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Working Paper Number POP-WP029
Campbell J. Gibson and Emily Lennon

Abstract

This working paper presents selected decennial census data on the foreign-born population of the United States from 1850 to 1990. This paper updates and expands data on the foreign-born population published in 1975 in Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970.

Acknowledgments

This working paper was prepared in Population Division with the collaboration of Kay Jung. Special tabulations were provided by Marie Pees. Several reviewers provided useful comments: Larry H. Long, Judy G. Belton, Rosalind R. Bruno, Rodger V. Johnson, Linda B. Kehm, Dianne Schmidley, and Paul M. Siegel.

Partial funding for the preparation of this working paper was provided by the Immigration and Naturalization Service in the Department of Justice.

Disclaimer

This working paper presents the results of research undertaken by Census Bureau staff on historical data from the decennial census of population. The paper has undergone a more limited review than official Census Bureau publications. It is released to inform interested parties of the research and to encourage discussion.


CONTENTS

1. Introduction
2. Data on the Foreign-Born Population in Statistical Compendia
3. Sources, Definitions, and Explanations for the Detailed Tables
References

DETAILED TABLES

 1.    Nativity of the Population and Place of Birth of the Native Population: 1850 to 1990

 2.    Region of Birth of the Foreign-Born Population: 1850 to 1930 and 1960 to 1990

 3.    Region and Country or Area of Birth of the Foreign-Born Population: 1960 to 1990

 4.    Region and Country or Area of Birth of the Foreign-Born Population, With Geographic Detail Shown in Decennial Census Publications of 1930 or Earlier: 1850 to 1930 and 1960 to 1990

 5.    Language Spoken at Home for the Foreign-Born Population 5 Years and Over: 1980 and 1990

 6.    Mother Tongue of the Foreign-Born Population: 1910 to 1940, 1960, and 1970

 7.    Age and Sex of the Foreign-Born Population: 1870 to 1990

 8.    Race and Hispanic Origin of the Population by Nativity: 1850 to 1990

 9.    Race and Hispanic Origin of the Foreign-Born Population: 1850 to 1990

10.    Length of Residence in the United States of the Foreign-Born Population: 1900 to 1930 and 1970 to 1990

11.    Citizenship Status of the Foreign-Born Population: 1890 to 1950 and 1970 to 1990

12.    Nativity and Parentage of the Population: 1890 to 1930, 1960, and 1970

13.    Nativity of the Population, for Regions, Divisions, and States: 1850 to 1990

14.    Foreign-Born Population by Historical Section and Subsection of the United States: 1850 to 1990

15.    Nativity of the Population by Metropolitan-Nonmetropolitan Residence: 1960 to 1990

16.    Nativity of the Population for Metropolitan Areas With 500,000 or More Population: 1990

17.    Nativity of the Population for Metropolitan Areas With 500,000 or More Population: 1960

18.    Nativity of the Population by Urban-Rural Residence and Size of Place: 1870 to 1940 and 1960 to 1990

19.    Nativity of the Population for the 50 Largest Urban Places: 1870 to 1990

20.    Nativity of the Population for the 25 Largest Urban Places and for Selected Counties: 1860

21.    Nativity of the Population for the 25 Largest Urban Places and for Selected Counties: 1850

22.    Nativity of the Population for Urban Places Ever Among the 50 Largest Urban Places Since 1870: 1850 to 1990

 


 

1.  Introduction

The 1850 decennial census was the first census in which data were collected on the nativity of the population. From 1850 to 1930, the foreign-born population of the United States increased from 2.2 million to 14.2 million, reflecting large-scale immigration from Europe during most of this period.1 As a percentage of total population, the foreign-born population rose from 9.7 percent in 1850 and fluctuated in the 13 percent to 15 percent range from 1860 to 1920 before dropping to 11.6 percent in 1930. The highest percentages foreign born were 14.4 percent in 1870, 14.8 percent in 1890 and 14.7 percent in 1910.

From 1930 to 1950, the foreign-born population of the United States declined from 14.2 million to 10.3 million, or from 11.6 percent to 6.9 percent of the total population. These declines reflected the extremely low level of immigration during the 1930s and 1940s. The foreign-born population then dropped slowly to 9.6 million in 1970, when it represented a record low 4.7 percent of the total population. Immigration had risen during the 1950s and 1960s, but was still low by historical standards, and mortality was high during this period among the foreign-born population because of its old age structure (reflecting four decades of low immigration).

Since 1970, the foreign-born population of the United States has increased rapidly due to large-scale immigration, primarily from Latin America and Asia. The foreign-born population rose from 9.6 million in 1970 to 14.1 million in 1980 and to 19.8 million in 1990. The estimated foreign-born population in 1997 was 25.8 million. As a percentage of the total population, the foreign-born population increased from 4.7 percent in 1970 to 6.2 percent in 1980, to 7.9 percent in 1990, and to an estimated 9.7 percent in 1997.2


2.  Data on the Foreign-Born Population in Statistical Compendia

The Bureau of the Census has published historical data on the foreign-born population of the United States in three statistical compendia. The most recent, Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970, was preceded by Historical Statistics of the United States, 1789-1945 and Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1957 (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1975, 1949, and 1960, respectively; see references).

The rapid growth of the foreign-born population during the past generation and the fact that the most recent edition of Historical Statistics of the United States provides data only up to 1970 underlie the preparation of the current report on Historical Census Statistics on the Foreign-Born Population of the United States: 1850 to 1990. This report is thus a small reference work that updates and expands data on the foreign-born population presented in the most recent edition of Historical Statistics of the United States.

The earlier volume presented statistics from the decennial census on the foreign-born population by country of birth, age, sex, race, citizenship status, and region of residence in the United States. The current report adds statistics on two other topics for which census data are available since 1910 or earlier on the foreign-born population: language (mother tongue or language spoken at home) and length of residence in the United States. Examples of expanded data coverage follow. Data on country of birth and on the age-sex distribution are more detailed, data on Hispanic origin (available starting in 1970) are added, and data on geographic location have been expanded beyond region of residence to show the tremendous range in the proportion foreign born in the U.S. population. In particular, data have been added on the foreign-born population by state, by type of residence (metropolitan-nonmetropolitan and urban-rural), and for individual large metropolitan areas and urban places.


