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Survey of Program Dynamics


April 9, 1999

MEMORANDUM TO       SPD Steering Committee

From:                               Jenny Hess
                                        Center for Survey Methods Research/SRD

Subject:                           Results of cognitive testing on the Residential History Module for
                                        Survey of Program Dynamics 2000

Enclosed are two reports on results of the cognitive testing conducted on the residential history questions for the Survey of Program Dynamics 2000. Dr. Robert Belli (Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan) prepared the first report under contract with CSMR. I prepared the second report. Both reports detail the problems found during cognitive testing. Dr. Belli's report provides general recommendations for revising the questions at the end of the report. In addition to the two reports, there are several attachments. Attachment A is a copy of the questionnaire tested and interviewing protocol. Attachment B is the residential history calendar that was used during the cognitive testing. Attachment C details respondent characteristics for the interviews I conducted. Attachment D contains item-by-item recommendations for revising the questionnaire and calendar as well as issues raised during cognitive testing that need to be resolved. Attachment E is a draft questionnaire based on the recommendations contained in Attachment D and the Belli report. Note that Attachment E does not address all the issues raised in the reports, but is provided in order to give readers the general flow of the recommended questionnaire.

Our basic recommendation is to allow interviewers to use a more flexible interviewing technique to collect the information on separations from biological mothers and fathers and periods of living with other adults. We propose that a flexible interviewing technique be used to fill out the residential history calendar completely before inputting data into the automated instrument. (All data will be input in the automated instrument during the course of the interview.) A flexible technique will allow interviewers and respondents to use the residential history calendar to its fullest extent and not force respondents to proceed through the interview in a linear manner. Once the calendar has been filled out, the interviewer will input the data into the automated instrument and ask all appropriate follow-up questions. If this technique is not adopted, the results from the cognitive interviews suggest that the sponsor will need to consider one of two options, either reduce the scope of content collected and focus only on a few critical residential history elements, or drastically increase the list of scripted questions. We favor using the flexible interviewing technique to fill out the calendar because we believe it will improve data quality and accommodate the scope of content desired.

Please note that Dr. Belli and I conducted our interviews using different methodologies. For most of his interviews, Dr.Belli did not use the structured protocol I had developed because he found it difficult to use. Instead he relied more on a flexible interviewing technique and allowed respondents to "tell their stories." Since our methods differed substantially, I asked him to include a description of how he conducted his interviews in his report ("methodology section"). I used the protocol included in Attachment A with an emphasis are obtaining respondents' understanding of the questions. I did not provide respondents with additional information beyond what is included in the questions, but rather probed them for their understanding of the questions tested. If you would like additional information regarding differences in our interviewing techniques, please let me know.

Please contact me on 457-4968 if you have any questions or comments on the report or recommendations.

To: Jenny Hess, Bureau of the Census

From: Bob Belli, University of Michigan

Date: 3/23/99

Report of Cognitive Interviews for "Event History Calendar Method for Improving Retrospective Recall of Survey Questions" project, using SPD 2000 interviewing protocol.

I. Methodology

Robert Belli conducted six concurrent cognitive think-aloud interviews during February and March of 1999. Respondents were screened for having had minor children who stopped or started living with them. In all interviews, the household roster information was collected following the scripts in the protocols. This included asking questions about eligible children both within and outside the respondents present household, and asking for eligible children of all household members aged 15 and older. In no case was there a situation in which a household member other than the respondent had an eligible child living outside the household.

Table 1: Respondents and Eligible Children
 
Gender Birth
date
Race Eligible Children
Sex Relation to R In R's
house?
Birth
date
1. Female 3/8/67 African American 1.F
2.M
3.F
bio child
bio child
bio child
no
no 
yes
2/26/85
2/9/88
1/17/98
2. Female 7/24/61 white 1.M
2.F
adopted child
adopted child
yes
yes
1/31/77
3/10/79
3. Female 12/24/55 white 1.M
2. F
3. F
bio child
bio child
grandchild
no
yes
yes
7/9/78
4/2/80
7/16/98
4. Female 2/16/54 white 1. M
2. M
3. F
4. M
bio child
bio child
bio child
bio child
no
no
no
no
7/3/78
12/28/88
7/9/90
5/31/92
5. Female 3/16/67 white 1. F guardianship no x/x/80
6. Female 10/13/53 Native American 1. M bio child no 5/19/77

Note: x means that this value was not known by the respondent

The methodology for conducting the interviews was mixed. The first four interviews followed the screener questions as written. With the last two interviews, the screener questions (SCRIA - SCR1E) were asked only to the extent that eligible children were identified. In all of the interviews except the third one, the calendar information was collected flexibly with respondents, that is, the scripted questions MOM1 to OTHAD5 were not asked exactly as written, nor in the prescribed order. Instead, the calendar, used interactively with the respondent, was used as a guide to collect the required information. Interestingly, an attempt was made to follow the scripted question sequence of MOM1 to OTHAD5 during the fourth interview, but R4 was too impatient and preferred a more interactive style. In all interviews, while introducing the calendar with INTROCAL, the respondent was shown the respective parts of the calendar as INTROCAL was read, which implicitly invited the respondent to work with the interviewer in filling out the required information. Since the calendar was often dealt with in a flexible manner, the respondent often found themselves telling narratives about their experiences, which were flexibly probed for purposes of recording information as specified by the calendar.

In all interviews, respondents were asked the retrospective probes asking about hypothetical move vignettes, and the debriefing questions concerning the calendar. Additionally, a flashcard was constructed for OTHAD5 and used in all interviews, as an aide for respondents to answer this question. It is recommended that a flashcard be used for this question.

Interviews were audiotaped, and respondents were paid $25 for their participation.

Table 2: Calendar information
 
R# Child # Living Apart from Biological Living With
Mother Father
1 1 & 2
3
x/95 - now x/85 - now
1/98 - now
grandmother: x/95 - now
grandfather: x/85 - now
aunt: x/85 - now
2 1
2
6/91 - 7/92
8/92 - 3/97
6/91 - 10/91
8/92 - 1/95
foreign student: 6/91 - 10/91
stepfather: 10/83 - 9/85
nonmarital partner: 6/87 - 10/92
stepfather: 10/83 - 9/85
nonmarital partner: 6/87 - 10/92
stepmother: 10/92 - 9/93
adoptive mother: 9/93 - 3/97
3 1
2
3
8/91 - 7/96
8/91 - 3/92
11/89 - 8/91
11/89 - 8/91
3/92 - 4/98
7/98 - now
nonmarital partner: 8/91 - 7/96
nonmarital partner: 8/91 - 3/92
grandmother: 7/98 - now
housemate: 8/98 - now
housemate: 11/98 - now
4 1
2, 3 & 4
7/78 - 7/96
12/97 - now
7/78 - 7/96
12/97 - now
unknown after adopted: 7/78 - 7/96
foster care: 12/97 - now
5 1 5/96 - now 5/96 - now biological sister: 5/96 - 8/96
brother of sister-in-law: 8/96- 12/96
biological brother: 1/97 - 5/97
guardian: 6/97 - 9/97
biological brother: 9/97 - now
housemate: 1/97 - 5/97
housemate: 6/97 - 9/97
6 1 11/94 - 5/95

Note: x means that this value was not known by the respondent

II. Observed Problems

1. CKMF

There are often situations in which the respondent is not living with a male adult who serves a "parental" role. For R1, there were two children who always lived together, yet it's unclear whether they shared the same biological father -- there is no question that directly asks for this (and I felt uncomfortable to ask). Since child-groups for the calendar are partly based on whether the children shared the same biological father or not, not having a question on whether eligible children share the same biological father poses difficulties for this grouping. 2. SCR1C There is a screener for grandparent. However, R1's mother and father did not always live together, and each of these grandparents lived with the children on and off over the years. Since the instrument will list only one grandparent, this became a considerable problem. I was able to resolve this issue only by allowing the R to tell her story--grandfather and aunt were living together with mother; mother moved out in 1995 and grandmother moved in--and working with the calendar accordingly.

Having a show card would be helpful as R3 considered a nonmarital partner as a stepmother when read the stepmother category. I also found this section particularly time-consuming -- there were three children to deal with, and going through each of these categories for each child involved considerable looping.

For R5, the child lived with many adult siblings, who served as primary caretakers. Should SCR1C (7) include older siblings? This may be important with those groups who rely more often on extended family relationships.

Both R3 and R5 had reported "housemates" as "other adults." Does the population division want to include these people?

3. OTHAD4; OTHAD5 Does not have any option for a child that was born into a household in which another adult already resides. 4. SCR1A; SCR1B; MOM1; DAD1 The interview with R4 raised the issue of how to handle children who were given up for adoption shortly after birth, that is, before the mother left the hospital. R4 answered "yes" to both SCR1A and SCR1B with this child in mind, but then this child would be reported as being always away from biological parents, with no information concerning any transitional elements in living with "other adults". 5. INTROCAL Needs to be modified as respondents are not always the biological parents. R2 is an adoptive and not a biological parent, she qualified as "other adults" and not as "you." R3 is a grandparent to one of the children. 6. MOM3 and DAD3 R3 was confused by response option 4, as "living" gave the impression of an ongoing situation, and not one that had just started. Perhaps should be "Child went to live with other biological parent;" or to avoid the bias of an interpretation of child moving in with parent," "Child and other biological parent began to live together." 7. Eligibility Criteria R5 was a guardian of a child. This child would not meet eligibility criteria of being either a "biological" and "adoptive" parent. Raises the issue of foster care arrangements, as well. 8. MOVE1, etc. R6's children moved many, many times (2-3x per year) between summer and winter residences, which were owned by R3 and her husband, and in which the children always moved with the parents. It's not clear that the Population Division wants to include these kinds of moves. III. Probes & Hypotheticals

For the most part, respondents did not have difficulty with interpretation of key concepts.

"Biological children" meant:

R1: "children that are not adopted, came from me."
R2: "children who were conceived by me"
R3: "who I birthed"
R4: "constitutes that child's relationship to parent is by birth"
R5: "I gave birth to them, or if I were the genetic mother"
R6: "children that I physically had and carried around for 9 months"
"Stepmother and stepfather" meant R1: "if got remarried would be <child's> stepfather"
R2: "marital partner of natural parent"
"Basic needs" meant R1: "helped when need to -- necessities, clothes, cosmetics, glasses"
R2: "room and board, but should mean nurture"
R3: "shelter, food, care"
R5: "providing shelter, food, guidance, keeping an eye on her, making sure child goes to school"
Hypotheticals:

"If a child lived with his mother during the school year and his father for three months during the summer, would you consider that a move?" 5 yes, 1 dk

"If a child lived with her grandmother during the week to attend school, and with her parents on the weekends, would you consider that a move?" 1 yes, 5 no

"If a child spent every other weekend with his father and the rest of the time with his mother, would you consider that a move?" 1 yes, 5 no

"If a child was at boarding school during the school year and at home during the summer, would you consider that a move?" 6 yes

"If a child moved with his family from one apartment to another in the same building, would you consider that a move?" 6 yes

"If a child spent two months during the summer with his father, and the rest of the time with his mother, would you consider that a move?" 4 yes, 2 no

Respondent debriefing questions

1. We used this form (the residential history calendar) to record the your (child/children's) living situation since birth. What did you think about this form?

R1: "it wasn't complicated, brought up a lot of stuff"
R2: "holy smokes, should be 3x as big--format is good--color coded in some way instead of variations of grey"
R3: "pretty self-explanatory and made it easier to figure out what was going on in each of those years "
R4: "ages of different children when others were born was neat."
R5: "A little difficult to read -- don't understand numbers 1-15"
R6: [didn't use form enough to know]
2. Did you look at the form in order to help you remember the dates of your child's/children's living situations? R1: "No, [my memory] was cloudy -- year OK"
R2: "yes, and still didn't do well (respondent was able to provide the months of transitions)"
R3: y
R4: "not sure"
R5: "no -- did math backwards"
R6: [didn't use form enough to know]
3. Did the form help you to remember dates when the child did not live with (you/the biological mother/father) or not? R1: "No, [my memory] was cloudy -- year OK"
R2: y
R3: y
R4: "not sure"
R5: "only with respect to determining age in years"
R6: [didn't use form enough to know]
4. Did the form help you to remember dates when the child lived with "other adults" or not? R1: "No, [my memory] was cloudy -- year OK"
R2: y
R3: y
R4: "not sure"
R5: "yes -- in the same respect -- and writing down different adults was helpful -- and helpful when pointing to calendar points"
R6: [didn't use form enough to know]
5. Does the form look complicated or intimidating? Would other people think the form looks complicated or intimidating? R1: "looks like taking a test form"
R2: "yes--need to reduce all of those lines of numbers, need to reduce the thickness of lines "
R3: "y --do not make border as bold"
R4: "not sure"
R5: "A little bit -- other people would think so too"
R6: [didn't use form enough to know]
6. At the top of the form, I wrote down your child's/children's ages and grade levels. Did that information help you to recall the dates of these different events? R1: "can confirm the dates from ages/grade"
R2: "yes, grade levels not as helpful"
R3: "yes. did talk about first grade
R4: "not sure"
R5: "Yes -- ages and year were the most helpful"
R6: "the age/grade tie was confusing"
IV. Other Issues

1. All respondents, except R1, were able to remember the months of transitional events. Interviewers should be trained as to what to do for respondents who are unable to remember the months of transitions.

2. With R2, there was an extended period in which there was a joint custody following a divorce. During this time, the children were considered to be living with both biological parents, although the biological parents were not living together.

3. R2 served in three roles -- as a nonmarital partner, as a stepparent, and as an adoptive mother, in living with one of the children. With the other child, although she was a stepparent and adoptive parent, she did not live with this other child in these roles. At issue is how to handle these people. I had filled out three other adult lines on the calendar, one for each role. Another option might be to fill out only one line per person, but then it would become difficult to input an appropriate role.

