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Report Number P30-06
Stefan Elser, Rachel Upton, and Carolyn Gann


This document presents a summary report of the 2018 data released by the Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE) program of the U.S. Census Bureau in December 2019. Each year, the SAIPE program provides timely, reliable estimates of income and poverty for the administration of Federal programs and the allocation of Federal funds to local jurisdictions and school districts. SAIPE is the only source of data on single-year median household income and poverty statistics for the 3,141 counties and 13,197 school districts in the United States. Some state and local programs also use SAIPE income and poverty estimates to distribute funds and manage programs.

The following estimates are produced for 2018 from the Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE) program:

Counties & States School districts
all people in poverty total population
children under age 18 in poverty children ages 5 to 17
related children ages 5 to 17 in families in poverty related children ages 5 to 17 in families in poverty
children under age 5 in poverty (for states only)  
median household income  

These model-based estimates are produced for school districts, counties and states. They are produced by combining data from administrative records, postcensal population estimates, and the decennial census with direct estimates from the American Community Survey to provide consistent and reliable single-year estimates.

General Cautions

Estimates for counties or states in the sorted tables may not be statistically different from estimates for other counties or states in the tables due to uncertainty in the estimates. Please see uncertainty for information associated with model-based estimates, and also general cautions about comparing model-based estimates.

Related Information

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