3.  Sources, Definitions, and Explanations for the Detailed Tables

The format of this section parallels the format in Historical Statistics of the United States. A general discussion of census data on the foreign-born population is followed by descriptions of each table, including sources.

The first decennial census of the U.S. population was taken in 1790, as required by the Constitution, in order to obtain the population counts needed for Congressional apportionment. A question on place of birth, which is the source of data on the foreign-born population, was not added until the 1850 census (Bohme et al., 1973).

Prior to 1850, the primary questions on the census were on age, sex, and race, although a few other topics had been included (e.g., the industrial classification of employed persons, with three categories in 1820 and seven categories in 1840). The data were collected not for individuals, but rather as tallies at the household level in predefined categories on the questionnaire (e.g., the number of household members who were White females under 5 years old or who were employed in commerce).

The 1850 census introduced major advances by collecting data for each individual and by permitting write-in responses which could be coded later into a large number of categories. These advances facilitated, most notably, the inclusion of questions on place of birth and on occupation, both of which have been included in every subsequent census. The question on place of birth in the 1850 census required the enumerator to record the state, territory, or foreign country. Individuals who were born in a state or territory of the United States (and the small number of individuals for whom place of birth was not reported) were defined as native, and individuals born in a foreign country were defined as foreign born. The dramatic increase in immigration to the United States during the 1840s may have been a motivation for adding the question on place of birth in the 1850 census.3

Data on the total foreign-born population of the United States are generally comparable from 1850 to 1990, although the definition of foreign born has been refined. Since 1890, individuals who were born in a foreign country, but who had at least one parent who was an American citizen, have been defined as native rather than as foreign born.4

In the 1990 census, the population was classified by nativity as follows. The native population included all U.S. residents who were born in the United States or an outlying area of the United States (e.g., Puerto Rico), or who were born in a foreign country, but who had at least one parent who was an American citizen. All other residents of the United States were classified as foreign born.

Data in this report are for the United States as defined at each census in census reports. The total population shown in detailed tables for 1890 (62,622,250) is the population in general tabulations in 1890 census reports and excludes the population enumerated in the Indian Territory and on Indian reservations (325,464) for whom information on most topics, including nativity, was not collected. The 1890 census was the first to enumerate the entire American Indian population. Alaska and Hawaii are included in the U.S. population starting in 1960. Data showing the effect of these changes in geographic coverage on total population in 1890 and 1960 are included in Table 8, which shows data on the U.S. population by race and nativity.

Through 1940, census data on nativity of the population were based on data for the total enumerated population. For 1950 to 1990, data on nativity were based on a sample of the total population: 20 percent in 1950, 25 percent in 1960, 15 percent in 1970, and, on average, about 19 percent in 1980 and about 17 percent in 1990. In 1970, there were two samples, one 15 percent and one 5 percent. The question on nativity was included on both samples. Data on length of residence in the United States, citizenship status, and on Hispanic origin were based on the 5-percent sample, and thus data on nativity cross-tabulated by these characteristics were based on the 5-percent sample. In the detailed tables, sample data are identified with an asterisk after the year (e.g., 1950*).

The sampling variability on data in the detailed tables for 1950 to 1990 is low because the data are for the United States as a whole, for states, and for large metropolitan areas and cities and thus are based on relatively large numbers of sample cases. For more information on sampling variability for each of these censuses, including information on generalized standard errors for numbers and percentages, see the sources cited for each detailed table.

General information on census data, including area classifications, definitions of topics, accuracy of the data, and collection and processing procedures, is provided in decennial census publications. The United States census has been taken on a de jure (usual place of residence) basis rather than on a de facto (location at the time of the census) basis. For a general discussion of census coverage and underenumeration, see U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1975, Part 1, Series A 1-371, p. 1. For evaluations of census coverage since 1940, see Fay et al., 1988; and Robinson et al., 1993. For histories of the census of population, see Wright and Hunt, 1900; Eckler, 1972; and Anderson, 1988.

For a bibliography of all U.S. census publications through 1945, see Dubester, 1950. This catalogue was reprinted in the Bureau of the Census Catalog of Publications: 1790-1972 (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1974). For publications of the 1980 and 1990 censuses, see U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1984 and 1994. Additional information is available in the procedural histories of censuses cited in these catalogs.

Sources for each detailed table are included below. All sources are decennial census publications. For publications from censuses of 1940 and earlier, sequence numbers are included from the Dubester catalog (Dubester, 1950), which provides Library of Congress call numbers, titles, and descriptions of the contents of each publication.

Table 1.   Nativity of the Population and Place of Birth of the Native Population: 1850 to 1990.

Sources: For 1850-1870, 1870 census, Vol. I (Dubester #45), Table XXII, pp. 606-615. For 1880-1960, 1960 census, Vol. II, Subject Reports, Report No. 2A, State of Birth, PC(2)-2A, Table 1, p. 1. For 1970, 1970 census, Vol. I, Characteristics of the Population, Ch. D, Part 1, PC(1)-D1, Table 191, p. 596. For 1980, 1980 census, Vol. 1, Characteristics of the Population, Ch. D, Part 1, Sect. A, PC80-D1-A, Table 253, p. 7. For 1990, 1990 census, Social and Economic Characteristics, 1990 CP-2-1, Table 18, p. 18.

The native population includes all U.S. residents who were born in the United States or an outlying area of the United States (e.g., Puerto Rico), or who were born in a foreign country, but who had at least one parent who was an American citizen. All other residents of the United States are classified as foreign born. As described in the general text, the refinement to define as native those individuals who were born in a foreign country, but who had at least one parent who was an American citizen, was introduced in the 1890 census. It appears, however, that this instruction was not followed consistently by enumerators in 1890 (1890 census, Vol I, Part I, Dubester #177, p. clvii).

