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CB08-78

Contact:  Robert Bernstein
Public Information Office
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FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE:  WEDNESDAY, MAY 14, 2008

Fewer Mothers With a Recent Birth Rely On Government Assistance Than in 1996

     Although participation in government assistance programs has risen somewhat in recent years among mothers with a birth in the last year, it is much lower than when welfare reform was enacted in 1996, according to a report released today by the U.S. Census Bureau.

     The report, Participation of Mothers in Government Assistance Programs: 2004 [PDF], analyzes the socioeconomic characteristics of mothers participating in six different public assistance programs. These include Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF); food stamps; Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC); Medicaid; housing assistance; and other assistance. It shows that in 1996, 42 percent of mothers with a birth in the previous year were participants in at least one of these programs. The rate dipped to 29 percent in 2001 before climbing to 34 percent in 2004. The corresponding number, 1.6 million in 1996, dipped to 1.2 million in 2001 before rising to 1.4 million in 2004 .

     Overall, 7.5 million mothers of childbearing age (15 to 44), or 22 percent, participated in one or more of these programs in 2004. Those with infants were more likely participants than those with older children (34 percent compared with 20 percent).

     Mothers were also more likely to receive public assistance if they were younger than 25, living with either no other adult or with an unmarried partner, a minority, did not work in the past month, never attended college, or did not receive child support.

     Other highlights:

  • Overall, one in every two participant mothers (52 percent) worked while they received assistance. The rate ranged from 39 percent of those with a recent birth to 55 percent without one.
  • Seventy-eight percent of mothers participating in two or more programs were receiving both Medicaid and food stamps.
  • After accounting for differences in demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, the odds of foreign-born mothers receiving assistance was no different than native mothers.
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These data were collected from June 2004 through September 2004 in the Survey of Income and Program Participation. As in all surveys, these data are subject to sampling and nonsampling error. For further information on the source of the data and accuracy of the estimates, including standard errors and confidence intervals, go to <http://www.census.gov/sipp/source.html>.
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Source: U.S. Census Bureau | Public Information Office | PIO@census.gov | Last Revised: February 10, 2014