Federal and state policy makers, as well as community planners often use statistics on median household income as indicators of current economic conditions within communities. Median household income estimates are frequently used to identify communities and the number of households eligible for various government programs.
This brief provides estimates of median household income and percent changes for the nation, states, and the 25 most populous metropolitan areas, based on data collected in the 2019 and 2021 American Community Survey (ACS) and Puerto Rico Community Survey (PRCS). Historical comparisons of median income are presented at the national level back to 2005. Estimates are also shown by race and Hispanic origin and age of the householder. This brief concludes with an analysis of income inequality, as measured by the Gini index, at the national and state-level.
The 2020 ACS was impacted by data collection during the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in lower survey response rates. To mitigate the nonresponse bias in the 2020 data, the U.S. Census Bureau produced estimates using an experimental methodology. Comparisons in this brief are made between 2019 and 2021, which have consistent weighting methodologies. For additional information on the 2020 experimental data, visit www.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/data/experimental-data.html>.