBE)

Universe (All Firms) refers to all businesses, without regard to the race, ethnicity or gender of the business owners.

Total minorities refers to businesses owned by Blacks, Hispanics, Asians, Pacific Islanders, American Indians, and Alaska Natives.

Black-owned businesses are those where the sole proprietor checked "African Am./Black/Negro" on the 1997 survey or "African American/Black/Negro" on the 1992 survey questionnaire; or, in the case of firms with multiple owners, where 51 percent or more of stock interest, claims or rights were held by African Americans so determined.

Hispanic-owned businesses are those where the sole proprietor identified his or her origin as Cuban, "Mexican, Mexican Am., Chicano", Puerto Rican, Spaniard, Hispanic Latin American, or Other Spanish/Hispanic/Latino on the 1997 or 1992 survey questionnaire; or, in the case of firms with multiple owners, where 51 percent or more of stock interest, claims or rights were held by Hispanics so determined. Hispanic origin and race were determined in separate questions, and some Hispanic-owned businesses were also counted in race categories included in this report.

American Indian- and Alaska Native-owned businesses are those where the sole proprietor checked "Amer. Indian or Alaska Native" on the 1997 or 1992 survey questionnaire; or, in the case of firms with multiple owners, where 51 percent or more of stock interest, claims or rights were held by American Indians or Alaska Natives so determined. The 1992 form further defined the category as persons having origins (ancestry) in any of the original peoples of North America, and who maintains cultural identification through tribal affiliation or community recognition.

Asian- and Pacific Islander-owned businesses are those where the sole proprietor identified his or her origin as Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, Other Asian, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander on the 1997 or 1992 survey questionnaire; or, in the case of firms with multiple owners, where 51 percent or more of stock interest, claims or rights were held by Asians so determined. The 1992 form further identified the group as persons having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent, or the Pacific Islands.

The race and ethnic categories used in the SMOBE/SWOBE survey are consistent with those mandated by the Office of Management and Budget at the time this survey was conducted. These standards were developed by both the Executive Branch and Congress. Respondents in this survey were not given the opportunity to identify themselves as being of two or races, as was allowed in the 2000 Census of Population and Housing.

Women-owned businesses are those owned by sole proprietors who identified themselves as female on the 1997 or 1992 survey or was categorized as female on her application for a Social Security Number; or, in the case of firms with multiple owners, where 51 percent or more of stock interest, claims or rights were held by females.

"Publicly Held, Foreign-Owned and Not For Profit" refer to businesses for which the primary ownership by a race, ethnic or gender category could not be determined.

"Jointly Owned" refer to businesses with 50 percent minority ownership and 50 percent nonminority ownership.

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