The outlying areas are as defined at each census. Thus, for example, individuals born in the Philippines (which was granted independence in 1946) were classified as native in 1940 and as foreign born in 1950. The primary outlying areas in censuses of the United States include Alaska (1880-1950), Hawaii (1900-1950), the Philippines (1900-1940), Puerto Rico (1900-1990), Guam (1900-1990), American Samoa (1900-1990), the Canal Zone (1900-1970), Virgin Islands of the United States (1920-1990), and Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (1950-1980). See U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1975, Section 1, p. 9. Sources for data in Table 1, footnote 1 for Puerto Rico: For 1900, 1900 census, Supplementary Analysis (Dubester #273), p. 280. For 1910-1950, 1950 census, Vol. IV, Special Reports, Part 3, Ch. D, Puerto Ricans in Continental United States, P-E, No. 3D, Table A, p. 4. For 1960, 1960 census, Vol. II, Subject Reports, Report No. 1D, Puerto Ricans in the United States, PC (2)-2D, Table 1, p. 2. For 1970, 1970 census, Vol. I, Characteristics of the Population, Ch. D, Part 1, PC (1)-D1, Table 191, p. 596. For 1980, 1980 census, Vol. I, Characteristics of the Population, Ch. D, Part 1, PC80-1-D1-A, Table 253, p. 7. For 1990, 1990 census, Social and Economic Characteristics, 1990 CP-2-1, Table 18, p. 18.

With regard to footnote 3 in Table 1, the 1970 census had two samples. In contrast to the 15-percent sample questionnaire, the 5-percent sample questionnaire did not include questions on birthplace of father and mother, but it did include questions on citizenship status and on year of entry for persons born in a foreign country. Sampling variability and differences in the questionnaires and in editing procedures account for the differences between data based on the 15-percent and 5-percent samples. These differences are most pronounced for the categories of "Born in the United States" and of "Born abroad of American parents."

Table 2.   Region of Birth of the Foreign-Born Population: 1850 to 1930 and 1960 to 1990.

Sources: Tables 3 and 4.

Data in Table 2 summarize data from Tables 3 and 4 on region of birth of the foreign-born population (number and percent distribution) in a one-page table. See text for Table 3 regarding definitions of regions and country of birth. See text for Table 4 regarding data for 1940 and 1950.

Table 3.   Region and Country or Area of Birth of the Foreign-Born Population: 1960 to 1990

Sources: For 1960, 1960 census, Vol. I, Characteristics of the Population, Ch. D, Part 1, PC(1)-D1, Table 162, p. 366. For 1970, 1970 census, Vol. I, Characteristics of the Population, Ch. D, Part 1, PC(1)-D1, Table 192, p. 598. For 1980, 1980 census, Statistical Profile of the Foreign-Born Population: 1980 Census of Population, CB84-179, Table 1, pp. 1-4; Vol. I, Characteristics of the Population, Ch. D, Part 1, Sect. A, PC80-D1-A, Table 254, p. 9; and special tabulations. For 1990, 1990 census, The Foreign-Born Population in the United States: 1990, CPH-L-98, Table 13, pp. 19-21; Social and Economic Characteristics, 1990 CP-2-1, Table 14, p. 14; and special tabulations.

The countries or areas of birth included in Table 3 are those for which data are available for 1990. Prior to 1960, the earliest year included in this table, census data were published for only a small number of countries outside of Europe, reflecting the small number of non-European countries which were numerically important sources of immigration to the United States. Table 4 shows data for the 1850 to 1930 period and the 1960 to 1990 period for a less detailed list of countries.

The six regions of the world shown in Table 3 are the "macro regions" used by the United Nations in its annual Demographic Yearbook. These regions are Europe, Asia, Africa, Oceania, Latin America, and Northern America (United Nations, 1997, pp. 30-31). In general, the subregions are the "component regions" used in the same publication. The differences are in Oceania and Europe. For Oceania, the component regions of Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia are combined and shown here as Pacific Islands. For Europe, the component regions of Northern, Western, Southern, and Eastern Europe are modified to reflect historical groupings and patterns of immigration to the United States: Albania and Yugoslavia are included in Eastern Europe rather than in Southern Europe; and Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania are included in Eastern Europe rather than in Northern Europe. Table 3 includes various subtotals of historical interest within regions (e.g., within Northern Europe, subtotals are shown for the British Isles and for Scandinavia).

Data on country of birth are based generally on the political boundaries of foreign countries existing at the date of the specified decennial census. Changes in political boundaries are less of a concern for the 1960 to 1990 period covered in Table 3 than for the entire 1850 to 1990 period for which data on country of birth are available and are shown in Table 4. Because of boundary changes, including those made following World War I and World War II, accurate comparisons over time are limited for some countries, such as Austria, Czechoslovakia (reported as Bohemia through 1900), Hungary, and Poland. For a discussion of the effects of these boundary changes, see U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1975, Part 1, text for Series C 228-295, pp. 103-104.

In Tables 3 and 4, the term "country or area of birth" is used (rather than just "country of birth") because the foreign geographic areas of birth for which data are available have not always reflected the United States' diplomatic relations at the date of each census. For example, the United States has recognized the People's Republic of China since 1979. Taiwan is officially considered part of the People's Republic of China; however, data for Taiwan are available for 1980 and 1990.

Table 4.   Region and Country or Area of Birth of the Foreign-Born Population, With Geographic Detail Shown in Decennial Census Publications of 1930 or Earlier: 1850 to 1930 and 1960 to 1990.

Sources: For 1850, 1850 census, The Seventh Census of the United States: 1850 (Dubester #30), Table XV, p. xxxvii. For 1860, 1860 census, Population of the United States in 1860 (Dubester #37), unnumbered table, pp. 620-623. For 1870, 1870 census, Vol. I (Dubester #45), Table VI, pp. 336-342. For 1880, 1880 census, Vol. I (Dubester #61), Table XIII, pp. 492-495. For 1890, 1890 census, Vol. I, Part I (Dubester #177), Table 32, pp. 606-609. For 1900, 1900 census, Supplementary Analysis (Dubester #273), Table 61, pp. 856-859. For 1910, 1910 census, Vol. I (Dubester #296), Ch. VII, Table 2, p. 784. For 1920, 1920 census, Vol. II, (Dubester #453), Ch. VI, Tables 3-4, pp. 694-695. For 1930, 1930 census, Vol. II (Dubester #653), Ch. 5, Table 4, p. 233. For 1960-1990, see sources for Table 3. In addition, see U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1975, Part 1, Series C 228-295, pp. 117-118.