4. R4 was a very challenging respondent. Although intelligent, R4 appeared thought-disordered, and she was particularly motivated to discuss her personal problems concerning her children. The household roster and the screener questions took a great deal of time. I decided not to follow the scripted questions while going through the calendar, as she had already shown impatience with the earlier questions. I was able to fill out two calendars for her biological children (the daughter had been placed in a different foster care home than her sons). Additionally, I returned to the script to ask about the causes of separation and living with other adults (MOM3, DAD3, OTHAD5), the number of moves, the hypotheticals, and the final debriefing questions concerning the calendar.

5. To my surprise, most respondents were confident in reporting the moves of children, although it was clear that R2 missed one of the moves which was mentioned while filling out the calendar.

IV. Overall Recommendation

In general, I found the scripted portions of the EHC frustrating. The screener questions are too involved, and they should be used only to the extent that they identify eligible children. As is, the interview length will be considerable if for every child, one has to ask questions about both the biological mother and father, and each of the other adults listed in SCR1C. Additionally, the linear flow of the MOM1 to OTHAD5 section interferes with the ability of the calendar to optimize autobiographical recall. In particular, this linear flow discourages respondents to work across the timelines, and to tell about their experiences in a natural, narrative manner. In methodological production setting work conducted at the University of Michigan, interviewers preferred administering a flexible calendar than asking scripted questions, and that the length of interviews was significantly shorter with the calendars. Accordingly, I recommend that the calendar portion of the interview be highlighted as a data collection instrument in its own right. Since there are likely to be a great deal of variation in which aspects of the question objectives are pertinent to individual respondents, interviews will be most efficient by permitting flexible interviewing by using the calendar as the primary guide to collecting information.

The following guidelines deserve to be cognitively tested. Although my last interviews followed these guidelines with no observable major problems, both respondents had rather uncomplicated histories.

1. Use the screener questions only to the extent to which eligible children are identified. For most eligible children then, their eligibility will be decided with SCR1A and SCR1B. If necessary, SCR1C can be used, but present as a flashcard, and allow the respondent to decide with only a single omnibus "yes" (eligible) or "no" response. The screener question can be modified as "was there ever a period of three months of more when (child) lived with any one of the following people?"

2. CKMF should function as well with the recommended changes as originally. Since all of the information comes from the household roster and cycling through the OTHCHLD section, the changes to the screener questions (above) will not affect CKMF.

3. SCR1D and SCR1E should be asked after the calendar has been filled out, using information from the calendar. During calendar work, interviewers are likely to discover whether there were more than one stepmother. Or they can be instructed to probe for more than one of each of the categories of stepmother, etc. Of course, for each different person, a line should be reserved on the calendar.

4. The calendar should be introduced with INTROCAL. INTROCAL ought to be reworded to emphasize that the interest is to gain the periods of time when children were living apart from biological parents for three months or more, or with other adults for three months or more. Flexible interviewing should then be encouraged. Interviewers should be trained regarding the objectives of the calendar. The CAI program can prompt interviewers with suggested question wordings for collecting the information that is presently scripted from MOM1, DAD1, and SCR1C. SCR1C should be presented to respondents as a flashcard, and the interviewer should be clear while interacting with the respondent to include all other adults, whether living with either of the biological parents or not. Interviewers can collect information for each role (as depicted on the flashcard), per person, per line. Additionally, for other adults who had served in more than one role, a line can be reserved for each role that was served, and the interviewer can keep track that an individual served more than one role.

5. After the calendar is filled out, the CAI can be used to enter the information that is found in MOMSEP, MOM3, DADSEP, DAD3, OTHADSEP, OTHAD4, and OTHAD5 (presented as a flashcard!). To record information on "other adults,"for each calendar the CAI application can instruct the interviewer to enter the total number of lines filled out (numerically, following the calendar), how many persons served multiple roles, and for each multiple-roled person, which lines were entered. Then, for each line number, information can be collected concerning the type of role, the number of spells, the start and stop times of each spell, who moved, and the reason for living with the other adult. As some of this will be new information, the interviewer will need to be asking the respondent some of these questions. In fact, the interviewer and respondent can interact in the computer entry of all of this information, which additionally may assist respondents' ability to recall.

Report on Cognitive Interview Results for the

Survey of Program Dynamics
Children's Residential History Module

Jennifer Hess
Center for Survey Methods Research
Statistical Research Division
US Census Bureau

April 9, 1999

I. Background

Members of the American Statistical Association/Survey Research Methods Section Working Group on Technical Aspects of the SIPP and the SPD suggested including questions on children's residential history in the SPD during their meeting on May 29-30, 1997. ChildTrends, Inc. (CTI) prepared a draft children's residential history calendar and associated question list and included it in materials submitted for consideration for the 1999 extended measures of children's well-being module. The draft CTI submitted was intended to be administered by paper and pencil. Staff from the Census Bureau's Population Division (POP) revised the children's residential history module with a computer-assisted administration in mind. Staff from the Center for Survey Methods Research (CSMR) tested two different versions of the children's residential history questions developed by POP in two series of cognitive interviews conducted from February-June 1998. Based on the results of that testing, the SPD Steering Committee decided to delay implementation of the children's residential history module until 2000 to allow additional time for development and testing.

Dr. Robert Belli at the Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, under contract with CSMR developed a residential history calendar and associated question list to be used in an automated questionnaire. The calendar is a paper instrument to serve as an aid to enhance respondent recall of their children's living situations since birth. POP and CSMR staff revised the question list and calendar to be used in two series of cognitive interviews, one at the University of Michigan and one at CSMR. This report includes results from the latter only. Dr.Belli will submit a separate report summarizing results from his testing. Below is a description of the methodology, a summary of major problems identified, and item-by-item results. Recommendations for revisions to the questionnaire will be based on both sets of cognitive interviews and will be submitted under separate cover.

II. Methodology

Jennifer Hess conducted seven concurrent cognitive think-aloud interviews to test respondent comprehension of the children's residential history questions during February 1999. In addition respondents were asked debriefing questions following the cognitive interview about the usefulness of the residential history calendar as an aid for enhancing respondent recall of their children's living situations. The interviews lasted approximately one hour and respondents received $30 for their participation. Four of the interviews were conducted at CSMR's Response Research Laboratory and were video and audio taped with the respondents' permission. Three of the interviews were conducted at sites more convenient for the respondent and were audio taped. The same interview protocol and debriefing questions were used for interviews conducted at CSMR and the University of Michigan. A copy of the questionnaire/cognitive interview protocol and the residential history calendar tested are included as Attachments A and B.

We successfully recruited respondents whose children (or grandchildren who live with them) have lived in a variety of different living situations throughout their lifetimes (see Attachment C for a complete listing). Three respondents are grandparents who are caring for their grandchildren (respondents 1, 5, and 7 on attachment). One of these grandparents was the foster care provider for four of her grandchildren and is now their adoptive mother. Two respondents were single mothers in their mid-20's (respondents 2 and 3 on attachment). One of these respondents lives with her parents; she has one daughter who lives with her and one that lives with the child's biological father. One respondent was a married father of two children (respondent 4). And the last respondent was woman married for the second time who had children from both marriages (respondent 6). Three of the respondents completed 11th grade, one completed high school, one completed two years of college, and the other two had college degrees.

II. Summary of Major Problems Identified

Below is a brief summary highlighting the most important findings. (The item labels from the questionnaire are shown in parentheses.)

1. The sponsoring division needs to consider the universe for the two screening questions regarding additional biological children and adoptive children living outside the household carefully. These questions were asked of all persons age 15 or over and age 18 or over, respectively (OTHCHLD1 and OTHCHLD4). In some instances, we asked residential histories for children who have never lived in the household and for whom we would have no other child-related information. Moreover, the respondent may have very limited information about that child's living situation since birth if the child belongs to another household member and has never been a part of this household. Consideration should be given regarding which household members should be asked the screening items on additional biological and adoptive children outside the household so that we are collecting residential history data for only those children that are of interest to analysts.

2. There is evidence that the questions asking whether there was ever a period of three months or more when the child did not live with the biological mother (SCR1A) or the biological father (SCR1B) are confusing for respondents if the child either never lived with the biological parent of interest or lived with that parent for less than three months, and may result in respondents providing the wrong answer to these critical items.

3. The question asking whether the child ever shared a household with "other adults" for a period of three months or more did not work well, and introductions added during cognitive testing to clarify the question's intent did not help (SCR1C). The intention of the question is to collect data on times the child lived by himself/herself with the "other adult" and times that the child lived with a biological parent and the "other adult." Several problems surfaced during cognitive interviews: 1) Respondents thought the question was asking about times the child lived by himself/herself with the "other adult" and did not report times when the child and a biological parent lived with the "other adult;" 2) Respondents thought the questions were asking about persons outside their household, that is, persons other than themselves or their current family members, even if they were, for example, the child's adoptive parent, grandparent, or stepparent; 3) Respondents had difficulty answering this question when a person filled more than one role, such as being a nonmarital partner of a biological parent and later becoming a stepparent.

4.The follow-up questions for "other adults" that ask when the child lived with the "other adult" (OTHAD1), whether the "other adult" was responsible for most of the child's basic needs (OTHAD3), the direction of the move (OTHAD4), and the reasons for living with the other adult (OTHAD5) were problematic for persons who filled multiple roles for several reasons. First, there is no way in the current instrument to differentiate between one person who fills multiple roles (e.g. a nonmarital partner who became a stepparent) and two people filling two different roles (e.g. one person who was a nonmarital partner and a second person who was the stepfather) making it impossible to assess the number of different people with whom the child has lived. Persons who fill multiple roles will appear as changes in living situations when, in fact, no change has occurred. Second, some respondents reported the time periods the child lived with the "other adult" in terms of the person rather than the role, some reported in terms of the role, and others used both methods during a single interview. This results in inconsistent data and also leads to respondent confusion in subsequent questions. Third, asking follow-up questions for each role the person filled seems redundant and overly burdensome to respondents.

5. Rules for grouping children who have always lived together on a calendar require that both the child's biological mother and father be in the household before children are potentially eligible to be grouped on the same roster (check item CKMF). These rules may be overly restrictive and result in unnecessary respondent burden. Siblings may have always lived together even though the parents don't reside together in the household. (Grouping children who have lived together is done for efficiency. Questions are asked about the oldest child and data for younger children are plugged based on the child's date of birth.)

6. Following the residential history calendar, we asked a series of questions on moves during the child's lifetime (MOVE1, MOVE2, MOVE3, and MOVE4). These questions are asked by aggregated age groups: prior to elementary school (ages 0-4), elementary school (ages 5-11), middle school (ages 12-14), and high school (ages 15-18). Results indicated respondents had trouble with the reference periods in these questions, which resulted in double counting of moves.

III. Cognitive Testing Results

Provided below are the results of cognitive testing for the seven interviews CSMR staff conducted. The question wording tested is provided along with a summary of problems identified. The label name from the questionnaire is shown in parentheses.

1.Tested wording (OTHCHLD1) (Universe is all persons age 15 or over) In this section, we would like to ask some questions about the past and present living arrangements of the children of this household.

I have listed the following children born since January 1, 1974 who are living in this household.
 

         Name         Sex                 Birth date                 Relationship to Resp
  {LIST ALL CHILDREN BORN SINCE JANUARY 1, 1974 WHO ARE LIVING IN THIS HOUSEHOLD.}

(Do you/Does name) have any other biological children who were born since January 1, 1974 and are living somewhere else?

Problems identified:
    Respondents understood that the question was asking about biological children that
    don't live with them. Two respondents, however, didn't hear the date and reported
    children that were born before 1974.

    When there were several persons age 15 or over in the household, this question and
    a subsequent one on adopted children living outside the household seemed verbose
    and repetitive to the interviewer and may be better handled in a topic-based
    approach rather than a person-based approach, or combined into a single item.
 

2. Tested wording (OTHCHLD2)
           How many other biological children (do you/does name) have?
Problems identified:

    All three respondents who answered this question had already provided the
    relevant information in response to the previous item. Two of the three respondents
    were confused by the question. One respondent thought the question was asking
    how many biological children she had, rather than how many other biological
    children she had living outside the household. The other respondent thought this
    question was asking for new information since she had already told me how many
    biological children she had living outside the household in the previous item and
    thought that the question might be asking about children given up for adoption or
    possibly miscarriages.
 

3. Tested wording (OTHCHLD3) What is [the first] child's name?

ASK IF NECESSARY: What is [his/her] sex?

When was [she/he] born?

Problems identified:

    No problems were identified with the items on the child's name or sex. The date of
    birth given for one of the children was July 17, 1971, which is out of scope.
 

4. Tested wording (OTHCHLD4) (Universe is all persons age 18 or over in household) (Do you/Does name) have any adopted children who were born since January 1, 1974 and are living somewhere else?

Problems identified:

    No respondents had adopted children living outside the household. Two
    respondents thought the question was asking whether they had any adopted children
    (rather than adopted children living outside the household).
 

5. Tested wording (OTHCHLD5 and OTHCHLD6) How many adopted children living elsewhere (do you/does name) have?

What is [the first] child's name?

ASK IF NECESSARY: What is [his/her] sex?

When was [she/he] born?

Problems identified:

    These questions were never asked. See problems listed under comparable items (2
    and 3 above) for biological children living outside the household.
 

6. Tested wording (SCR1A) [Up until he/she was 18,] Was there ever a period of three months or more when (child) did not live with (his/her) biological mother?

Problems identified:

    This question was somewhat problematic for two respondents. One of the
    respondents was confused by this question because in item 1 she had already told
    me that she has a daughter who lives with her biological father and this question
    sounded redundant to her. In the end, this respondent answered the question
    correctly. Another respondent who is the grandparent and adoptive mother of her
    grandchildren answered this question incorrectly for two of her grandchildren. The
    children were taken away from the biological mother before they were three months
    old and given to the respondent. The respondent answered "no" to this item because
    the children never lived with the mother for a period of three months.
 

