In May 1863, the United States renewed its efforts to take control of the Mississippi River near Vicksburg, MS. The river was a key transportation route for the nation, enabling the movement of goods from the north to the south, and linked the southern and western Confederate states. Union control of the river would protect northern economic interests, cut off Confederate supply routes to the Mississippi Delta region, and split the Confederacy in two.
Between May 12 and 17, Union troops defeated Confederate forces at Raymond and Jackson, MS, and the Confederate army retreated to Vicksburg. From May 18 to July 4, 1863, the Union army laid siege to the city, cutting off access to food, medicine, news, and supplies. The Confederate troops surrendered on July 4. Union victories at Vicksburg and Gettysburg in July 1863 signaled a turning point in the Civil War.
The U.S. Census Bureau provides historic demographic and economic information about the Vicksburg area. For example:
In May 2008, the
U.S. Census Bureau conducted the Survey of Public Participation in the Arts (SPPA) to obtain information on type and frequency of public participation in the arts, training and exposure to the arts, and arts-related activity preferences. In 1982, 1985, and 1992, the SPPA was a supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey. Since 2002, the survey has been a supplement to the Current Population Survey. The SPPA is sponsored by the National Endowment for the Arts.
Throughout the decade, the Census Bureau conducts surveys to provide data on U.S. social and economic conditions. These include a variety of demographic and economic surveys, such as the American Community Survey. The Census Bureau also conducts surveys for other organizations, such as the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
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