See text for Table 3 concerning the definitions of regions and countries of birth. Data are not included in Table 4 for 1940 and 1950 because data on the foreign-born population by country of birth in census publications for these years are limited almost entirely to the White population. For data on the foreign-born White population by country of birth for 1910 to 1970, see U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1975, Part 1, Series C 228-295, pp. 117-118.

Table 5.   Language Spoken at Home for the Foreign-Born Population 5 Years and Over: 1980 and 1990

Sources: For 1980, 1980 census, Vol. I, Characteristics of the Population, Ch. D, Part 1, Sect. A, PC80-1-D1-A, Table 256, p. 16, and special tabulations. For 1990, 1990 census, Social and Economic Characteristics, 1990 CP-2-1, Table 13, p. 13; Social and Economic Characteristics of Selected Language Groups for U.S. and States: 1990, CPH-L 159; and special tabulations.

Data on language spoken at home are based on the question, "Does this person speak a language other than English at home?," and if the answer was yes, also on the question "What is this language?" (If the answer was yes, individuals were asked also "How well does this person speak English - Very well, Well, Not well, Not at all.") If individuals spoke both English and another language at home, they were classified by the non-English language in data shown in Table 5, regardless of how well they spoke English.

The categories used to group data on language spoken at home are both linguistic and geographic and are based generally on Classification and Index of the World's Languages (Voegelin, C.F. and F.M., 1977). The classification used in Table 5 includes three major language groups (Indo-European languages, Asian and Pacific Island languages, and Other languages) and selected language families within each of the three groups (e.g., Romance languages within the Indo-European language group). As a result, these categories do not always correspond to the regions and subregions of the world used to group countries of birth (Tables 3 and 4). For example, unlike most languages spoken in European countries, Finnish and Hungarian are included with Other languages rather than with Indo-European languages.

All individual languages spoken at home with 10,000 or more foreign-born speakers in 1980 or in 1990 are listed separately in Table 5. Data for language families include languages not listed separately.

Table 6.   Mother Tongue of the Foreign-Born Population: 1910 to 1940, 1960, and 1970

Sources: For 1910, 1920 census, Vol. II (Dubester #453), Ch. X, Table 1, p. 973. For 1930-1940, 1940 census, Nativity and Parentage of the White Population (Dubester #1001), Mother Tongue, Table 1, p. 7. For 1960, 1960 census, Vol. II, Subject Reports, Report 1E, Mother Tongue of the Foreign Born, PC(2)-1E, Tables 1-2, pp. 1-2. For 1970, 1970 census, Vol. II, Subject Reports, Report 1A, National Origin and Language, PC(2)-1A, Table 19, p. 492.

Data on mother tongue are based on a question on language spoken in this person's home when he was a child or, when the question was limited to the foreign-born population, on a question on what language was spoken in this person's home before he came to the United States. Data on mother tongue for 1910 to 1940 were tabulated only for the White population, which represented over 98 percent of the foreign-born population during this period (Table 9). For 1960 and 1970, data are shown for both the White foreign-born population (to compare with data for 1910 to 1940) and for the total foreign-born population. Starting with the 1980 census, a question on language spoken at home replaced the question on mother tongue. Data on language spoken at home for the foreign-born population are shown in Table 5.

To the extent possible, the language groups and families used to group data on mother tongue are the same as used in Table 5 to group data on language spoken at home. However, the concepts of mother tongue and language spoken at home differ considerably, and thus data in Tables 5 and 6 are not comparable.

Table 7.   Age and Sex of the Foreign-Born Population: 1870 to 1990

Sources: For 1870, 1870 census, Vol. II (Dubester #49), Table XXII, pp. 552-553. For 1880, 1880 census, Vol. I (Dubester #61), Table XVII, p. 542, and Table XX, pp. 548-551. For 1890, 1890 census, Vol. I, Part 1 (Dubester #177), Table 20, pp. 486-487, and Vol. I, Part 2, (Dubester #178), Table 1, pp. 3 and 5. For 1900, 1900 census, Vol. II, Part II (Dubester #254), Table XVI, pp. xxxvi-xxxviii. For 1910, 1910 census, Vol. I (Dubester #296), Ch. IV, Table 29, pp. 310-313. For 1920, 1920 census, Vol. II (Dubester #453), Ch. III, Table 9, pp. 162-165. For 1930-1940, 1940 census, Vol. II, Part 1 (Dubester #957), Table 7, p. 22, and Vol. IV, Part 1 (Dubester #971), Table 3, p. 13. For 1910-1940 for total foreign-born population (all races by sex, but not by age), 1940 census, Vol. I, Part 1 (Dubester #957), Table 4, p. 19. For 1950, 1950 census, Vol. II, Characteristics of the Population, Ch. C, Part 1, Bulletin P-C1, Table 96, p. 171, and Table 101, p. 178. For 1960, 1960 census, Vol. I, Characteristics of the Population, Ch. D, Part 1, PC(1)-D1, Table 156, p. 354, and Table 161, p. 364. For 1970, 1970 census, Vol. I, Characteristics of the Population, Ch. D, Part 1, PC(1)-D1, Table 191, p. 596. For 1980, 1980 census, Vol. I, Characteristics of the Population, Ch. D, Part 1, Sect. 1, PC80-1-D1-A, Table 253, p. 7, and special tabulations. For 1990, 1990 census, Foreign-Born Population in the United States, 1990 CP-3-1, Table 1, pp. 1-2, and special tabulations.

In censuses of 1880, 1890, and 1910 to 1940, published census data on the age and sex distribution of the foreign-born population were limited primarily to the foreign-born White population. During this period, the foreign-born population of races other than White, which peaked at 220,744 in 1930, represented between 1 percent and 2 percent of the total foreign-born population (Table 9). Because age data for the total foreign-born population are available for 1870, 1900, and 1950 to 1990, and because the foreign-born population of races other than White represented such a small proportion of the total foreign-born population from 1880 to 1940, the population universe for Table 7 is the total foreign-born population. The foreign-born population of races other than White is included in the category "age data not available" for 1880, 1890, and 1910 to 1940.