7. Tested wording (SCR1B) [Up until he/she was 18,] Was there ever a period of three months or more when (child) did not live with (his/her) biological father?

Problems identified:

    This question was problematic for three respondents. The respondent who was the
    adoptive mother of her grandchildren answered this question incorrectly for three
    of her four grandchildren. She answered "no" because the children had either never
    lived with their biological fathers or had lived with them for a short period of time
    (less than 3 months). She had great difficulty understanding this question and
    paraphrased the question as "They want to know if he ever did live with his
    biological father." A second respondent answered "yes" to this item, when the
    answer actually was "no." This respondent is divorced from the child's father and
    the biological mother is not happy with the current living arrangement (the child is
    spending most nights at her father's). She explained "I probably answered 'yes' out
    of defense." A third respondent thought the question was only asking about past
    living situations of the children and not their present living situation.
 

8. Tested wording (SCR1C) [Up until he/she was 18,] Was there ever a period of three months or more when (child) shared a household with:

1. An adoptive mother
2. An adoptive father
3. A stepmother
4. A stepfather
5. A nonmarital partner of a biological parent
6. A grandparent
7. Some other adult relative such as an aunt or uncle
8. Some other adult non-relative
9. Foster care arrangement
10. An institution, boarding school, group home, or hospital

Introductions tested:

1.     None.
2.     Now we are interested in periods of three months or more when (child) may
        have also lived with other adults. Include times when (he/she) lived with these
        other adults even if (his/her) biological mother or father was with (him/her).
3.     We are interested in periods of three months or more when (child) shared a
        household with adults other than (his/her) biological mother or father, or adults
        in additional to (his/her) biological mother or father. Please include times in
        which (child) moved in with another adult and times when another adult moved in
        with (child), even if (he/she) was still living with (his/her) biological mother or
        father.

Problems identified:

    This item is intended to measure periods of three months or more when the child
    lived with other adults regardless of whether a biological parent(s) was present.
    After conducting the first two cognitive interviews, it was apparent that
    respondents thought this item was asking about times that the child went to live with
    another adult without a biological parent. Owing to this, we tested two different
    introductions in the remaining cognitive interviews to attempt to clarify that we are
    interested in periods that the child lived with other adults even if a biological
    parent was present. These two introductions are shown above. Neither introduction
    helped matters much as most respondents still interpreted the question as asking if
    the child had lived with these other adults without a biological parent present. One
    respondent thought the introduction was the question and responded "no" before any
    of the subsequent categories was read. Of seven respondents, only one answered
    this item correctly. This respondent's children had the least complicated living
    situation of any interviewed since the children had always lived with both
    biological parents, but the family had moved in with "other adults" on two
    occasions.

    Another problem with this series is that respondents thought the questions were
    asking about persons other than themselves, or persons outside the child's current
    living situation. For example, one grandparent who is the adoptive mother of
    grandchildren in her household responded "no" to the "adoptive mother" and
    "adoptive father" items in the list even though she is the adoptive mother and her
    husband is the adoptive father of the grandchildren. Another grandmother whose
    grandson has lived with her since birth also thought these items were asking about
    persons other than herself. She responded "yes" to "grandparent," but that was
    because she was thinking about her nonmarital partner because he is like the child's
    grandfather. She did not think the question was asking about her. A third respondent
    who is remarried reported "no" to "stepfather" even though her two daughters lived
    with her and her second husband. A fourth respondent reported "no" to grandparent"
    even though she and her daughter currently live with the child's grandparents.

    Problems arose when one person filled multiple roles. In the current instrument,
    persons who fill multiple roles appear as separate lines on the calendar. There is
    no way to tell whether one person is filling more than one role or whether each role
    is a separate person. Among the respondents interviewed, we had several situations
    in which one person filled multiple roles: 1) a couple who filled four roles--
    grandparent, foster care arrangement, legal guardian, and adoptive parents; 2) a
    live-in ex-husband of the respondent filled two roles, grandparent and nonmarital
    partner; 3) two stepfathers who were the nonmarital partners of the biological
    mothers prior to marriage; 4) a stepmother who was a nonmarital partner of the
    biological father prior to marriage. Problems were compounded in follow-up
    questions regarding when the child lived with these people, whether they were
    responsible for most of their basic needs, the direction of the move, and the reason
    for the move. These questions are asked by role. Some respondents answered in
    terms of the person, rather than the role. Others answered in terms of the role, and
    some applied both methods during a single interview, as their understanding of the
    intent of the question changed during the interview. Asking these questions by role
    caused misreporting and also lead to additional respondent burden.

    The term "nonmarital partner of a biological parent" was problematic for some
    respondents. One respondent had no idea what this term meant. One said she didn't
    know but guessed that it meant "girlfriend" or "boyfriend." Another respondent was
    unclear how to respond since the child's biological mother and stepfather weren't
    married initially. She eventually responded "no" to "unmarried partner of a
    biological parent." Another respondent said "When you said >nonmarital partner' I
    was thinking >boyfriend,' but then you said "of a biological parent,' which would be
    like my spouse." This respondent was unclear how to respond to this item.  She and
    her second husband weren't married when their first child was born, but they were
    both his biological parents. Another respondent reported "yes" to this item, but was
    referring to her nonmarital partner. She is the child's grandmother, not the
    biological mother.
 
9. Tested wording (SCR1D) [Up until he/she was 18,] Did (child) (live with/live in) more than one (stepmother/stepfather/nonmarital partner of a parent/foster care arrangement)?

Problems identified:

    No problems were identified.
 

10. Tested wording (SCR1E) [Up until he/she was 18,] How many different (stepmothers/stepfathers/nonmarital partners of a parent/foster care arrangements) did (child) (live with/live in)?

Problems identified:

    Only one person answered this question. No problems were identified.
 

11. Tested wording (ROSTER1) [The next question will help me determine whether your children have always lived together in the same household. By this I mean whether they lived in the same household without a separation of three months or more from each other.]

Have (name of younger child) and (name of older child) always lived in the same household without a separation of three months or more?

Problems identified:

    Only one respondent went through this item. None of the other respondents lived in
    households in which both biological parents were present as required in the check
    item (CKMF). No problems were identified. There were several other children that
    had always lived together, but were not able to be included on the same calendar
    since both biological parents were not in the household. These included: 1) one
    respondent who had three biological daughters who had always lived together, but
    the children's father did not live with them, 2) one respondent who was raising her
    two grandsons who had always lived together, but neither biological parent lived in
    the household currently, and 3) the adoptive mother of four grandchildren that could
    have been on two calendars instead of four since two of the children had always
    lived together and the other two had always lived together.
 

12. Tested wording This form is something we call the Residential History Calendar. I'll use it to help record the times your child(ren) lived either away from you or with you and other adults. The purpose of filling out this calendar is to help us understand if there are a little or a lot of changes in the situations children live in. You can see that there are boxes to show each year of your child(ren)'s life. The lines down the side show the people or situations your child(ren) lived in during those periods. I'd like you to help me fill out this calendar so that I make sure we don't miss any changes in your child(ren)'s living situations.

Problems identified:

    This introduction was added part way through testing. In the first couple of
    interviews, respondents paid no attention to the residential history calendar and did
    not use it to help them remember dates. This introduction was added to give
    respondents a better understanding of the calendar and to involve them as
    participants in filling it out. Due to interviewer oversight, respondents were not
    probed regarding their understanding of the introduction. Based on interviewer
    observation, some of the respondents who were read the introduction did seem to
    take more interest in the calendar than those who were not read the introduction.
 

13. Tested wording (MOM1) We are interested in all periods lasting three months or more in which (name of first child on roster) lived apart from (his/her) biological mother. When did this occur?

Problems identified

    Five of the seven respondents had children who had been separated from their
    biological mothers. Three of the respondents had some trouble with dates of
    separations, but did their best to come up with dates. Respondents usually reported
    only the beginning dates and did not report end dates to this item. Field
    Representatives (FRs) will need to be trained to probe for end dates.

    The one respondent who had a joint custody arrangement for her two children
    reported them as living with both parents when the children spent parts of each
    week with each parent, but then reported one daughter as living only with the
    biological father when she started spending most of her nights at the biological
    father's house and only spending a few nights a month with the biological mother.
    The respondent reported that this shift from a joint arrangement to one in which the
    child spent more time at the father's house happened gradually over a period of
    time, which made it difficult to give a date that the arrangement changed.

    Note that the interviewer made a mistake in one interview regarding the date of
    separation from the biological mother. The respondent said it occurred when the
    child was age one in about June. The interviewer looked at the calendar for the
    year in which the child was age 1 and wrote "6" for June under that same year. The
    "6" should have gone in the following year. FRs should be trained that children are
    age 1 up until they turn 2 the next year and to be careful not to mark the wrong year.
 

14. Tested wording (MOM3) What caused the [first/next] separation -- that is, the separation between [month/year] and [month/year]?

Problems identified:

    One respondent (a grandmother caring for her grandson) reported that the mother
    moved out to "be with her boyfriend and develop their lives." A few years later the
    mother had a car accident resulting in a head injury and now requires round the
    clock care at a group home. She wasn't sure whether she was supposed to report
    both reasons since they happened at different times. Another respondent couldn't
    read the flashcard but said "child abuse" in response to this question. The
    interviewer read the category "child removed by government agency," and the
    respondent initially said "yes," but then was unsure because she said that Social
    Service is run by the State. (Perhaps she equated "government agency" with the
    Federal government.) Another respondent chose "parental financial hardship"
    because the child "had it better at her dad's." Is this an intended meaning of
    this category?

    The wording of this question is awkward if there is only one separation. The
    interview reworded the question as follows: "What caused the separation between
    (date) and (date)?"

    Based on a respondent's misunderstanding of the comparable item for separations
    from the biological father, this item should specify that we are talking about a
    separation from the biological mother.
 

15. Tested wording (DAD1) We are (also) interested in all periods lasting three months or more in which (name of oldest child on roster) lived apart from (his/her) biological father. When did this occur?

Problems identified:

    Five of seven respondents answered this questions. Respondents often gave the
    start date for the separation but not the end date. FRs will need to be trained to
    probe for end dates.

    One respondent (the grandmother of the child) had trouble answering this question
    about her nonmarital partner's biological son. This child had never been a member
    of this household. The best answer she could give is the first quarter of 1982. FRs
    will need to know how to code such answers.
 

16. Tested wording (DAD3) What caused the [first/next] separation -- that is, the separation between [month/year] and [month/year]?

Problems identified:

    One respondent said that the "parents were no longer compatible." The interviewer
    asked her to choose a category from the flashcard and the respondent chose "other
    reasons" rather than "marital conflict between parents." This suggests that the
    flashcard may be too long for respondents to read easily and quickly. Another
    respondent was confused by this question on two separate occasions. One of her
    daughters lived with her when she was younger but, after a custody battle, went to
    live with the child's biological father. The respondent thought this question was
    asking why the child left the mother to go live with the father. The younger daughter
    of this same respondent has never lived with her biological father and the
    respondent was confused by the question because "there never was a separation
    because she never lived with him." A third respondent had trouble with this
    question because she and the children's father were never married and she wasn't
    sure whether she should use the category "marital conflict between parents" since
    the parents weren't ever married.

    The wording of this question is awkward if there is only one separation. The
    interviewer reworded question as "What caused the separation between (date) and
    (date)?" Also, the question should specify that we are asking about separations
    from the biological father.
 

17. Tested wording (OTHAD1) When did (Child) live for three months or more in the same household as (adult1)?

Problems identified:

    Many of the problems with this item stem from respondents' misunderstanding of
    the previous "screener" item regarding "other adults" with whom the child has
    shared a household. First, respondents who thought the screener was asking only
    about times that the child went by himself/herself to live with the "other adult," did
    not mention times that the biological parent(s) and the child lived with the "other
    adult." The grandmother who lives with her two grandsons failed to mention the
    two times the grandchildren and their biological father lived with the grandparents
    and only reported the times that the grandchildren lived with the grandparent when
    the biological father was not present. Two other respondents failed to mention
    times when they and their children lived with the respondents' parents (child's
    grandparents). One respondent failed to mention the times she and her two
    daughters lived with three different nonmarital partners. One respondent did not
    report the time the child's uncle lived in the household for a year and a half.

    Second, respondents who thought the question was asking about persons other than
    themselves or persons outside their current living situation that the child lived with
    were excluded from this item altogether. There were several examples of this from
    the cognitive interviews. Two separate grandparents didn't include themselves in
    the screener item. One of the grandparents was the children's adoptive mother and
    her husband was the adoptive father. One respondent reported "no" to "stepfather"
    even though her two daughters lived with her and her second husband. One
    respondent reported "no" to grandparents even though she and her daughter live
    with the child's grandparents.

    Third, this item was also problematic for persons who served more than one role in
    a child's life. In some cases the respondent reported the time periods the child lived
    with the "other adult" in terms of the person and did not differentiate between the
    roles; in other cases, the respondent reported the time periods in terms of the
    role; and respondents sometimes applied both methods during the same interview
    as their understanding of what they thought we wanted changed. This results in
    inconsistent information.

    We may need to clarify that the questions are asking about the period of time from
    birth to present (or to age 18 for persons currently over 18). One respondent failed
    to mention that she and her baby and the baby's father lived with the child's
    grandparent until the child was age one because it happened a long time ago and
    she thought the questions were asking only about more recent events.

    One respondent could give the year that the son of her nonmarital partner started
    living with a stepfather, but not the month. (The son has never been a member of
    this household.) FRs will need to be instructed how to code such information on the
    calendar.

    Additionally, respondents tended to give start dates but not end dates. FRs will
    need to be trained to probe for end dates.
 

18. Tested wording (OTHAD3) Was (adult1) responsible for most of the basic needs of (name) from (month/year) to (month/year)?

