Census Bureau

Child Well-Being
Indicators From the SIPP

Kristin E. Smith, Loretta E. Bass, and Jason M. Fields

Population Division
U.S. Bureau of the Census
Washington, D.C.

April 1998

Population Division Working Paper No. 24

Line Divider

This poster was originally presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (PAA) Chicago, IL, April 1998.

The views expressed in this paper are solely attributable to the authors and do not necessarily reflect the position of the United States Bureau of the Census.

NOTE: You may also load the entire report (with graphics included) in one file. (121k)

The file below includes the graphics as separate clickables.



The SIPP provides a large, nationally representative sample that allows linking income recipiency, labor force participation, and participation in government assistance programs with indicators of child well-being.

The Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), collected in the Fall of 1994, provides analysis of child well-being in four areas:

1) Early childhood experiences
- ever in child care arrangement
- age at first child care arrangement
- hours in first child care arrangement
2) Parent - child interaction
- any TV rules
- parent reads to child (0-5)
- outings with child
3) School-age enrichment activities
- participation in sports
- membership in clubs
- takes lessons
4) Children's academic experience
- ever changed schools
- ever repeated a grade
- "on-track" academically

The Survey: The SIPP provides the baseline for a longitudinal analysis of the changes in children's well-being with respect to the Welfare Reform and Work Responsibility Act of 1996, since households from the Fall 1994 SIPP are followed in the Survey of Program Dynamics (SPD).

Tabulations represent percentages of valid cases.


Figure 1. Chilren Ever in Child Care by Poverty Status and Age Group (18k)

Figure 2. Age at First Child Care Experience Among 3-5 Year Olds by Education Level of Designated Parent (9k)

Figure 3. Weekly Hours Spent in First Child Care Arrangement Among 3-5 Year Olds (11k)


Figure 4. Times per Week 3-5 Year Olds Are Read to by Race/Ethnic Group of Parent and Poverty Status (11k)

Figure 5. TV Rules By Age Group of Child and Race/Ethnic Group of Parent(s) (11k)


Enrichment activities in the SIPP include participatino in clubs, sports, and lessons.

Figure 6. Children 6-17 Participating in Activites by Family Poverty Status (11k)

Figure 7. Children 6-17 Years Old Participating In Acitvities by Parent's Assessment of the Neighborhood (11k)


Children are "on-track" academically when they are enrolled at or above the modal grade for their age.

Figure 8. Children Who Have Ever Changed Schools by Family Poverty Status and Home Ownership (10k)

Figure 9. Children 12-17 Years Old Who Have Repeated Grades by Residential Characteristics (10k)

Figure 10. Children 12-17 Years Old Who are "On-track", by Marital Status and Work Status of Parent(s) (11k)

By: Kristin Smith, Loretta Bass, and Jason Fields
U.S. Bureau of the Census

For further information contact:
Fertility and Family Statistics Branch
Population Division
FB #3, Room 2353
Washington, DC 20233


Population Division Working Papers

Line Divider

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division,
Fertility & Family Statistics Branch

Authors: Kristin E. Smith, Loretta E. Bass, and Jason M. Fields
Last Revised: October 31, 2011 at 10:03:16 PM