Table 8.   Race and Hispanic Origin of the Population by Nativity: 1850 to 1990

Sources: For 1850-1860, 1870 census, Vol. I (Dubester #45), Table XXII, pp. 606-615. For 1870-1890, 1900 census, Vol. II, Part II (Dubester #254), Table I, p. xvii. For 1900-1940, 1940 census, Vol. II, Part I (Dubester #971), Table 4, p. 19. For 1940 for White population with Spanish mother tongue, 1940 census, Nativity and Parentage of the White Population (Dubester #1001), Mother Tongue, Table 1, p. 7. For 1950, 1950 census, Vol. II, Characteristics of the Population, Ch. C, Part 1, Bulletin P-C1, Table 96, p. 171, and Vol. IV, Special Reports, Part 3, Ch. B, Nonwhite Population By Race, Tables 1-7, pp. 15-21. For 1960, 1960 census, Vol. I, Characteristics of the Population, Ch. C, Part 1, PC(1)-C1, Table 66, p. 201, and Part 3, PC(1)-C1, Table 38, p. 50, and Part 13, PC(1)-C1, Table 38, p. 50. For 1960 for nativity of the Black population and the Asian and Pacific Islander population, 1960 census, Vol. II, Subject Reports, Report 1C, Nonwhite Population by Race, PC(2)-1C, Tables 1-8, pp. 1-8. For 1970, 1970 census, Vol. I, Characteristics of the Population, Ch. D, Part 1, PC(1)-D1, Table 189, p. 591, and Table 190, pp. 593-594, and Vol. II, Subject Reports, Report No. 1C, Persons of Spanish Origin, PC(2)-1C, Table 4, p. 32. For 1980, Vol. I, Characteristics of the Population, Ch. C, Part 1, PC80-1-C1, Table 101, p. 70, Table 122, pp. 95-96, Table 132, p. 117, and Table 167, p. 164. For 1990, 1990 census, Social and Economic Characteristics, 1990 CP-2-1, Table 43, p. 43.

The racial categories and the Hispanic origin category shown in the boxhead of Table 8 reflect the guidelines set forth in Statistical Policy Directive No. 15, "Race and Ethnic Standards for Federal Statistics and Administrative Reporting" (U.S. Office of Management and Budget, 1977).5 Data by race or color for all censuses since 1850 have been made consistent with Directive No. 15 to the extent possible. Data for the Hispanic origin category are available since 1970, and data for the category of White, not of Hispanic origin are included also since 1970. Individuals of Hispanic origin, the vast majority of whom report themselves by race as White or as "Other race," may be of any race.

The classification of the population by race reflects common or social usage. It does not denote any clear-cut scientific definition of biological stock. Through 1950, the classification of the population by race was usually obtained by the census enumerator's observation. Individuals of mixed White and other parentage were usually classified with the other race. In 1960, census data on race were collected by a combination of self-classification, direct interview, and observation. In the 1970 census, data on race and Hispanic origin were obtained primarily through self-classification. In the 1980 and 1990 censuses, the data were obtained entirely through self-classification.

In the 1850 census, the only racial classifications in census reports were for White and Black. It is not clear how the unknown, but clearly very small, number of enumerated individuals who were not White or Black were classified by race. Chinese and American Indian classifications were added in the 1860 census; however, prior to 1890, the enumeration of American Indians excluded Indian reservations and American Indians living elsewhere in tribal society (not taxed). Japanese was added in 1870, and other Asian "races" were added starting in 1910. In the 1930 census only, Mexican was defined as a race. Tabulations for 1930 were revised to include Mexicans with White and were included in 1940 census reports and are included in this report.

In the 1950 census, an "Other races" category was added in an attempt to identify individuals of mixed White, Black, and Indian ancestry. This attempt was only partially successful; however, the "Other races" category was retained, and with self-identification of race and Hispanic origin, there has been a dramatic increase since 1970 in the "Other races" population. This is due primarily to individuals who are of Hispanic origin and who choose not to report in a specific racial category, such as White or Black.

Data by race for 1950 and for 1960 in Table 8 are based on more than one tabulation of the data and in some cases on more than one sampling rate. As a result, the totals for races other than White differ slightly from the sum of the component races. Data for 1950 on the population by nativity for these component races are highly inconsistent and are not included in Table 8. See sources for Table 8.

For more detailed discussions of data on race and Hispanic origin, see U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1975, Section 1, text for Series A 91-104, pp. 3-4, and the sources listed above for Table 8.

Table 9.   Race and Hispanic Origin of the Foreign-Born Population: 1850 to 1990

Source: Table 8.

Table 9 summarizes data on the foreign-born population by race and Hispanic origin and shows the corresponding percent distribution of the foreign-born population. See text for Table 8 regarding data on race and Hispanic origin.

Table 10.   Length of Residence in the United States of the Foreign-Born Population: 1900 to 1930 and 1970 to 1990

Sources: For 1900-1910, 1910 census, Vol. I (Dubester #296), Ch. X, Table 1, p. 1017. For 1920, 1920 census, Vol. II (Dubester #453), Ch. VII, Table 1, p. 779. For 1930, 1930 census, Vol. II (Dubester #653), Ch. 9, Table 4, p. 498. For 1970, 1970 census, Vol. I, Characteristics of the Population, Ch. D, Part 1, PC(1)-D1, Table 195, p. 600, and Vol. II, Subject Reports, Report 1A, National Origin and Language, PC(2)-1A, Table 17, p. 440. For 1980, 1980 census, Vol. I, Characteristics of the Population, Ch. C, Part1, PC80-1-C1, Table 99, p. 68. For 1990, 1990 census, Social and Economic Characteristics, 1990 CP-2-1, Table 13, p.13, and Social and Economic Characteristics of Selected Language Groups for U.S. and States, CPH-L-159.

Data on length of residence in the United States of the foreign-born population are available from the censuses of 1900 to 1930 and 1970 to 1990 and are based on a question on the year of immigration (for 1900-1930) or on a question on the year when this person came to the United States to stay (for 1970-1990). For presentation in Table 10, the data have been converted to length of residence in years. This conversion is approximate, reflecting the reference dates of pertinent censuses: June 1 in 1900, April 15 in 1910, Jan. 1 in 1920, and April 1 for 1930 and 1970 to 1990.