Problems identified:

    This question worked fairly well. Respondents generally agreed on what the
    term "basic needs" meant and included things like food, clothing, shelter,
    medical care, education. However, respondents had different interpretations
    of the concept of being "responsible for most of the basic needs." Some
    respondents thought of this in terms of financial responsibility. Other
    respondents indicated that it took more than money to raise a child and thought
    about everything that it takes to raise a child. If the intention is to find out who
    was financially responsible for the child, then the word "financially" should be
    inserted into the question.

    One respondent had trouble answering this question with regard to the time
    that her daughter lived with a stepmother. The respondent has a joint custody
    arrangement for her daughter. For most of the child's life, responsibility for
    providing the basic needs of the child was shared between the two families.
    Later the daughter spent more time at the father's house and he and his wife
    provided more for the daughter. The respondent wanted to provide two
    answers. One from the time of the separation until the daughter started living
    with the biological father and his wife (when custody was shared) and a
    second for the time that the child lived with primarily with the biological
    father and his wife.
 

19. Tested wording (OTHAD4) Did (name) move in with (adult1), did (adult1) move in with (name), or did they move together to a new place in (month/year).

Problems identified:

    This question did not work well. In a couple of instances, the child was a
    newborn and came home from the hospital to the residence. This question was
    awkward for those circumstances mostly likely because respondents don't
    think of children as "moving" when they come home from being born.

    This question also did not necessarily prompt respondents to think about
    changes in the initial living arrangement if something more significant
    occurred later like moving to a new house. For example, one respondent
    reported that the child and the grandparent moved together to a new place.
    This happened 9 months after the child was born. When the child came home
    from the hospital, she went with the mother to live in the grandparents house
    so the correct answer should have been "child moved." Another respondent
    reported that they moved to a new house, when in fact the nonmarital partner
    had moved in with her initially and later they moved to a new house.

    This question also did not work well in situations in which the person's role
    changed. For example, one respondent lived with her husband before they
    were married. His role changed from "nonmarital partner" to "stepfather."
    When this question was asked about the stepfather, the respondent didn't know
    how to answer because they were all living together and no one moved; just
    the stepfather's role had changed from nonmarital partner to stepfather.
 

20. Tested wording (OTHAD5) Why did (name) and (adult 1) begin living together in (month/year)?

Problems identified:

    This question is similar to the two other questions asking for reasons the child
    was separated from the biological parents, but no flashcard was used. Both
    questions should be consistent by either using or not using flashcards. A few
    respondents thought they were supposed to use the flashcard from the previous
    question on reasons for separation from a biological parent to answer this
    question.

    This question is awkward when the reason a child and the "other adult" started
    living together was because the child was born and came home from the
    hospital. At a minimum, the category "child born" should be added to the
    response options.

    This question was confusing for some respondents, particularly when a
    biological parent and the child lived with the "other adult." This prompted
    responses of "because that's where I was living" or "that's where his mom was
    living." In these instances, the question really should be why did the parent
    start living with the "other adult" since the reason the child is living there is
    because that's where the parent is living.

    This question also caused problems when persons filled multiple roles and
    answered the previous item OTHAD1 (time periods child lived with the
    "other adult") based on the person rather than the role. For example, one
    respondent answered OTHAD1 for the entire time her daughter lived with the
    person who eventually became her stepmother. This included time when the
    stepmother was the nonmarital partner of the father. The month/year fill for
    this item is based on data from OTHAD1. Thus, the date and the role did not
    match, since the date corresponded to the month and year the daughter started
    living with the father and his nonmarital partner and the role corresponded to
    "stepmother." The respondent pointed out the inconsistency. In a standard
    interview, such errors would require the FRs to back up and change answers
    to several previous items.
 

Questions on Moves During Child's Lifetime

The following questions on moves are not included as part of the residential history questions. They are a separate series of questions that were tested after all the questions pertaining to the residential history were completed for all eligible children. The objective of the questions is to provide the number of moves a child made with or without other family members during the child's lifetime. The questions are asked for aggregated ages that correspond to elementary, junior high, and high school, as well as prior to entry in school. (Wording shown in brackets is for children younger than the maximum age for the question.)

1. Tested wording (MOVE1)

Before (he/she) began school, that is, before age 5, how many time did (child) move. By move, I mean move to a new address either with or without you for a period of three months or more. [Since birth, how many times has (chid) moved. By move, I mean to move to a new address, either with or without you for a period of three months or more.]

Problems identified:

    The question reads "with or without you." Depending on who the respondent
    is, the "you" refers to different people. If the respondent is not a biological
    parent, should the question be filled "with or without a biological parent?"

    Several respondents did not hear the reference period in this question, which
    resulted in double counting moves. Additionally, the phrase "Before he/she
    began school," may be misleading respondents. Two respondents thought it
    was asking how many times the child moved since starting school. Another
    missed the reference period altogether and reported the total number of moves
    the child made during his lifetime.

    Respondents may not know this information for children that have never been
    part of their household. One respondent had trouble answering this question
    for the biological son of her nonmarital partner. She has never lived with this
    child so wasn't really sure when he and his biological mother moved.
 

2. Tested wording (MOVE2) How many times did (child) move during elementary school, that is, between ages 5 and (11/current age)? [How many times did (child) move since (he/she) turned 5?]

Problems identified:

    At least one respondent double counted a move both at this question and the previous one. One
    respondent had difficulty answering this question for her 19 year old daughter because she had to think
    about all the moves she made during those years and all the moves her ex-husband made because they
    shared custody of the child. The school reference was helpful for one respondent because she knew that
    her grandson changed schools every year until 5th grade. The other respondents relied more on the age
    of the child rather than the reference to "elementary school."
 

3.Tested wording (MOVE3) How many times did (child) move during middle or junior high school, that is, between ages 12 and 13/14? [How many time did (child) move since (he/she) turned 12?]

Problems identified:

    One respondent reported a move that was outside the reference period (when the child was 16).
 

4. Tested wording (MOVE4) And finally, how many times did (child) move during high school, that is, between ages 15 and current age/18? [And finally, how many times did (child) move since (he/she) turned 15?]

Problems identified:

    The same respondent who reported a move that was outside the reference period in the previous item,
    neglected to report that move at this item. Another respondent double counted a move both in the
    previous item and here.
 

Respondent debriefing questions
Moves

Following the questions on moves, we asked a series of hypothetical vignettes asking about different situations and whether respondents thought the situation should be reported as a move based on their understanding of our definition of a move ("by move I mean to move to a new address, either with or without you for a period of three months or more.") The results of the vignettes following.

Three of the vignettes dealt with situations in which children shuttled between divorced parents. In one vignette, the child lived with the mother during the school year and with the father for three months in the summer. In a second, the child lived in the same arrangement but only stayed with the father for two months in the summer. In the third, the child spent every other weekend with his father and the rest of the time with his mother. The majority of respondents would not report such situations as moves. They characterized them as visits and just temporary in nature, rather than as permanent moves. Respondents also characterized the vignette in which the child lived with the grandmother during the week to attend school and with her parents on the weekends as a visit rather than a move.

Five of seven respondents said they would count the vignette in which the child was at boarding school during the school year and at home during the summer as a move. Two said they would not. And all but one of the respondents thought that a move from one apartment to another in the same building should be counted as a move since it involves different addresses.

Opinions about the residential history calendar

Following the cognitive interviews, we asked respondents several questions regarding their impression of the residential history calendar. Respondents' overall impression of the calendar varied. Some thought the calendar would be a useful tool for respondents even if they themselves did not use it to help them answer questions. Other respondents thought the calendar looked busy, confusing, and unorganized. For example, one respondent didn't understand why "child 1" and "age" and "grade" appeared under the columns marked 1994, 1995, and1996 at the top of the calendar. This respondent also wondered why there was no place to put the child's birth date on the form. (The interviewer put the birth date on top of the first row in order to fill in the children's correct ages in the boxes. The interviewer was unable to put the child's age and grade in the box due to space limitations.) A few respondents also thought that there were too many numbers at the bottom of the calendar. They are referring to the small numbers within each box that correspond to the number of the "other adult" on the far right-hand side. The interviewer did not find these numbers particularly helpful and managed to enter data in the wrong line anyway. One respondent indicated that her eye is drawn to the left-hand side of the page (where we normally start reading) and not to the right -hand side of the page where the children's names and the "living with/apart" information is listed. She suggested putting that information on the left-hand side so that she could read across from left to right. Two respondents thought that the information would be more easily seen and understood if it were more like a bar graph. One suggested using high lighters to make it more visually dramatic. Older respondents also had great difficulty seeing the form due to its small print.

There were mixed results regarding whether the form helped respondents remember dates. Some respondents knew the dates of changes in their children's living arrangements and did not find the calendar useful. Other respondents thought that it was helpful to have it in front of them and that it might be useful for multiple children within a household. None of the respondents knew what the numbers that the interviewer had written in the boxes represented. (The numbers correspond to the month that a change in the living situation occurred.)

 
ATTACHMENT A
DRAFT–INTERVIEWING PROTOCOL
SPD 2000 CHILD RESIDENTIAL HISTORY QUESTION LIST
________________________________________________________________________
[Read bracketed introduction once per household.]
[Cycle <OTHCHLD1> through <CKSCR1A> for each person age 15 or over in household.]

<OTHCHLD1>

[In this section, we would like to ask some questions about the past and present living arrangements of the children of this household.

I have listed the following children born since January 1, 1974 who are living in this household.]

Name                             Sex                 Birthdate                                  Relationship to Resp

{LIST ALL CHILDREN BORN SINCE JANUARY 1, 1974 WHO ARE LIVING IN THIS HOUSEHOLD.}

<1> Yes
<2> No (go to <OTHCHLD4>)
<D> Don’t know (go to <OTHCHLD4>)
<R> Refused (go to <OTHCHLD4>)

Probe:                 What is this question asking in your own words?
                            What does the phrase “biological children” mean to you?
________________________________________________________________________
<OTHCHLD2>      How many other biological children (do you/does name) have?

                               ENTER NUMBER OF CHILDREN
________________________________________________________________________

<OTHCHLD3>         What is [the first] child’s name?

                                   @1 __________________________________

                                    ASK IF NECESSARY:  What is [his/her] sex?

                                   <1> Male
                                   <2> Female

                                    @2 ==>

                                    When was  [she/he] born?

                                   @3 ___Month  ____Day  ____Year
________________________________________________________________________
[Ask if person is 18 or over.  Otherwise go to CKSCR1A.]
<OTHCHLD4>         (Do you/Does name) have any adopted children who were born since January 1, 1974 and are
                                   living somewhere else?

                                 <1> Yes
                                 <2> No (go to CKSCR1A)
________________________________________________________________________
<OTHCHLD5>         How many adopted children living elsewhere (do you/does name) have?

                                  ENTER NUMBER OF CHILDREN.
________________________________________________________________________
[Cycle through <OTHCHLD6@1-@3> until information for all additional adopted children has been collected.]

<OTHCHLD6>         What is [the first] child’s name?

                                   @1 ____________________________________

                                    ASK IF NECESSARY: What is [his/her] sex?
                                   <1> Male
                                   <2> Female

                                    @2==>

                                 When was  [s/he] born?

                                   @3____Month  ___ Day  ____ Year

________________________________________________________________________
CKSCR1A. Go to <OTHCHLD1> and ask for next person in household age 15 or over.
If no additional person age 15 or over in household, go to <SCR1A>.
________________________________________________________________________
[Ask <SCR1A> through <SCR1C> for each eligible child beginning with the oldest eligible child.]
[Fill bracket if child  is 18 or over.  Otherwise leave blank.]

<SCR1A>          [Up until he/she was 18,] Was there ever a period of three months or more when (child) did not live
                           with (his/her) biological mother?

                               <1> Yes
                               <2> No
                               <D>
                               <R>

Probe:             What is this question asking in your own words?
________________________________________________________________________
[Fill bracket if child  is 18 or over.  Otherwise leave blank.]

<SCR1B>          [Up until he/she was 18,] Was there ever a period of three months or more when (child) did not live
                           with (his/her) biological father?

                               <1> Yes
                               <2> No
                               <D>
                               <R>

Probe:             What is this question asking in your own words?
________________________________________________________________________
[Fill bracket if child  is 18 or over.  Otherwise leave blank.]
<SCR1C>     Intro 1:         Now we are interested in periods of three months or more when (child) may have also
                                            lived with other adults. Include times when (he/she) lived with these other adults even if
                                            (his/her) biological mother or father was with (him/her).

                    Intro 2:           We are interested in periods of three months or more when (child) shared a household
                                            with adults other than (his/her) biological mother or father, or adults in additional to
                                            (his/her) biological mother or father.  Please include times in which (child) moved in with
                                            another adult and times when another adult moved in with (child), even if (he/she) was
                                            still living with (his/her) biological mother or father.

