From the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), The World Factbook, Indonesia, Introduction, Background:
“The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; Japan occupied the islands from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence shortly before Japan's surrender, but it required four years of sometimes brutal fighting, intermittent negotiations, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty in 1949. A period of sometimes unruly parliamentary democracy ended in 1957 when President SOEKARNO declared martial law and instituted ‘Guided Democracy.’ After an abortive coup in 1965 by alleged communist sympathizers, SOEKARNO was gradually eased from power. From 1967 until 1998, President SUHARTO ruled Indonesia with his ‘New Order’ government. After street protests toppled SUHARTO in 1998, free and fair legislative elections took place in 1999. Indonesia is now the world's third most populous democracy, the world's largest archipelagic state, and the world's largest Muslim-majority nation.”
Note: The graphic above is cropped at the bottom. Click on the image to see the full page about Indonesia, the fourth most populous country in the world behind China, India and the United States.
From International Programs:
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Source: 2019 American Community Survey (ACS), 1-Year Estimates.