Length of residence in (completed) years is based on published data on year of immigration or on year came to stay as follows. For 1900: under 4 (1896-1900), 4-8 (1891-95), 9-13 (1886-90), 14-18 (1881-85), 19+ (before 1881). For 1910: under 4 (1906-10), 4-8 (1901-05), 9-13 (1896-1900), 14-18 (1891-95), 19+ (before 1891). For 1920: under 4 (1916-1920), 4-8 (1911-15), 9-13 (1906-10), 14-18 (1901-05), 19+ (before 1901). For 1930: under 5 (1925-30), 5-9 (1920-24), 10-14 (1915-19), 15-18 (1911-14), 19-28 (1901-10), 29+ (before 1901). For 1970: under 5 (1965-70), 5-9 (1960-64), 10-14 (1955-59), 15-19 (1950-54), 20-24 (1945-49), 25-34 (1935-44), 35-44 (1925-34), 45-54 (1915-24), 55+ (before 1915). For 1980: under 5 (1975-80), 5-9 (1970-74), 10-14 (1965-69), 15-19 (1960-64), 20-29 (1950-59), 30+ (before 1950). For 1990: under 5 (1985-90), 5-9 (1980-84), 10-14 (1975-79), 15-19 (1970-74), 20-24 (1965-69), 25-29 (1960-64), 30-39 (1950-59), 40+ (before 1950).

Table 11.   Citizenship Status of the Foreign-Born Population: 1890 to 1950 and 1970 to 1990

Sources: For 1890-1930, 1930 census, Vol. II (Dubester #653), Ch. 8, Table 4, p. 405. For 1940, 1940 census, Vol. II, Part 1 (Dubester #957), Tables 27-29, pp. 79-81. For 1950, 1950 census, Vol. II, Characteristics of the Population, Ch. C, Part 1, Bulletin P-C1, Table 101, p. 178. For 1970, 1970 census, Vol. I, Characteristics of the Population, Ch. D, Part 1, PC(1)-D1), Table 194, p. 599. For 1980, 1980 census, Vol. I, Characteristic of the Population, Ch D, Part 1, Sect. A, PC80-1-D1-A, Table 253, p. 7, and special tabulations. For 1990, 1990 census, Foreign-Born Population of the United States, 1990 CP-3-1, Table 1, p. 1.

In 1960, a question on citizenship status was not included on the general census questionnaire (although it was included on the questionnaire used in New York state). Prior to the 1920 census, published census data on citizenship status were restricted to males 21 years and over. Starting with the 1930 census, data on citizenship status have been published by sex for all ages as well as for the voting age population. For years prior to 1940, when age not reported was not allocated, the data on citizenship status by age assume that all individuals for whom age was not reported were 21 years and over.

Table 12.   Nativity and Parentage of the Population: 1890 to 1930, 1960, and 1970

Sources: For 1890, 1890 census, Vol. I, Part I (Dubester # 177), Table 20, pp. 486-487, and Tables 35-36, pp. 681-683. For 1900-1930, 1930 census, Vol. II (Dubester #653), Ch. 2, Table 6, p. 33. For 1960, 1960 census, Vol. II, Subject Reports, Report 1A, Nativity and Parentage, PC(2)-1A, Table 1, p. 2. For 1970, 1970 census, Vol. II, Subject Reports, Report 1A, National Origin and Language, PC(2)-1A, Table 1, p. 1.

The terms native population and foreign-born population were defined earlier (see text for Table 1). Information on birthplace of parents may be used to classify the native population by parentage: native of native parentage (both parents native), native of foreign parentage (both parents foreign-born) and native of mixed parentage (one parent native and one parent foreign born). The term foreign stock includes the foreign-born population and the native population of foreign or mixed parentage. Just as the native population and foreign-born population comprise the total population, the native population of native parentage and the foreign-stock population also comprise the total population.

A question on birthplace of parents was included in the census from 1870 to 1970; however, data on parentage for the total population are available only since 1890. For data on the parentage of the White population from 1870 to 1970, see U.S. Bureau of the Census, Part 1, 1975, Series A 135-142, p. 19. Starting in the 1980 census, a question on ancestry (based on self-identification) replaced the question on birthplace of parents.

The current approach to classifying only the native population by parentage was adopted in census reports for 1910. In census reports for 1890 and 1900, the total population was classified by nativity and parentage, even though a very small proportion of foreign-born individuals were of native parentage. Data published in 1890 for races other than White do not permit adjustment of the data to be consistent with the current approach; however, the adjustment was made in the data presented here based on the assumption that the relatively small foreign-born population of races other than White in 1890 (127,680) was entirely of foreign or mixed parentage. This is a reasonable assumption because a large majority of the foreign-born population of races other than White was Asian (Chinese or Japanese), as shown in Table 9.

Table 13.   Nativity of the Population, for Regions, Divisions, and States: 1850 to 1990

Sources: For 1850-1890, 1890 census, Vol. I, Part 1 (Dubester #177), Table 1, pp. 2-3, and Table 12, p. 399. For 1900-1920, 1920 census, Vol. II (Dubester #453), Ch 1, Table 10, p. 36. For 1930, 1930 census, Vol II (Dubester #653), Ch. 2, Table 15, p. 39. For 1940, 1940 census, Vol. II (Dubester #956), Parts 1-7, Table 4 (for the United States and for each state). For 1950, 1950 census, Vol. II, Characteristics of the Population, Ch. C, Part 1, Table 96, p. 171 (for the United States), and Parts 2-50, Table 54 ( for each state). For 1960, 1960 census, Vol. I, Characteristics of the Population, Ch. C, Part 1, PC(1)-C1, Table 108, p. 251. For 1970, 1970 census, Vol. I, Characteristics of the Population, Ch. C, Part 1, PC(1)-C1, Table 143, p. 472. For 1980, 1980 census, Vol. I, Characteristics of the Population, Ch. C, Part 1, PC80-1-C1, Table 99, p. 68, Table 183, pp. 181-182, and Table 236, pp. 291-296. For 1990, 1990 census, Social and Economic Characteristics, 1990 CP-2-1, Table 143, pp. 173-179.

Data on the population by nativity for regions, divisions, and states are consistent with data in Table 1 for the United States. For information on the boundaries of states and of territories preceding statehood, see Forstall, 1996. The groupings of states into regions and divisions of the United States are those currently used by the Bureau of the Census. For the history of census regions and divisions and their predecessor areas, see Dahmann, 1992.