                 [Up until he/she was 18,] Was there ever a period of three months or more when (child) lived with:

                    READ CATEGORIES
                    an adoptive mother                 <1> Yes         <2> No
                    an adoptive father                   <1> Yes         <2> No
                    a stepmother                           <1> Yes         <2> No
                    a stepfather                             <1> Yes         <2> No
                    a nonmarital partner of a
                      biological parent                    <1> Yes         <2> No
                    a grandparent                          <1> Yes         <2> No
                    some other adult relative
                      such as an aunt or uncle          <1> Yes         <2> No
                    some other adult non-relative    <1> Yes         <2> No
                    foster care arrangement             <1> Yes         <2> No
                    an institution, boarding school,
                      group home, or hospital           <1> Yes         <2> No

                    Probe: (Re-read question)         What is this question asking in your own words?
                                                                         What do the terms “stepmother” and “stepfather” mean to you?
                                                                         What does the term “a nonmarital partner other than a biological
                                                                                parent” mean to you, if anything?
                                                                        What does the term “some other adult non-relative” mean to you?
                                                                                Could you give me an example of someone who would be in that
                                                                                category?
                                                                        Do you think this question is asking about times that the child went to
                                                                                live with the “X” or times when “X” came to live with the child or
                                                                                both?
                                                                        (For each “yes” ask) Did child go to live with “X” or did “X” come to
                                                                                live with the child?
________________________________________________________________________

CK1.             If stepfather, stepmother, non-marital partner or foster care marked “yes”, go to <SCR1D> for each “yes”
                      response.
                     If stepfather, stepmother, non-marital partner and foster care equal “no,” “D,” or “R” for all responses, go to
                     CK2.
________________________________________________________________________
[Cycle <SCR1D> through <SCR1E> for each “yes” response in <SCR1C@3-@5> and <SCR1C@9>.]
[Fill bracket if child  is 18 or over.  Otherwise leave blank.]
[Fill “live with” if asking about <SCR1C@3-@5>.  Fill “live in” if asking about <SCR1C@9>.]
<SCR1D>     [Up until he/she was 18,] Did (child) (live with/live in) more than one stepmother/stepfather/nonmarital
                      partner of a parent/foster care arrangement)?
                      <1> Yes
                      <2> No (GO TO CK2)
                      <D> (GO TO CK2)
                      <R> (GO TO CK2)

Probe:         Could you tell me more about that?
                    What is this question asking in your own words?
________________________________________________________________________
[Fill bracket if child  is 18 or over.  Otherwise leave blank.]
[Fill “live with” if asking about <SCR1C@3-@5>.  Fill “live in” if asking about <SCR1C@9>.]
<SCR1E>           [Up until he/she was 18,] How many different (stepmothers/stepfathers/nonmarital partners of a
                            parent/foster care arrangements) did (child) (live with/live in)?

                            _____ Number

Probe:                 Could you tell me more about that?
________________________________________________________________________

CK2.     If additional “yes” response in stepfather, stepmother, non-marital partner or foster care, go to <SCR1D> and ask
              for next “yes” response.
            Go to <SCR1A> for next eligible child.
            Otherwise go to CKEND.
________________________________________________________________________
CKEND.     If <SCR1A> and <SCR1B> and <SCR1C@1 - SCR1C@10> equal “2,” “D,” or “R” for all eligible children,
                    residential history is complete for this household.  Go to <MOVE1>.
                    Otherwise go to CKMF.
________________________________________________________________________
CKMF.        Instrument will check mother’s line number and father’s line number for all eligible children in household.
                    Instrument will form “Child Groups” as follows.  Each adopted child is a “Child Group” even though it only
                    contains one child.  Each child age 18 or over at the time of the interview is a “Child Group” even though it only
                    contains one child.  The remaining children are grouped based on whether they share the same biological parents
                    and stepparents (if applicable) within this household.   Children with the same biological parents and step parents
                    (if applicable) in this household are grouped and ordered oldest to youngest.
________________________________________________________________________
CKGRP.      If there is only one child per “Child Group,” go to <GROUPS>.
                    Otherwise go to <ROSTER1>.
________________________________________________________________________
[Cycle <ROSTER1> through <CKOLDER> for children within same group.
[Read bracketed introduction only once per household.]
 

<ROSTER1>       [The next question will help me determine whether your children have always lived together in the
                            same household.  By this  I mean whether they lived in the same household without a separation
                            of three months or more from each other.]

                            Have (name of younger child) and (name of older child) always lived in the same household
                            without a separation of three months or more?

                            <1> Yes (Add this child to older child’s residential history roster)
                            <2> No (GO TO CKOLDER)
                            <D> (GO TO CKOLDER)
                            <R> (GO TO CKOLDER)

Probe:                  What is this question asking in your own words?
________________________________________________________________________

CKOLDER.     If there is an older child in this “Child Group” who is on a separate roster, ask <ROSTER1> to see if this child
                        always lived with that older child.
                        If there is no older child in this “Child Group” on a separate roster, place this child on his/her own roster.  Go
                        to next eligible child in this “Child Group.”
                        If no other children in this “Child Group,” go to next “Child Group.”
                        If no other “Child Group,” display <GROUPS>.
________________________________________________________________________

[Instrument will fill “#”.]
<GROUPS>    FILL IN (#) RESIDENTIAL HISTORY CALENDAR(S) WITH THE FOLLOWING NAME AND
                        DATE OF BIRTH INFORMATION.  ALSO MARK AGE/GRADE ANCHORS ON CALENDAR:

Calendar 1                                                Date of birth
Name of oldest child in group                    {Instrument will fill this data.}
Name of second oldest child
Name of third oldest child
 “
 ”
Name of youngest child

Calendar 2
Name of oldest child in group
Name of second oldest child
Name of third oldest child
 “
 ”
Name of youngest child
 .
 .
 .
Calendar “n”
Name of oldest child in group
Name of second oldest child
Name of third oldest child
 “
 ”
Name of youngest child
________________________________________________________________________

<INTROCAL>
                           SHOW RESIDENTIAL HISTORY CALENDAR

                            This form is something we call the Residential History Calendar.  I’ll use it to help record the
                            times your child(ren) lived either away from you or with you and other adults.  The purpose of
                            filling out this calendar is to help us understand if there are a little or a lot of changes in the
                            situations children live in.  You can see that there are boxes to show each year of your child(ren)’s
                            life.  The lines down the side show the people or situations your child(ren) lived in during those
                            periods.  I’d like you to help me fill out this calendar so that I make sure we don’t miss any
                            changes in your child(ren)’s living situations.

                            ENTER “P” TO PROCEED

                            ==>__
________________________________________________________________________
CKMOM1.         If no separation from biological mother (<SCR1A> =“2,” “D,” “R,”), then go to CKDAD1.
                            Otherwise go to <MOM1> and ask for oldest child on roster.
_______________________________________________________________________
[Cycle <MOM1> through CKOTHAD5 for oldest child on each separate roster.]
[Fill bracketed introduction the first time through this series.  Otherwise leave blank.]

<MOM1>          We are interested in all periods lasting three months or more in which (name of first child on
                            roster) lived apart from (his/her) biological mother.  When did this occur?

                            ENTER ALL PERIODS OF SEPARATION (MONTH NUMBER WITHIN YEAR) IN THE “LIVING
                            APART FROM BIOLOGICAL MOTHER” ROW OF THE CALENDAR.

                              ==>__  ENTER “P” TO PROCEED
Probe:                  How did you come up with your answer?
                            When I said “We are interested in all periods lasting three months or more in which (name) lived
                            apart from (his/her) biological mother,”what does that mean in your own words?
________________________________________________________________________
[If only one separation, fill “this separation.”  If more than one separation, fill “these separations.”]

<MOMSEP>     “Now I’ll enter this information in the computer and ask you a few more questions about the
                            reasons for (this separation/these separations).”

                            ENTER THE MONTH AND YEAR FOR THE BEGINNING AND ENDING DATES OF EACH
                            SEPARATION FROM THE BIOLOGICAL MOTHER.

Instrument edit:     Create a variable containing the total number of separations from the biological mother.

{SCREEN FORMAT TO BE DETERMINED BY DSD AND TMO.}
________________________________________________________________________
[Ask <MOM3> for each period of separation.  Fill month/year information from <MOMSEP>.]

<MOM3>       What caused the [first/next] separation -- that is, the separation between [month/year] and
                        [month/year]?

                        FLASHCARD X
                        MARK AS MANY REASONS AS APPLY
                        READ RESPONSE CATEGORIES IF TELEPHONE INTERVIEW

                         1.  Child on vacation with other relatives or friends
                         2.  Child in summer camp
                         3.  Child in boarding school
                         4.  Child living with other biological parent
                         5.  Child went to live with adoptive parent(s)
                         6.   Marital conflict between parents
                         7.   Parent/guardian on vacation or business trip
                         8.   Physical health problem of child
                         9.   Mental health problem of child
                         10.   Substance abuse problem of child
                         11. Behavior problem of child
                         12.  Physical health problem of parent
                         13.  Mental health problem of parent
                         14.  Substance abuse problem of parent
                         15. Parent jailed/incarcerated
                         16. Financial hardship
                         17. Child removed by government agency (court, child protective services)
                         18. Other reason (specify)_____________________________________
                         D   Don’t Know
                         R   Refused

Probe:             What is this question asking in your own words?
________________________________________________________________________

CKMOMSEP. If additional separation for this child, ask <MOM3> for next period of separation.
If no additional separation, go to CKDAD1.

CKDAD1. If no separation from biological father (<SCR1B> equals 2, D, or R), go to CKOTH1.
If <SCR1B> equals 1, go to <DAD1>.

[If <SCR1A> equals “yes,” fill “also.”  Otherwise leave blank.]

<DAD1> We are (also) interested in all periods lasting three months or more in which (name of oldest child on roster) lived apart from (his/her) biological father.  When did this occur?

ENTER ALL PERIODS OF SEPARATION (MONTH NUMBER WITHIN YEAR) IN THE “LIVING APART FROM BIOLOGICAL FATHER” ROW OF THE CALENDAR.

==>__  ENTER “P” TO PROCEED

Probe: How did you come up with your answer?
________________________________________________________________________
[If only one separation, fill “this separation.”  If more than one separation, fill “these separations.”]
<DADSEP> “Now I’ll enter this information in the computer and ask you a few more questions about the reasons for (this separation/these separations).”

ENTER THE MONTH AND YEAR OF THE BEGINNING AND ENDING DATES OF SEPARATIONS FROM THE BIOLOGICAL FATHER

Instrument edit: Create a variable containing the total number of separations from the biological father.

{SCREEN FORMAT TO BE DETERMINED BY DSD AND TMO}
 

[Fill month and year information from <DADSEP>.]

<DAD3> What caused the [first/next] separation -- that is, the separation between [month/year] and [month/year]?

FLASHCARD X
MARK ALL THAT APPLY
READ CATEGORIES IF TELEPHONE INTERVIEW

1.  Child on vacation with other relatives or friends
 2.  Child in summer camp
 3.  Child in boarding school
 4.  Child living with other biological parent
 5.  Child went to live with adoptive parent
 6.   Marital conflict between parents
 7.   Parent/guardian on vacation or business trip
 8.   Physical health problem of child
 9.   Mental health problem of child
 10.   Substance abuse problem of child
 11. Behavior problem of child
 12.  Physical health problem of parent
 13.  Mental health problem of parent
 14.  Substance abuse problem of parent
 15. Parent jailed/incarcerated
 16. Financial hardship
 17. Child removed by government agency (court, child protective services)
 18. Other reason (specify)_____________________________________
 D   Don’t Know
 R   Refused
________________________________________________________________________
CKMOMSEP.         If additional separation for this child, ask <DAD3> for next period of separation.
                                If no additional separation, go to CKOTH1.
________________________________________________________________________
CKOTH1. If child lived with an “other adult” (any answer in <SCR1C@1> through <SCR1C@10> equals 1), go to <OTHADSCR>.
If child did not live with “other adult” (all answers in <SCR1C@1> through <SCR1C@10> equal 2, D, or R), go to CKMOM1 for next child group.
If no additional child groups, go to <MOVE1>.

<OTHADSCR> FILL FOLLOWING INFORMATION UNDER “LIVING WITH SOMEONE ELSE” ON CALENDAR:

  {INSTRUMENT LISTS “OTHER ADULTS” IDENTIFIED IN <SCR1C@1-@10>}

[Cycle <OTHAD1> through <CKOTHAD5> for each “yes” response in <SCR1C@1-@10>.]

<OTHAD1> When did (Child 1) live  In the case of adopted children, do we want the biological or adoptive mother/father on these lines?
for three months or more in the same household as (adult1)?

ENTER ALL PERIODS OF LIVING WITH THIS “OTHER ADULT” IN THE APPROPRIATE “LIVING WITH SOMEONE ELSE” ROW OF THE CALENDAR.  ENTER THE MONTH NUMBER WITHIN THE YEAR.

 ==>__  ENTER “P” TO PROCEED

Probe: How did you come up with your answer?
What is this question asking in your own words?
Do you think we want you to include times when the child and a biological parent lived with (adult1) or just when the child lived by himself/herself with (adult1)?
 

[If only one separation, fill “this separation.”  If more than one separation, fill “these separations.”]
<OTHADSEP> “Now I’ll enter this information in the computer.”

ENTER THE MONTH AND YEAR OF THE BEGINNING AND ENDING DATES OF LIVING WITH THIS “OTHER ADULT.”

Instrument edit: Cr

 {SCREEN FORMAT TO BE DETERMINED BY DSD AND TMO}
 

[Cycle <OTHAD3> through CKOTHAD5 for each period of living with this “other adult.”]
<OTHAD3> Was (adult1) responsible for most of the basic needs of (name) from  (month/year) to (month/year)?

    <1> Yes
    <2> No

Probe: What do you think this question is asking in your own words?
What does the term “basic needs” mean to you?

<OTHAD4> Did (name) move in with (adult1), did (adult1) move in with name, or did they move together to a new place in (month/year)?
 <1> Child moved
   <2> Adult moved
   <3> Both moved

<OTHAD5> Why did (name) and (adult1) begin living together in (month/year)?

   1.  Child went to live with biological parent
   2.  Child’s illness
   3.  Child in boarding school
   4.  Child placed in foster care
   5.  Child jailed
   6.  Child cared for by friend/relative
   7.  Child got married
   8.  Child out on own/got a job
   9.   Parental illness
   10. Parental financial hardship
   11. Parental work
   12. Parent jailed/institutionalized
   13. Parent moved elsewhere
   14. Mother and father separated/divorced
15. Parent remarried/began living with a nonmarital partner
   16. Parent died
   17. Government agency/court order
   18. Other (specify)_____________________

Probe: What is this question asking in your own words?
 

CKOTHAD5.  If any additional periods of living with this “other adult,” go to <OTHAD3> and ask for next period.
If no additional periods of living with this “other adult,” go to <OTHAD1> and ask for next “yes” response in “other adult” (<SCR1C@1> through <SCR1C@10>).
If no additional “yes” responses in “other adult” (<SCR1C@1> through <SCR1C@10>), go to CKMOM1 for next child group.
If no additional child groups, go to <MOVE1>.
 
