PAS is a set of Microsoft Excel workbooks developed by the U.S. Census Bureau containing frequently used procedures and methods in basic demographic analysis. The purpose of the workbooks is to facilitate analysis of available data for the following topics: age structure, mortality, fertility, migration, distribution of population, urbanization, and population projections. The workbooks are distributed with two manuals describing the demographic methods they implement and the procedures they perform.
PAS is a collection of Microsoft Excel workbooks for population analysis. There are two volumes of documentation for PAS.
The first file, Population Analysis with Microcomputers, Volume I (original archived copy, 1994), contains a presentation of analytical techniques.
The second file, Population Analysis with Microcomputers, Volume II (original archived copy, 1994), contains the complete set of PAS spreadsheets and instructions on how to use them. By default, these documents are included in the USCB_Tools installation.
A brief explanation of the calculation performed by each spreadsheet is presented here, grouped by main demographic topic.
AGEINT Interpolates between two population age structures. The user can specify if the interpolation is to be linear or exponential.
AGESEX Analyzes the age reporting in a population age and sex distribution. Calculates age and sex ratio indices and the United Nations age/sex accuracy index.
AGESMTH Smoothes a population age distribution using several methods.
BASEPOP and BPSTRNG Prepare the age and sex distribution of a population for making a projection. The difference between the two spreadsheets is the smoothing process.
GRPOP-YB Makes a graph using population age structures for two or three dates, by year of birth of each cohort.
MOVEPOP Moves the population age distribution pertaining to a specific date to another date.
OPAG Distributes open-ended age groups (younger than 80+) into 5-year age groups up to 80 years and over.
PYRAMID Makes an age pyramid by sex, with absolute numbers and percentages of the population data.
SINGAGE Calculates the Whipple, Myers, and Bachi indices of age heaping based on enumerated population by single years of age.
ADJASFR Adjusts a given pattern of age-specific fertility rates to reproduce a desired total number of births.
ARFE-2 and ARFE-3 Use a technique developed by Arriaga for estimating fertility rates based on information on the average number of children ever born and a pattern of fertility.
ASFRPATT Provides age-specific fertility rates pertaining to a given total fertility rate.
CBR-GFR Calculates the crude birth rate and the general fertility rate based on a desired total fertility rate.
CBR-TFR Estimates the crude birth rate and the total fertility rate, based on the general fertility rate.
PFRATIO Uses the P/F ratio technique, originally developed by Brass, for adjusting reported age-specific fertility rates to the "actual" level of fertility.
RELEFERT Uses Rele's technique for estimating the gross reproduction rate of a population for one or two 5-year periods prior to the census date.
REL-GMPZ Uses the technique developed by Brass and associates "for the evaluation and adjustment of fertility estimates obtained from retrospective reports of birth histories or features of birth histories."
REVCBR Calculates crude birth rates during two or three 5-year periods prior to the census date, based on the age structure of the population.
TFR-GFR Estimates the total fertility rate and the general fertility rate based on a crude birth rate.
TFRLGST Fits a logistic function to two or more values of total fertility rates, and interpolates and extrapolates. It requires asymptotic values.
TFRSINE Fits a sine function to two values of total fertility rates, and interpolates and extrapolates.
CSRMIG Provides intercensal net migration estimates between two areas.
ADJMX Adjusts a pattern of mortality rates by age for both sexes combined or for each sex (age-specific death rates or central death rates from an empirical or existing life table) for obtaining a user-specified number of deaths in a population.
BTHSRV Estimates infant mortality rates based on information on the number of children born during a year prior to the census and the number still alive at the census date.
E0LGST Fits a logistic function to values of life expectancies at birth for each sex simultaneously, given two or more observed values of life expectancies and the two asymptotes of the logistic.
GRBAL Uses the technique developed by Brass for estimating the completeness of reporting of deaths over 5 years of age in relation to a population (Brass, 1975).
INTPLTM and INTPLTF Interpolate male and female life tables, respectively, between the values of two given sets of "pivotal" life tables.
LOGITQX and LOGITLX These two spreadsheets are used for smoothing functions of a life table, using logits of the q(x) and l(x) functions of a life table.
LTMXQXAD Constructs a life table from age-specific death rates or from the probabilities of dying between two specific ages.
LTNTH Selects a Coale-Demeny model life table, region North, that will reproduce a given crude death rate pertaining to a given population age structure.
LTPOPDTH Constructs and smooths a life table for both sexes or one sex at a time, using population and death data.
LTSTH Is the same as LTNTH, but using region South of the Coale-Demeny model life tables.
LTWST Is the same as LTNTH, but using region West of the Coale-Demeny model life tables.
PREBEN Estimates the level of mortality for ages 5 years and above during an intercensal period (Preston-Bennett, 1983).
PRECOA Uses the technique developed by Preston and Coale for evaluating an available age distribution of deaths in relation to the population.
URBINDEX Calculates several urbanization and population distribution indices.
CTBL32 Uses a technique for adjusting information in a table to a set of desired marginal totals (totals of rows and/or columns).
FITLGSTC Fits a logistic function to three (or a multiple of three) observed equidistant values of any index. It does not need asymptotic values.
LOGISTIC Fits a logistic function to values of any index given two or more observed values of the index and the two asymptotes of the logistic.
SP Constructs a stable population based on life tables by sex and age-specific fertility rates (or the intrinsic growth rate.