Table 14.   Foreign-Born Population by Historical Section and Subsection of the United States: 1850 to 1990

Source: Table 13, and Dahmann, 1992.

The four regions -- Northeast, North Central (subsequently renamed Midwest), South, and West -- were introduced in the 1940s and replaced the three sections introduced in the 1910 census: North, South, and West. For the presentation of historical data, including data on the foreign-born population, the three sections are in some ways preferable because they permit direct comparisons of North and South. The North is divided into two subsections (Northeast and North Central), and the South is divided into two subsections (Southeast and South Central). These subsections recognize the westward expansion of settlement from the Atlantic seaboard and facilitate comparisons of the eastern and central portions of the United States.

Table 15.   Nativity of the Population by Metropolitan-Nonmetropolitan Residence: 1960 to 1990

Sources: For 1960, 1960 census, Vol. I, Characteristics of the Population, Ch. C, Part 1, PC(1)-C1, Table 101, p. 238. For 1970, 1970 census, Vol. I, Characteristics of the Population, Ch. C, Part 1, PC(1)-C1, Table 108, p. 414. For 1980, 1980 census, Vol. I, Characteristics of the Population, Ch. C, Part 1, PC80-1-C1, Table 110, p. 81. For 1990 as defined effective June 30, 1990, 1990 census, Social and Economic Characteristics, 1990 CP-2-1, Table 27, p. 27. For 1990 as defined effective June 30, 1993, 1990 census, Supplementary Reports, Metropolitan Areas as Defined by the Office of Management and Budget, June 30, 1993, Section 1, 1990 CPH-S-1-1, Table 5, pp. 262-408.

The general concept of a metropolitan area (MA) is that of a core area containing a large population nucleus, together with adjacent communities that have a high degree of economic and social integration with that core. Some MAs are defined around two or more cores. The component units of MAs are counties, except in the New England states where the component units are cities and towns. In each MA, the largest place (usually an incorporated city) and, in some cases, additional places are designated as "central cities." With some exceptions, each MA includes at least one central city with 50,000 or more population. The MA classification is a statistical standard, developed for use by federal agencies in the production, analysis, and publication of data on metropolitan areas. The MAs are designated and defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget, following a set of official published standards. For more information about the definition of MAs, see the sources listed for Table 15. For definitions of urban and rural, see text for Table 18.

The detail shown for each year by type of residence reflects the information available in census reports. The presentation of data on urban and rural residence for the metropolitan and nonmetropolitan populations has varied slightly in these reports. Data by urban and rural residence for 1990 were not published for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan populations as defined effective June 30, 1993; however, data on metropolitan areas by size class, cumulated from data published for individual MAs, are included in Table 15. Data for 1960, 1970, and 1980 reflect metropolitan boundaries as of each census. See text for Table 16 regarding the definitions of individual MAs.

Table 16.   Nativity of the Population for Metropolitan Areas With 500,000 or More Population: 1990

Source: For 1990 as defined effective June 30, 1993, 1990 census, Supplementary Reports, Metropolitan Areas as Defined by the Office of Management and Budget, June 30, 1993, Section 1, 1990 CPH-S-1-1, Table 5, pp. 262-408.

For a general description of metropolitan areas (MAs), see text for Table 15. To meet the needs of various data users, the standards for defining MAs permit an MA to be classified either as a metropolitan statistical area (MSA), or as a Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area (CMSA) that is divided into primary metropolitan statistical areas (PMSAs). For purposes of ranking metropolitan areas by total population in 1990 in Table 16, MSAs and CMSAs are used, and component PMSAs are shown for each CMSA. There are 73 MSAs and CMSAs with 500,000 or more population shown in Table 16.

Table 17.   Nativity of the Population for Metropolitan Areas With 500,000 or More Population: 1960

Source: For 1960, 1960 census, Vol. I, Characteristics of the Population, Ch. C, Parts 2-52 (for each state), PC(1)-C1 to C52, Table 72.

For a general description of metropolitan areas, see text for Table 15. Metropolitan areas for which data were shown in 1960 census reports were standard metropolitan statistical areas (SMSAs). In addition, two standard consolidated areas (SCAs) were included, for New York and Chicago. These correspond generally to standard metropolitan areas (SMAs) for New York and Chicago shown in 1950 census reports. For purposes of ranking metropolitan areas by total population in 1960 in Table 17, the two SCAs and the SMSAs outside of the New York and Chicago SCAs are used. On this basis, there are 49 metropolitan areas with 500,000 or more population shown in Table 17.

Table 18.   Nativity of the Population by Urban-Rural Residence and Size of Place: 1870 to 1940 and 1960 to 1990

Source: For 1870, 1870 census, Vol. I (Dubester #45), Table III, pp. 77-296, and Table IV, p. 299. For 1880, 1880 census, Vol. I (Dubester #61), Table VII, p. 426, and Table IX, pp. 447-456. For 1890-1900, 1900 census, Supplementary Analysis (Dubester #273), Table XXII, p. 51, Tables 10-11, pp. 620-627. For 1900-1940 for urban and rural, 1940 census, Vol. II, Part 1 (Dubester # 957), Tables 4-5, pp. 19-20. For 1910, 1910 census, Vol. I (Dubester #296), Ch. II, Table 37, p. 178. For 1920, 1920 census, Vol. II (Dubester #453), Ch. I, Table 13, p. 47. For 1930, 1930 census, Vol. II (Dubester #653), Ch. 2, Table 23, pp. 67-73. For 1940, 1940 census, Vol. II, Part 1-7 (Dubester #956), Table 36 (for each state). For 1960, 1960 census, Vol. I, Characteristics of the Population, Ch. C, Part 1, PC(1)-C1, Table 100, p. 233. For 1970, 1970 census, Vol. I, Characteristics of the Population, Ch. C, Part 1, PC(1)-C1, Table 97, p. 403. For 1980, 1980 census, Vol. I, Characteristics of the Population, Ch. C, Part 1, PC80-1-C1, Table 99, p. 68. For 1990, 1990 census, Social and Economic Characteristics, 1990 CP-2-1, Table 13, p. 13.