 

[Ask <MOVE1> - <MOVE4> for each eligible child beginning with the oldest child.]
[If child is 5 or older, fill “Before (child) began school, that is before age 5,” “did,” and “move.”   If child is less than 5, fill “Since birth,”  “has,” and “moved.” ]
<MOVE1> [Before (he/she) began school, that is, before age 5/Since birth,]  how many times (did/has) (child) (move/moved).  By move, I mean move to a new address, either with or without you  for a period of three months or more.

 _________ Enter number of moves

Probe: How did you come up with your answer?
What is this question asking in your own words?
 

CKMOVE2. If child is 5 or over, ask <MOVE2.>
   If child is under 5, go to <MOVE1> and ask for next eligible child.
If no more eligible children, end interview.

[If child is age 5, fill “since (he/she) turned 5.”  If child is ages 6 to 10, fill “during elementary school, that is, between ages 5 and current age.” If child is age 11 or over, fill “during elementary school, that is, between ages 5 and 11.”]

<MOVE2> How many times did (child) move [since (he/she) turned 5?/during elementary school, that is, between ages 5 and (current age/11)]?

   _________ Enter number of moves

Probe: How did you come up with your answer?
 

CKMOVE3. If child is 12 or over, ask <MOVE3>.
   If child is under 12, go to <MOVE1> and ask for next eligible child.
If no more eligible children, end interview.

[If child is age 12, fill “since (he/she) turned 12?”  If child is age 13, fill “during middle or junior high school, that is, between ages 12 and 13?” If child is age 14 or over, fill “during middle or junior high school, that is, between ages 12 and 14?”]
<MOVE3> How many times did (child) move [since (he/she) turned 12?/during middle or junior high school, that is, between ages 12 and (13/14)?

   __________ Enter number of moves

Probe: How did you come up with your answer?
 

CKMOVE4. If child is 15 or over, ask <MOVE4>.
If child is under 15, go to <MOVE1> and ask for next eligible child.
   If no more eligible children, end interview.

[If child is age 15, fill “since (he/she) turned 15.  If child is age 16 or 17, fill “during high school, that is, between ages 15 and current age.” If child is age 18 or over, fill “during high school, that is, between ages 15 and 18.”]
<MOVE4> And finally, how many times did (child) move [since (he/she) turned 15?/ during high school, that is, between ages 15 and (current age/18)?

   _________ Enter number of moves

Probe: How did you come up with your answer?

CKMOVE5. If additional children in household, go to <MOVE1> and ask for next eligible child.
   If no more eligible children, end interview.
 
 

Probe after completing series on moves:

1. Find out how long child lived at each new address.

2.  Ask hypothetical examples:
“The questions I just asked you were about moves during your child’s life.  And in these questions we defined “move” as “move to a new address, either with or without you.”  Now I’m going to ask you whether you would count the following situations as moves based on your understanding of our definition of move.”

 “If a child lived with his mother during the school year and his father for three months during the summer, would you consider that a move?”

“If a child lived with her grandmother during the week to attend school, and with her parents on the weekends, would you consider that a move?”

“If a child spent every other weekend with his father and the rest of the time with his mother, would you consider that a move?”

“If a child was at boarding school during the school year and at home during the summer, would you consider that a move?”

“If a child moved with his family from one apartment to another in the same building, would you consider that a move?”

“If a child spent two months during the summer with his father, and the rest of the time with his mother, would you consider that a move?”

Respondent debriefing questions

We used this form (the residential history calendar) to record the your (child/children’s) living situation since birth.  What did you think about this form?

Did you look at the form in order to help you remember the dates of your child’s/children’s living situations?

Did the form help you to remember dates when the child did not live with (you/the biological mother/father) or not?

Did the form help you to remember dates when the child lived with “other adults” or not?

Does the form look complicated or intimidating?  Would other people think the form looks complicated or intimidating?

At the top of the form, I wrote down your child’s/children’s ages and grade levels.  Did that information help you to recall the dates of these different events?
Attachment C
Characteristics of Respondents, Their Children, and Other Household Members

Resp. Gender Race Eligible children   Highest Grade Comp. by Resp. Other HH Members 15 + Relationship to Resp. Eligbile children of other HH members 15 +
  Gender Relationship to Resp. Birthdate     Gender Relation-ship to other HH member Birth- date
19191. F  White 1. M 1. Grandson  4/x/90 College 1. M Nonmarital partner 1. M 1. Bio son x/x/80
2. F Black 1. F 1. Bio daug 2. Bio daug2 7/17/97 2/27/90 11/GED 1. F 2. M Mother Father
3. F Black 1. F 1. Bio daug 2. Bio daug 3. Bio daug 5/30/92 1/20/91 2/5/90 11
4. M Black 1. M 2. M 1. Bio son 2. Bio son 9/15/91 11/11/92 12 1. F Spouse

Resp. Gender Race Eligible children   Highest Grade Comp. by Resp. Other HH Members 15 + Relationship to Resp. Eligbile children of other HH members 15 +
  Gender Relationship to Resp. Birthdate     Gender Relation-ship to other HH member
19195. F White 1. M 2. M 3. F 4. M 5. M 1. Bio son 2. Adopted 3. Adopted4 4. Adopted4 5. Adopted4 8/18/80 4/7/88 8/16/89 10/9/90 5/7/92 11 1. M Spouse
6. F White 1. M 2. F 3. F 4. F 1. Bio son 2. Bio daug 3. Bio daug 4. Bio daug2 7/27/92 6/6/95 4/13/81 6/6/79 2 years college 1. M Spouse
7. F White 1. M 2. M 1. Grandson 2. Grandson 10/3/86 12/1/88 MA 1. M Spouse

ATTACHMENT D
Item-by-Item Recommendations

Residential History Question List

1. Tested wording (OTHCHLD1)  (Universe is all persons age 15 or over)
In this section, we would like to ask some questions about the past and present living arrangements of the children of this household.

I have listed the following children born since January 1, 1974 who are living in this household.

 Name   Sex   Birth date  Relationship to Resp

{LIST ALL CHILDREN BORN SINCE JANUARY 1, 1974 WHO ARE LIVING IN THIS HOUSEHOLD.}

(Do you/Does name) have any other biological children who were born since January 1, 1974 and are living somewhere else?

 Recommendations:
Cognitive interviews indicated that respondents understood this question, although a couple of respondents reported children born prior to the reference period.  Both Dr. Belli and I felt that asking this item and the subsequent one on adopted children living outside the household  (OTHCHLD4) of each person age 15 or over in the household (age 18 and over for OTHCHLD4) is verbose and overly burdensome.  We recommend combining the two items:  “Do you have any other adopted or biological children who were born since January 1, 1974 and are living somewhere else?”  We also recommend using a topic-based approach to simplify question reading.  The full question would be asked of the first person age 15 or over in the household followed by “How about (name)?”  This would simplify question reading and speed the interview.

Issues to resolve:
What is the appropriate universe for this item?  In the cognitive interviews we asked this question of all persons age 15 and over.  In some instances, we collected residential history information for persons who have never been a part of this household and for whom we would have no additional information from previous SIPP/SPD interviews.

Are foster children that are currently in the household supposed to be listed on the roster for this item?  What about children who live with a legal guardian?
2.  Tested wording (OTHCHLD2)
   How many other biological children (do you/does name) have?

 Recommendations:
Cognitive interviews indicated that respondents often provide this information when answering the previous question, and this item confused some respondents because they thought it is asking for additional information.  We recommend making this item “READ IF NECESSARY” and allowing Field Representatives (FRs) to fill in the information without reading the question if the relevant information has already been provided previously.

3.  Tested wording (OTHCHLD3)
  What is [the first] child’s name?
   ASK IF NECESSARY:  What is [his/her] sex?
When was  [she/he] born?

 Recommendations:
Some respondents did not hear the reference period in item 1 (OTHCHLD1) and reported children born prior to the January 1, 1974.  FRs will need to be trained what to do if the child being added was born before January 1, 1974 (e.g. back up and correct previous screen).

Consider revising the wording of the last item from “When was (he/she) born?” to “What is (his/her) date of birth?”  This suggestion is not based on cognitive testing, but I believe that the latter indicates that we want month/date/year information better than the former.

4.  Tested wording (OTHCHLD4) (Universe is all persons age 18 or over in household)
 (Do you/Does name) have any adopted children who were born since January 1, 1974 and are living somewhere else?

 Recommendations:
See recommendation for item 1 above (OTHCHLD1).

5.  Tested wording (OTHCHLD5 and OTHCHLD6)
How many adopted children living elsewhere (do you/does name) have?
   What is [the first] child’s name?
   ASK IF NECESSARY:  What is [his/her] sex?
When was  [she/he] born?

 Recommendations:
See recommendations for items 2 and 3 above.
 6.  Tested wording (SCR1A)
 [Up until he/she was 18,] Was there ever a period of three months or more when (child) did not live with (his/her) biological mother?

 Recommendations:
In the instrument that was cognitively tested, this item and the two that followed it (SCR1B and SCR1C) were used as data collection items.  That is, we used them to determine whether a child ever lived apart from the biological mother or father, whether a child ever lived with “other adults,” and with which “other adults” a child lived.  Our recommendation is to use this item and the next two items (SCR1B and SCR1C) as screening questions to determine whether a child is eligible to be included on a residential history calendar (RHC), rather than as data collection items.  Once a child is determined to be eligible for the RHC, do not ask the remaining screening questions.  Most children will be identified by SCR1A and SCR1B and will not need to be asked SCR1C, which will shorten the interview.  (Data for all items will be collected later when filling out the RHC.)

Train FRs on the objective of this question (and the two subsequent screening items–SCR1B and SCR1C).  This is important since there is evidence from the cognitive interviews that some respondents misunderstood this question (and the comparable item on separations from the biological father) particularly when the child either never lived with the biological mother/father or lived with her/him for less than three months.

There is evidence from the cognitive interviews that some respondents thought the questions were asking only about more recent living arrangements, rather than the child’s entire lifetime.  I recommend emphasizing that the questions pertain to the child’s entire life and suggest revising the wording as follows:  “From the time (he/she) was born until (now/age 18), was there ever a period of three months or more when (child) did not live with (his/her) biological mother?”

7.  Tested wording (SCR1B)
[Up until he/she was 18,] Was there ever a period of three months or more when (child) did not live with (his/her) biological father?

 Recommendations:
See recommendation for item 6 above.  Suggested wording is as follows:  “From the time (he/she) was born until (now/age 18), was there ever a period of three months or more when (child) did not live with (his/her) biological father?”

8.  Tested wording (SCR1C)
 We are interested in periods of three months or more when (child) shared a household with adults other than (his/her) biological mother or father, or adults in addition to (his/her) biological mother or father.  Please include times in which (child) moved in with another adult and times when another adult moved in with (child), even if (he/she) was still living with (his/her) biological mother or father.

[Up until he/she was 18,] Was there ever a period of three months or more when (child) shared a household with:

  1. An adoptive mother      Yes No
  2. An adoptive father      Yes No
  3. A stepmother       Yes No
  4. A stepfather       Yes No
  5. A nonmarital partner of a biological parent   Yes No
  6. A grandparent       Yes No
  7. Some other adult relative such as an aunt or uncle  Yes No
  8. Some other adult non-relative      Yes No
  9. Foster care arrangement      Yes No
  10. An institution, boarding school, group home, or hospital Yes  No

 Recommendations:
See recommendations for items 6 and 7 above.  If our recommendation to use SCR1A, SCR1B, and SCR1C as screening items is  followed, only children who have always lived with their biological mother and biological father will be asked this item.  (Children who have been separated from their biological mother or father would already be eligible for inclusion on a RHC and would not be asked this question, although data for this item would be collected later when filling out the RHC.)  Therefore, there is no need to include the categories “adoptive mother,” “adoptive father,” and “foster care arrangement,” since children who have always lived with both biological parents would not have lived in these situations.   We retained the categories “stepmother,” “stepfather,” and “a boyfriend/girlfriend of a biological parent” (previously listed as a “nonmarital partner of a biological parent”) since these may apply in joint custody situations in which children continue living part time with both biological parents and the biological parents form new unions.

We suggest using the following two questions as screening items.  Note that the first item below would be answered with a blanket “yes”  or “no,”  rather than with answers for each category as was done during cognitive testing since this item is being used only to screen whether the child should be included on the RHC.  It is not being used to identify the “other adults” with whom the child has lived, rather it is used to determine whether the child has lived with anyone in addition to his/her biological parents.

 “Have any of the following people ever lived in the same household with (child) for three months or more?”

SHOW FLASHCARD

  1. A grandmother
  2. A grandfather
  3. A stepmother
  4. A stepfather
  5. A girlfriend/boyfriend of a biological parent
  6. Some other adult relative such as an aunt or uncle
  7. Some other adult non-relative

  <1>   Yes
  <2>   No

“Has (child) ever lived for three months or more in an institution, boarding school, group home, or hospital?”

  <1>  Yes
  <2>  No

Cognitive testing indicated that many respondents thought that SCR1C was asking if the child ever went to live with the “other adult.”  The revised wording of the first question above asks whether the “other adult” ever shared a household with child, which will hopefully reduce respondent misunderstanding.   The latter question on living in an institution or boarding school is included since it is possible a parent might consider the child as always living with the biological mother and biological father even if the child attended boarding school.

 Issues to resolve:
Dr. Belli’s report questioned whether adult siblings should be included in the category “some other adult relative such as an aunt or uncle.”  If our recommendation to use SCR1A, SCR1B and SCR1C as screening items is followed and only persons who have lived with both biological parents are asked SCR1C, then I suggest not including adult siblings as “some other adult relative” at this point in the interview since the adult siblings are not likely responsible for the child’s basic needs.  If the child is not living with both biological parents, then the adult sibling could be responsible for the child’s basic needs and should be considered as “some other adult relative.”  We would collect this information later in the interview when filling out the RHC.

