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Texas Joins California as State with 30-Million-Plus Population

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Texas is now one of only two U.S. states with a population of 30 million or more: the nation’s second-most-populous state reached a population milestone by passing the 30-million threshold.

Texas’s population in 2022 was 30,029,572, second only to California (39,029,342), not surprising given its consistent place in recent years among the nation’s fastest-growing, largest-gaining states.

From 2000 to 2022, the population of 11 of Texas’s 254 counties more than doubled, according to July 1, 2022 population estimates released today.  

Unlike Florida, where growth stemmed mainly from domestic migration, Texas experienced moderate increases across all components of population change.

The population of Texas, the largest in land area among the Lower 48 states, increased by 470,708 in 2022, continuing a steady uptick. From 2000 to 2022, the state gained 9,085,073 residents, more than any other state and almost 3 million more than Florida, the next largest-gaining state.

That’s a 43% jump, which made Texas the fourth fastest-growing state in the country, behind Nevada, Utah, and Idaho. 

Unlike Florida, where growth stemmed mainly from domestic migration, Texas experienced moderate increases across all components of population change.

About half of Texas's population gain since 2000 resulted from natural increase (more births than deaths); around 29% from net domestic migration gains; and 22% from net international migration gains.

Growth Among Texas Counties

Harris County, home to Houston, was Texas’s largest-gaining county, adding a net 1,366,674 people during the 22-year period. And the population of Rockwall, the state's fastest-growing county, nearly tripled (182% growth).

Harris County added the most residents but several counties within the Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington metro area had significant gains, too. Most notably Tarrant, Kaufman, Collin, and Denton counties:

  • Tarrant County gained the second-largest number of people in the state (almost 700,000).
  • Kaufman County’s population rose by 139%, making it the state’s fifth fastest-growing county.
  • Collin County grew by 132% or 659,578 residents, while Denton added a net 538,490 people — a 123% increase — making these counties two of the fastest-growing, largest-gaining counties in Texas from 2000 to 2022. 

How Texas Population Gains Compare

Texas counties led the nation in growth.

Rockwall County was not only the fastest-growing county in Texas but also the second-fastest growing county in the nation, behind Lincoln County, South Dakota.

Eight other Texas counties (Hays, Williamson, Fort Bend, Kaufman, Comal, Collin, Montgomery and Denton) ranked among the nation’s 25 fastest-growing counties between 2000 and 2022, when all saw their populations double.

Ten Texas counties (Harris, Tarrant, Bexar, Collin, Denton, Fort Bend, Travis, Williamson, Montgomery, and Dallas) were also top gainers nationally during this period.

Harris County was the nation’s second largest-gaining county after Maricopa County, Arizona.

Texas gained an average 412,958 residents annually between 2000 and 2022.

In 2010, the population of Texas was just two-thirds that of California. By 2022, it was more than three-fourths that of California. In 1930, Texas had more people than California — and the 2030 Census will show where both states stand a century later. 

The population estimates release provides growth data for all U.S. counties.

Kristie Wilder is a demographer in the Census Bureau’s Population Estimates Branch.

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Page Last Revised - March 30, 2023
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