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1860 Census: Population of the United States

Population of the United States in 1860, compiled from the original returns of the Eighth Census under the Secretary of the Interior.

Analytic introduction discusses the following: Population of the United States, slavery, Indian slavery, manumission of slaves, fugitive slaves, area and density of population, populalation at the military ages, sex, immigration, dwellings, nativities of the population, internal migration, marriages, births, mortality, population of foreign countries, the deaf and dumb, deaf and dumb and blind, the blind, and the insane.

Statistical tables for each State and Territory include:

  1. Population by age, sex, and color according to counties;
  2. Population by color and condition (free, colored, and slave) by counties;
  3. Population by color and sex of cities and towns and other subdivisions;
  4. Free population, native and foreign, by counties;
  5. Nativities of the free population;
  6. Occupations.

A final section recapitulates these data and in addition to the subjects already mentioned includes tables on the nativity of the free population in several large cities (Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Cincinnati, Chicago, St. Louis, and New Orleans), and data on the deaf and dumb, the blind, and the insane by age and nativity. Also: Appendix—"Deaf and dumb. Authors and books," and "The blind. Persons in America and Europe who have devoted special attention to the interests of the blind."

A Note on Language

Census statistics date back to 1790 and reflect the growth and change of the United States. Past census reports contain some terms that today’s readers may consider obsolete and inappropriate. As part of our goal to be open and transparent with the public, we are improving access to all Census Bureau original publications and statistics, which serve as a guide to the nation's history.

Page Last Revised - December 16, 2021
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