Dr. Belli noted that two of his respondents reported “housemates” as “other adult.”  How should housemates be treated?

9.  Tested wording (SCR1D)
 [Up until he/she was 18,] Did (child) (live with/live in) more than one (stepmother/stepfather/nonmarital partner of a parent/foster care arrangement)?

 Recommendation:
Ask question later when filling out the RHC.

10. Tested wording (SCR1E)
[Up until he/she was 18,] How many different (stepmothers/stepfathers/nonmarital partners of a parent/foster care arrangements) did (child) (live with/live in)?

Recommendation:
Ask question later when filling out the RHC.

11. Tested wording (ROSTER1)
 [The next question will help me determine whether your children have always lived together in the same household.  By this  I mean whether they lived in the same household without a separation of three months or more from each other.]

Have (name of younger child) and (name of older child) always lived in the same household without a separation of three months or more?

 Recommendation:
  Keep wording as is.

 Issues to resolve:
We need clarification regarding the check item preceding this question (CKMF).  That check item determines which children are grouped together within the household and are potentially eligible to be placed on the same residential history calendar.  The check item looks at the mother’s and father’s line numbers for each eligible child.  Children who share the same biological parents and step parents (if applicable) are grouped together.  If they have always lived together (based on the answer to ROSTER1), they are placed on the same RHC.  This procedure works well if both biological parents are in the household.  If, however, there is only one biological parent in the household -- the mother, for example -- we do not know if the children share the same biological father and there is no question regarding this in the instrument.  Therefore, it is not possible to group these children in the current instrument as was the case for respondent #3 in Attachment C who was a single mother with three biological daughters by the same father.  The same is true if there are no biological parents in the household as was the case for respondent #7 in Attachment C who is the grandmother raising her two grandsons who have always lived together and respondent #5 who is a grandparent and adoptive mother of four of her grandchildren.  The children in respondent #3 and #7's homes had always lived together and could have been grouped on the same RHC, but due to the constraints of the check item, were included on separate calendars which lengthened the interview and increased respondent burden unnecessarily.  Respondent #5's four adoptive children could have been grouped on two calendars instead of four.  Consideration should be given to revising the rules for grouping children so that children who have always lived together can be placed on the same RHC regardless of whether both biological parents are in the household.

12. Tested wording (INTROCAL)
This form is something we call the Residential History Calendar.  I’ll use it to help record the times your child(ren) lived either away from you or with you and other adults.  The purpose of filling out this calendar is to help us understand if there are a little or a lot of changes in the situations children live in.  You can see that there are boxes to show each year of your child(ren)’s life.  The lines down the side show the people or situations your child(ren) lived in during those periods.  I’d like you to help me fill out this calendar so that I make sure we don’t miss any changes in your child(ren)’s living situations.

 Recommendation:
The introduction needs to be modified to reflect that respondents are not always the biological parents of the children and to emphasize that the interest is to gain the periods of time when children were living apart from biological parents for three moths or more, or with other adults for three months or more.  Suggested wording is shown below:

“This form is something we call the Residential History Calendar.  I’ll use it to record times your child(ren) lived away from a biological parent for three months or more and times when your child(ren) lived with other adults for three months or more.  The purpose of filling out this calendar is to help us understand if there are a little or a lot of changes in the situations children live in.  You can see that there are boxes on the top to show each year of your child(ren)’s life.  The lines down the side show the people or situations your child(ren) lived in during those periods.  I’d like you to help me fill out this calendar so that I make sure we don’t miss any changes in your child(ren)’s living situations.”

Train FRs that they may need to modify the reference to “your children” in the above paragraph if the children are not the respondent’s own children (e.g. foster children, grandchildren, guardian of children).

13. Tested wording (MOM1)
 We are interested in all periods lasting three months or more in which (name of first child on roster) lived apart from (his/her) biological mother.  When did this occur?

Recommendations:
 Train FRs regarding the objectives of the RHC and how to collect periods of time when the child lived away from a biological parent and times when the child lived with “other adults” using flexible interviewing techniques.  Include suggested question wording for MOM1, DAD1, and SCR1C/OTHAD1 on the computer screen.  Ask questions about  periods of separations from the biological mother and biological father, which “other adults” with whom the child lived, and periods of living with “other adults” for the oldest child on each RHC.  Allow FRs and respondents to fill out the RHC with the relevant information in the order that best suits the situation.  Retain the tested question wording for MOM1 and DAD1.

Evidence from the cognitive interviews indicates that respondents often provide beginning dates for separations but not end dates.  Train FRs to probe for end dates of periods of separation.  Also, train FRs what to enter on the RHC if the respondent is unable to provide the month and year of the beginning or ending date of an event (e.g. “first quarter of 1984,” or “sometime during 1984").

On the top rows of the RHC, the FR will mark the child’s age at annual intervals under the appropriate year.  Train FR’s that the child is age 1, for example, from the time he/she turns 1 until the following year when he/she turns 2 and to be sure to probe for the appropriate year when entering data for an event that happened when the child was age 1 to make sure that the month of the event does not end up in the wrong year.

14. Tested wording (MOM3)
 What caused the [first/next] separation -- that is, the separation between [month/year] and [month/year]?

  SHOW FLASHCARD
MARK AS MANY REASONS AS APPLY
READ RESPONSE CATEGORIES IF TELEPHONE INTERVIEW

  1.  Child on vacation with other relatives or friends
  2.  Child in summer camp
  3.  Child in boarding school
  4.  Child living with other biological parent
  5.  Child went to live with adoptive parent(s)
  6.   Marital conflict between parents
  7.   Parent/guardian on vacation or business trip
  8.   Physical health problem of child
  9.   Mental health problem of child
  10.   Substance abuse problem of child
  11. Behavior problem of child
  12.  Physical health problem of parent
  13.  Mental health problem of parent
  14.  Substance abuse problem of parent
  15. Parent jailed/incarcerated
  16. Financial hardship
  17. Child removed by government agency (court, child protective services)
  18. Other reason (specify)_____________________________________

 Recommendations:
Ask this question after the entire RHC has been filled out including time periods separated from biological parents and time periods living with “other adults.”

Specify in the question that we are asking about separations from the biological mother. Modify the question wording if there is only one separation to read:  “What caused the separation between (child) and [you/ (his/her) biological mother] from (month/year) to (month/year)?”  If more than one separation, read:  “What caused the (first/second/etc.) separation between (child) and [you / (his/her) biological mother] from (month/year) to (month/year)?”

Retain the use of the flashcard for this item, but simplify it to include those categories of most interest to analysts.  There are too many response options to be read over the phone. If the number of response options is not reduced, do not require FRs to read the categories over the phone.  Allow them to be read at the FR’s discretion if the respondent has difficulty understanding the intent of the question.  Change response option 4 to “child and other biological parent began living together” to avoid the interpretation that the child is currently living with the other biological parent.   Change response option 6 to “conflict between parents” so that it will apply to unmarried biological parents who do not co-reside.

Issues to resolve:
This question is a “mark all that apply.”  If the reason a child and a biological parent were separated changed over time, should only the initial reason(s) be listed or all reasons over the entire time of the separation?

15. Tested wording (DAD1)
We are (also) interested in all periods lasting three months or more in which (name of oldest child on roster) lived apart from (his/her) biological father.  When did this occur?

 Recommendations:
See recommendation for item 13 above.

16. Tested wording (DAD3)
What caused the [first/next] separation -- that is, the separation between [month/year] and [month/year]?

 Recommendation:
See recommendation for item 14 above.

17. Tested wording (OTHAD1)
When did (Child) live for three months or more in the same household as (adult1)?

Recommendation:
If the recommendation to use SCR1A, SCR1B and SCR1C as screening questions is followed, we will need to determine with which “other adults” the child has lived, followed by questions regarding when the child lived with the “other adults.”  The “other adults” should be listed on a flashcard and the FR should make it clear to the respondent that we are interested in all other adults the child lived with regardless of whether a biological parent was present.  Cognitive interviews indicated that some respondents thought the questions on “other adults” were asking about persons other than themselves with whom the child has lived. FRs should be aware that the “other adult” may, in fact, be the respondent and/or other persons who are living or have lived in the household.

Based on results from the cognitive interviews, we also recommend separating the category “grandparent” into “grandmother” and “grandfather.”   We also recommend revising the wording “nonmarital partner of a biological parent” to “a boyfriend/girlfriend of a biological parent” since some respondents did not understand the former term. Suggested question wording is shown below:

“Now we would like to know whether (child) shared a household. with any of the following people listed on this flashcard for a period of three months or more.  This includes both times that (child) lived with these people by (himself/herself) and times that (he/she) lived with these people and a biological parent.”

  SHOW FLASHCARD
  1. An adoptive mother
  2. An adoptive father
  3. A stepmother
  4. A stepfather
  5. A grandmother
  6. A grandfather
  7. A boyfriend/girlfriend of a biological parent
  8. Some other adult relative such as an aunt or uncle
  9. Some other adult non-relative
  10. Foster care arrangement
  11. An institution, boarding school, group home, or hospital
 

Instruct FRs to list all “other adults” with whom the child has lived on the RHC writing the “roles”  under the section labeled “living with someone else.”  Train FRs to probe regarding more than one stepmother, stepfather, boyfriend/girlfriend of a biological parent, and foster care arrangement using a separate line on the calendar for each person/arrangement.

Train FRs on the objective of the question; that is, we are interested in “other adults” the child has lived with for a period of three months or more regardless of whether a biological parent was present.  Moreover, these “other adults” may, in fact, be the respondent himself/herself or other current or previous household members.  Make FRs aware that some respondents think we are asking about persons other than themselves with whom the child lived and to probe respondents appropriately or provide additional feedback as necessary if the question is misunderstood.

Once all “other adults” the child has lived with have been identified, ask the following question for each “other adult” listed on the calendar:

“When did (child) and (adult 1) live in the same household for a period of three months or more?”

After collecting all the information about periods spent living with other adults on the RHC, the FR would input the data from the calendar into the automated instrument.  This includes the periods spent living away from the biological mother and father and the periods spent living with other adults.  Follow-up questions regarding reasons for separation from the biological mother and father would be included in the automated instrument and completed as the interviewer inputs the data on periods of separation.  The same procedure would be done for the follow-up questions on living with other adults.

 Issues to resolve:
POP division needs to decide how to handle persons who fill multiple roles.  In the current instrument, each role the person fills is recorded as a separate line on the RHC and there is no way to determine the number of different persons with whom a child has lived since we don’t know if any one person filled more than one role.  In his report, Dr. Belli suggests having the FR keep track of who served more than one role on the RHC.  When entering this information into the computerized instrument, he suggests entering the total number of lines filled out on the RHC under “living with someone else,” how many persons served multiple roles, and for each multiple-roled person, which lines were entered.  FRs need instruction on how to collect time spent living with multiple-roled persons since evidence from cognitive interviews indicates that some respondents report time spent living with the multiple-roled person in terms of the person rather than the role, some report using the role, and other report using both methods in the same interview.

POP division also needs to decide how the follow-up questions for “other adults” (OTHAD3, OTHAD4, and OTHAD5) will be completed for multiple-roled persons.  Do these need to be asked for each role the person filled or can they be asked only once per person?

18. Tested wording (OTHAD3)
 Was (adult1) responsible for most of the basic needs of (name) from (month/year) to (month/year)?

 Recommendation:
Respondents had the same basic understanding of “basic needs,” but they differed regarding what it meant to be “responsible for most of the basic needs.”  If the intent of the question is to determine financial responsibility for the child, include the word “financially” before the word “responsible” in the question.  FRs need instruction on how to complete the item if the person was responsible for most of the basic needs of the child for part of the time period in question but not for all of it.

19. Tested wording (OTHAD4)
Did (name) move in with (adult1), did (adult1) move in with (name), or did they move together to a new place in (month/year).

 Recommendation:
Add two response options, one for children who are born into a household in which another adult already resides, and a second for no move.  This latter category applies when a person’s role changes within the household, but no move occurs.  The question also needs to emphasize that we are interested in the initial “move” associated with the child and other adult living together.  Suggested wording is shown below:

 “When (child) and (adult 1) started living together in (month/year), did (child) move in with (adult 1), did (adult 1) move in with (child), or did they move together to a new place?”

  <1>  Child moved/Child born into household
  <2>  Adult moved
  <3>  Moved together to a new place
  <4>  No move occurred (adult’s role changed)

This question should automatically be plugged for the categories “foster care arrangement” and “institution, boarding school, group home, or hospital” since the child would logically be the one doing the moving.

20. Tested wording (OTHAD5)
Why did (name) and (adult 1) begin living together in (month/year)?

   1.  Child went to live with biological parent
   2.  Child’s illness
   3.  Child in boarding school
   4.  Child placed in foster care
   5.  Child jailed
   6.  Child cared for by friend/relative
   7.  Child got married
   8.  Child out on own/got a job
   9.   Parental illness
   10. Parental financial hardship
   11. Parental work
   12. Parent jailed/institutionalized
   13. Parent moved elsewhere
   14. Mother and father separated/divorced
15. Parent remarried/began living with a nonmarital partner
   16. Parent died
   17. Government agency/court order
   18. Other (specify)_____________________

 Recommendation:
Add an option for a child who is born into a household in which another adult already resides.  Present the response options for this question in a flashcard to make it consistent with the questions on reasons for separation from the biological mother/father.  Thought should be given to reducing the number of response options so that respondents can easily read them.   If these items are included on a flashcard and the number of response options is not reduced, do not require FRs to read the response options on the phone.   Allow them to be read at the FR’s discretion if the respondent has difficulty understanding the intent of the question.

 Issues to resolve:
Children sometimes live with “other adults” because that is where one or more of their biological parents is living.  Responses to this question during the cognitive interviews included “because that’s where I was living” and “because that’s where his mom was living.”  How does POP want to handle this type of situation?  Should FRs probe to find out why the parent is living with the “other adult” in these situations (e.g. parental financial hardship or parent had no where else to stay)?

