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The U.S. Census Bureau released today a 2010 Census brief, The Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Population: 2010 [PDF], that shows more than half (56 percent) of this population, or 685,000 people, reported being Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander in combination with one or more other races. This multiracial group grew by 44 percent from 2000 to 2010.
Overall, 1.2 million people, or 0.4 percent of all people in the United States, identified as Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (NHPI), either alone or in combination with one or more races. This population grew by 40 percent from 2000 to 2010. Those who reported being Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone totaled 540,000, an increase of 35 percent from 2000 to 2010. The multiple-race Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander population, as well as both the alone and alone-or-in-combination populations, all grew at a faster rate than the total U.S. population, which increased by 9.7 percent from 2000 to 2010.
More than half (52 percent) of the Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone-or-in-combination population lived in just two states, Hawaii (356,000) and California (286,000). The states with the next largest NHPI populations in 2010 were Washington (70,000), Texas (48,000), Florida (40,000), Utah (37,000), New York (36,000), Nevada (33,000), Oregon (26,000) and Arizona (25,000). Together, these 10 states represented more than three-fourths (78 percent) of the NHPI alone-or-in-combination population in the United States.
The Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone-or-in-combination population grew in every region between 2000 and 2010, experiencing the fastest growth in the South. The NHPI population grew by 66 percent in the South, by 37 percent in both the Midwest and West, and by 29 percent in the Northeast.
The Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone-or-in-combination population grew in every state between 2000 and 2010, with the fastest growth in Southern states and in Western states. Fourteen states in the South experienced a growth greater than 50 percent in their NHPI population (Arkansas, Alabama, Delaware, North Carolina, Tennessee, Florida, Texas, Kentucky, Georgia, Oklahoma, Maryland, South Carolina, Virginia and Louisiana). In addition, the NHPI alone-or-in-combination population grew by 68 percent in the District of Columbia.
In the West, the NHPI alone-or-in-combination population grew by at least 50 percent in 10 states (Nevada, Alaska, Arizona, Idaho, Wyoming, Utah, Washington, Oregon, Montana and New Mexico). Seven states in the Midwest (Iowa, Missouri, South Dakota, North Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas and Ohio) and one state in the Northeast (Vermont) experienced a growth greater than 50 percent in their NHPI alone-or-in-combination populations.
In the 2010 Census, Native Hawaiian was the largest detailed NHPI group, numbering more than one-half million (527,077). There were 156,146 people who reported Native Hawaiian alone, and an additional 370,931 people who reported Native Hawaiian in combination with one or more other races and/or detailed NHPI groups. Samoan was the second largest detailed NHPI group with 109,637 reporting Samoan alone and an additional 74,803 reporting Samoan in combination with one or more other races and/or detailed NHPI groups. This sums to 184,440 people who reported Samoan alone or in any combination. There were 147,798 people who reported Guamanian or Chamorro either alone (88,310) or in any combination (59,488).
Although Native Hawaiians, Samoans and Guamanians or Chamorros were the largest detailed Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone or in any combination groups, they grew at slower rates than many of the smaller detailed NHPI groups. Over the decade, the Chuukese population showed the largest percent increase. The Chuukese population in 2010 was more than six times larger than reported in 2000, increasing from less than 700 to more than 4,000.
The Guamanian or Chamorro alone-or-in-any-combination population had the largest increase in their share of the NHPI population. Over the decade, the Guamanian or Chamorro population increased from 11 percent to 12 percent. The Marshallese alone-or-in-any-combination population more than tripled in size between 2000 and 2010, increasing from less than 7,000 to more than 22,000. The Marshallese population's share of the NHPI population increased by 1.1 percentage points (nearly 16,000 people). Fijians alone or in any combination also increased in their share of the NHPI population (up 1.1 percentage points) with a growth of nearly 19,000 people.
Overall, the Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander population was concentrated in the West, yet some detailed NHPI groups were more geographically dispersed than others. Fijians were the most geographically concentrated in one state, with three-quarters of the Fijian population living in California alone. More than half of all Native Hawaiians lived in Hawaii and almost two-thirds of Tongans lived in California and Utah. Conversely, the Guamanian or Chamorro population was the most geographically dispersed with more than half living in states other than the top three states (California, Washington and Texas) with the largest Guamanian or Chamorro populations.
People who reported only one race on their 2010 Census questionnaire are referred to as the race “alone” population. For example, respondents who marked only a Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander category or categories would be included in the Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone population. This population can be viewed as the minimum number of people reporting Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander.
Individuals who chose more than one of the six race category options on the 2010 Census form are referred to as the race "in combination" population. One way to define the Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander population is to combine those respondents who reported Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone with those who reported Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander in combination with one or more other races. Another way to think of the Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone-or-in-combination population is as the total number of people who reported Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, whether or not they reported any other races.