Additionally, the response options listed in this question are similar to those contained in the question on reasons for separation from the biological mother/father.  They were developed with the perception that the child went to live with the “other adult” and do not adequately account for situations in which the “other adult” came to live with the child  (e.g. the child’s grandmother moved in because she needs care).

The question wording for this item needs to be modified for “foster care arrangement” and “an institution, boarding school, group home, or hospital” as follows:  “Why did (child) begin living in (a foster care arrangement/an institution, boarding school, group home, or hospital) in (month/year)?”

Modifications to  the Residential History Calendar (RHC)

Based on comments from respondents, we recommend making the following modifications to the RHC:

1.  Delete the bold lines between the years.
2.  Take out the small numbers in the boxes for the “living with someone else” section.  Make better use of shading to differentiate the rows in this section of the questionnaire.
3.  Make the calendar larger if possible.
4.  Put the child’s birth date under the appropriate year where the age would go.  Fill the remaining boxes with the child’s age as appropriate.  Allow FRs to enter the child’s grade at their discretion and suggest writing in only selected grades, such as first grade and possibly the child’s current grade.  (Respondents tended to rely more on the child’s age when answering the residential history questions, but some respondents did find the grade helpful.)
5.  Use pencil to fill out the calendar so changes can be made easily.

Questions on Moves During the Child’s Lifetime

1.  Tested wording (MOVE1)
Before (he/she) began school, that is, before age 5, how many time did (child) move.  By move, I mean move to a new address either with or without you for a period of three months or more.   [Since birth, how many times has (chid) moved.  By move, I mean to move to a new address, either with or without you for a period of three months or more.]

 Recommendation:
CSMR’s testing indicated  that asking these questions on moves by aggregated ages results in some double counting.  Without using a calendar to collect such information, there is no easy way to rectify this.  Train FRs to listen for double counted moves and to probe respondents as needed for clarification.

The phrase “with or without you” will have different meaning depending on who the respondent is.  Change “you” to “a biological parent” if that is the intention of the phrase.
There is some indication that the reference to “before (he/she) began school” is not helpful in this question, although this was not supported in the Belli interviews.  I suggest using the following wording:

“How many times did (child) move before age 5.  By “move,” I mean to move to a new address either with or without a biological parent for a period of three months or more.”
 

2.  Tested wording (MOVE2)
How many times did (child) move during elementary school, that is, between ages 5 and (11/current age)? [How many times did (child) move since (he/she) turned 5?]

 Recommendation:
Retain question as is.

3. Tested wording (MOVE3)
How many times did (child) move during middle or junior high school, that is, between ages 12 and 13/14? [How many time did (child) move since (he/she) turned 12?]

 Recommendation:
Retain question as is.

4.  Tested wording (MOVE4)
And finally, how many times did (child) move during high school, that is, between ages 15 and current age/18?  [And finally, how many times did (child) move since (he/she) turned 15?]

 Recommendation:
Retain question as is.

ATTACHMENT E
Draft Questionnaire Based on Recommendations

Below is a draft questionnaire based on the recommendations put forth in Attachment D.  This draft is included to provide the flow of the recommended instrument.  It does not address all issues raised in Attachment D since that requires additional input from POP division.

1.  (Ask question 1 for each person age 15 or over in household–or for each eligible adult as defined by POP division.)
Do you have any other adopted or biological children who were born since January 1, 1974 and are living somewhere else?

 <1> Yes
  <2> No

 For other household members age 15 or over:  How about (name)?
       <1> Yes
       <2> No

2.  (Ask questions 2 and 3 for each person with children outside household.)
  READ IF NECESSARY
  How many other biological children (do you/does name) have?

3.  What is [the first] child’s name?
  ASK IF NECESSARY:  What is [his/her] sex?
 What is (his/her) date of birth?

4.  (Ask screening questions 4-7 for each eligible child.  Once a child is determined to be eligible for the residential history calendar (RHC), stop asking the screening questions for this child and go on to the next child.)
From the time (he/she) was born until (now/age 18), was there ever a period of three months or more when (child) did not live with (his/her) biological mother?

  <1> Yes (Child eligible for RHC.  Ask question 4 for next child.)
  <2> No (Ask question 5)

5.  From the time (he/she) was born until (now/age 18), was there ever a period of three months or more when (child) did not live with (his/her) biological father?

 <1> Yes (Child eligible for RHC.  Ask question 4 for next child.)
  <2> No (Ask question 6)

6.  Have any of the following people ever lived in the same household with (child) for three months or more?

 SHOW FLASHCARD
  1. A grandmother
  2. A grandfather
  3. A stepmother
  4. A stepfather
  5. A boyfriend/girlfriend of a biological parent
  6. Some other adult relative such as an aunt or uncle
  7. Some other adult non-relative

  <1>   Yes (Child eligible for RHC. Ask question 4 for next child)
  <2>   No (Ask question 7)

7.  Has (child) ever lived for three months or more in an institution, boarding school, group home, or hospital?

  <1>  Yes (Child eligible for RHC. Ask question 4 for next child.)
  <2>  No (Child not eligible for RHC. Ask question 4 for next child.)

8.  (Ask question 8 for all eligible children. POP needs to determine guidelines for “grouping” children.)
[The next question will help me determine whether your children have always lived together in the same household.  By this  I mean whether they lived in the same household without a separation of three months or more from each other.]

Have (name of younger child) and (name of older child) always lived in the same household without a separation of three months or more?
  <1> Yes  (Place younger child on older child’s roster)
  <2> No (If there is an older child in this child group on a separate roster, ask whether this child has always lived with that older child.  If no older child in this group, place this child on a separate roster.)

9.  This form is something we call the Residential History Calendar.  I’ll use it to record times your child(ren) lived away from a biological parent for three months or more and times when your child(ren) lived with other adults for three months or more.  The purpose of filling out this calendar is to help us understand if there are a little or a lot of changes in the situations children live in.  You can see that there are boxes on the top to show each year of your child(ren)’s life.  The lines down the side show the people or situations your child(ren) lived in during those periods.  I’d like you to help me fill out this calendar so that I make sure we don’t miss any changes in your child(ren)’s living situations.
10.  (FR and respondent fill out calendar using flexible interviewing.  Suggested question wording for collecting information appear below.  There is no data entry for these items.)

 Living apart from biological mother:
We are interested in all periods lasting three months or more in which (name of first child on roster) lived apart from (his/her) biological mother.  When did this occur?

 Living apart from biological father:
We are interested in all periods lasting three months or more in which (name of oldest child on roster) lived apart from (his/her) biological father.  When did this occur?

 Living with someone else:
Now we would like to know whether (child) shared a household with any of the following people listed on this flashcard for a period of three months or more.  This includes both times that (child) lived with these people by (himself/herself) and times that (he/she) lived with these people and a biological parent.

SHOW FLASHCARD AND FILL IN PERSONS CHILD LIVED WITH UNDER “LIVING WITH SOMEONE ELSE” ON RHC
 1. An adoptive mother
 2. An adoptive father
 3. A stepmother
 4. A stepfather
 5. A grandmother
 6. A grandfather
 7. A boyfriend/girlfriend of a biological parent
 8. Some other adult relative such as an aunt or uncle
 9. Some other adult non-relative
 10. Foster care arrangement
 11. An institution, boarding school, group home, or hospital

(Train FRs to probe whether the child lived with more than one stepmother, stepfather, boyfriend/girlfriend of a biological parent, and foster care arrangement.  POP division will need to determine how to deal with persons who serve multiple roles and train FRs for this as well.)

 (Ask for each person/role listed under “living with someone else” on RHC.)
When did (child) and (adult 1) live in the same household for a period of three months or more?

11.  (Once RHC has been completely filled out, begin entering data in the automated instrument and asking follow-up questions regarding periods of separation.  This can be done interactively with the respondent reading back information on the RHC while the FR enters it into the computer.)

ENTER NUMBER OF SEPARATIONS FROM BIOLOGICAL MOTHER

 ==>__

ENTER THE MONTH AND YEAR FOR THE BEGINNING AND ENDING DATES OF EACH SEPARATION FROM THE BIOLOGICAL MOTHER
     From Month/Year  To Month/Year
 First separation:

 Second separation:
       .
                  .
                  .
 Nth separation:

12.  (Ask the following question for each period of separation from the biological mother.  Leave the first fill blank if there is only one separation.  Simplify flashcard if possible.)
What caused the (    /first/second/third) separation between (child) and [you/ (his/her) biological mother] from (month/year) to (month/year)?”

 SHOW FLASHCARD
  1.  Child on vacation with other relatives or friends
  2.  Child in summer camp
  3.  Child in boarding school
  4.  Child and other biological parent began to live together
  5.  Child went to live with adoptive parent(s)
  6.   Conflict between parents
  7.   Parent/guardian on vacation or business trip
  8.   Physical health problem of child
  9.   Mental health problem of child
  10.  Substance abuse problem of child
  11. Behavior problem of child
  12.  Physical health problem of parent
  13.  Mental health problem of parent
  14.  Substance abuse problem of parent
  15. Parent jailed/incarcerated
  16. Financial hardship
  17. Child removed by government agency (court, child protective services)
  18. Other reason (specify)_____________________________________

13.  ENTER NUMBER OF SEPARATIONS FROM BIOLOGICAL FATHER

 ==>__

ENTER THE MONTH AND YEAR FOR THE BEGINNING AND ENDING DATES OF EACH SEPARATION FROM THE BIOLOGICAL FATHER
     From Month/Year  To Month/Year
 First separation:

 Second separation:
       .
                  .
                  .
 Nth separation:

14.  (Ask the following question for each period of separation from the biological father.  Leave the first fill blank if there is only one separation.  Simplify flashcard if possible.)
What caused the (    /first/second/third) separation between (child) and [you/ (his/her) biological father] from (month/year) to (month/year)?”

 SHOW FLASHCARD

  1.  Child on vacation with other relatives or friends
  2.  Child in summer camp
  3.  Child in boarding school
  4.  Child and other biological parent began to live together
  5.  Child went to live with adoptive parent(s)
  6.   Conflict between parents
  7.   Parent/guardian on vacation or business trip
  8.   Physical health problem of child
  9.   Mental health problem of child
  10.  Substance abuse problem of child
  11. Behavior problem of child
  12.  Physical health problem of parent
  13.  Mental health problem of parent
  14.  Substance abuse problem of parent
  15. Parent jailed/incarcerated
  16. Financial hardship
  17. Child removed by government agency (court, child protective services)
  18. Other reason (specify)_____________________________________
 

15.  (The same type of procedure would be used to fill out information on “other adults.”  POP division will need to decide how to handle data for persons who serve multiple roles.  The data entry screens below do not account for this, but can be modified to accommodate this.)

ENTER TOTAL NUMBER OF LINES FILLED OUT ON RHC UNDER “LIVING WITH SOMEONE ELSE”

 ==>__

 ENTER ROLES FROM RHC
 1. An adoptive mother
 2. An adoptive father
 3. A stepmother
 4. A stepfather
 5. A grandmother
 6. A grandfather
 7. A boyfriend/girlfriend of a biological parent
 8. Some other adult relative such as an aunt or uncle
 9. Some other adult non-relative
 10. Foster care arrangement
 11. An institution, boarding school, group home, or hospital

 Line 1: ____
 Line 2: ____
   .
   .
   .
 Line 15:  ____

ENTER NUMBER OF DIFFERENT TIMES CHILD LIVED WITH (FILL ROLE FROM LINE 1) FROM RHC:

 ==>__
 

ENTER THE MONTH AND YEAR FOR THE BEGINNING AND ENDING DATES OF LIVING WITH (FILL ROLE FROM LINE 1):
      From Month/Year  To Month/Year
 First period together:

 Second period together:
  .
 Nth period together:

16. Was (fill role) responsible for most of the basic needs of (name) from (month/year) to (month/year)?

 <1> Yes
 <2> No

17. When (child) and (fill role) started living together in (month/year), did (child) move in with (fill role), did (fill role) move in with (child), or did they move together to a new place?

 <1>  Child moved/Child born into household
 <2>  Adult moved
 <3>  Moved together to a new place
 <4>  No move occurred (adult’s role changed)
 
 

18. Why did (name) and (fill role) begin living together in (month/year)? [Why did (child) begin living in (a foster care arrangement/an institution, boarding school, group home, or hospital) in (month/year)?]

 SHOW FLASHCARD

 1.  Child born into household
 2.  Child went to live with biological parent
 3.  Child’s illness
 4.  Child in boarding school
 5.  Child placed in foster care
 6.  Child jailed
 7.  Child cared for by friend/relative
 8.  Child got married
 9.  Child out on own/got a job
 10.   Parental illness
 11. Parental financial hardship
 12. Parental work
 13. Parent jailed/institutionalized
 14. Parent moved elsewhere
 15. Mother and father separated/divorced
16. Parent remarried/began living with a nonmarital partner
 17. Parent died
 18. Government agency/court order
 19. Other (specify)_____________________

(Cycle back and ask series for the next line number under “living with someone else.”  Complete the RHC and associated data entry for all eligible children before asking questions on moves shown below. )
(Reduce the number of response options on the flashcard if possible.)

Questions on Moves During Child’s Lifetime

(Ask series for each eligible child.)
1.  How many times did (child) move before age 5.  By “move,” I mean to move to a new address either with or without a biological parent for a period of three months or more.     [Since birth, how many times has (chid) moved.  By move, I mean to move to a new address, either with or without you for a period of three months or more.]

 ==>_____

2.  How many times did (child) move during elementary school, that is, between ages 5 and (11/current age)? [How many times did (child) move since (he/she) turned 5?]

3.  How many times did (child) move during middle or junior high school, that is, between ages 12 and 13/14? [How many time did (child) move since (he/she) turned 12?]

4.  And finally, how many times did (child) move during high school, that is, between ages 15 and current age/18?  [And finally, how many times did (child) move since (he/she) turned 15?]

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