In 1990, the urban population is defined as the population in (1) incorporated places (e.g., cities) of 2,500 or more population, (2) census designated places (CDPs) (i.e., unincorporated places) of 2,500 or more population, and (3) other territory, incorporated or unincorporated, in urbanized areas. The remainder of the population is defined as rural.

In 1990, urbanized areas were defined as one or more "central places" and the adjacent densely settled (with at least 1,000 population per square mile) surrounding territory ("urban fringe") that together have at least 50,000 population.

Changes in the definitions of urban, rural, and urbanized areas have been relatively minor since 1950 when urbanized areas were first delineated. Prior to 1950, the urban population was defined generally as the population in incorporated places of 2,500 or more population. The population threshold of 2,500 for defining places as urban was adopted in the 1910 census; however, data on the nativity of the population using this population threshold are available for 1890 and 1900 and are included in Table 18.

The rural population is classified as rural nonfarm or rural farm. The farm population consists of individuals in households living in farm residences. In the 1990 census, a one-family house or mobile home was classified as a farm residence if (1) it was located on a property of 1 acre or more and (2) at least $1,000 of agricultural products were sold from the property in 1989. Data on the nativity of the rural farm and rural nonfarm population are available since 1930; however, the definition of farm changed considerably between 1930 and 1990. From 1930 to 1950, the farm population included all individuals living on farms. The definition of a farm depended primarily upon local usage and the respondent's view of what constituted a farm. In 1960, acreage and sales were introduced in the decennial census as criteria for defining farms.

For more detailed discussions of definitions of urban, urban place, urbanized area, rural, rural nonfarm, and rural farm see the sources for Table 18. For more detailed discussions of the changes in definitions of urban and urban place, see also Truesdell, 1949, and Gibson, 1998.

Table 19.   Nativity of the Population for the 50 Largest Urban Places: 1870 to 1990

Sources: For 1870 for all places, 1870 census, Vol. I (Dubester #45), Table III, pp. 77-296. For 1880 for places of 4,000+ population, 1880 census, Vol. I (Dubester # 61), Table IX, pp. 447-456. For 1890 for places of 2,500+ population, 1890 census, Vol. I, Part 1 (Dubester #177), Table 19, pp. 451-485. For 1900 for places of 2,500+ population, Vol. I, Part 1 (Dubester #252), Table 23, pp. 609-646. For 1910 for places of 100,000+ population, 1910 census, Vol. I (Dubester #296), Ch. II, Table 37, p. 178; and for places of 25,000-99,999 population, Ch. VII, Table 38, pp. 860-865. For 1920 for places of 100,000+ population, 1920 census, Vol. I (Dubester # 453), Ch. I, Table 13, p. 47; and for places of 25,000-99,999 population, Ch. VI, Table 17, pp. 760-767. For 1930 for places of 100,000+ population, 1930 census, Vol. II (Dubester #653), Ch. 2, Table 23, pp. 67-73; and for places of 50,000-99,999 population, Ch. 4, Table 35, pp. 199-201. For 1940 for places of 100,000+ population, 1940 census, Vol. II, Parts 1-7 (Dubester # 956), Table 36 (for each state); and for places of 10,000-99,999 population, Table 31 (for each state). For 1950 for places of 100,000+ population, 1950 census, Vol. II, Characteristics of the Population, Ch. C, Parts 2-50 (for states), Bulletin P-C2 to C50, Table 55. For 1960 for places of 10,000+ population, 1960 census, Vol. I, Characteristics of the Population, Ch. C, Parts 2-52 (for states), PC(1)-C2 to C52, Table 72. For 1970 for places of 50,000+ population, 1970 census, Vol. I, Characteristics of the Population, Ch. C, Parts 2-52 (for states), PC(1)-C1 to C52, Table 81; and for places of 10,000-49,999 population, Table 102. For 1980 for places of 50,000+ population, 1980 census, Vol. I, Characteristics of the Population, Ch. C, Parts 2-52 (for states), PC (1)-C2 to C52, Tables 118 and 118a; for places of 10,000-49,999 population, Tables 156 and 156a; and for places of 2,500-9,999 population, Tables 166 and 166a. For 1990 for places of 10,000+ population, 1990 census, Social and Economic Characteristics, 1990 CP-2-2 to 52, Table 167; and for places of 2,500-9,999 population, Table 195.

Table 19 includes data starting with the 1870 census, the first census for which reports showed data on a comprehensive basis on the nativity of the population for places. The lists of the 50 largest urban places at each census are from Gibson, 1998. With a few exceptions, the urban places shown in Table 19 are incorporated cities. Honolulu, which is included from 1960 to 1990, is a census designated place (CDP). (See text for Table 18 regarding CDPs.) Three cities included in Table 19 from 1970 to 1990 reflect consolidations of city and county governments: Indianapolis, Jacksonville, and Nashville. The first two are listed as cities in census publications while the last is listed as Nashville-Davidson. See sources for Table 19 for more information on consolidated cities.

Table 20.   Nativity of the Population for the 25 Largest Urban Places and for Selected Counties: 1860

Source: 1860 census, Population of the United States in 1860 (Dubester #37), recapitulation section, pp. 608-615, and state sections, Tables 3-4.

Table 20 presents available data on the population of the 25 largest urban places in 1860, along with data for their parent counties when data are not available for the individual urban places. In the 1870 census, in which data are available for both counties and places, the percent foreign born in the population in these cities was usually higher than in their respective parent counties.

Table 21.   Nativity of the Population for the 25 Largest Urban Places and for Selected Counties: 1850

Source: 1850 census, The Seventh Census of the United States: 1850 (Dubester # 30), Table of Counties, Districts, and Parishes in the United States, 1850, pp. xcv-cii, and Census of 1852 for California, Tables I-II, p. 982; and Statistical View of the United States (Dubester # 33) Appendix, Table III, p. 399.

Table 21 presents available data on the population of the 25 largest urban places in 1850, along with data for their parent counties when data are not available for the individual urban places. In the 1870 census, in which data are available for both counties and places, the percent foreign born in the population in these cities was usually higher than in their respective parent counties.

Table 22.   Nativity of the Population for Urban Places Ever Among the 50 Largest Urban Places Since 1870: 1850 to 1990

Sources: See sources for Table 19.

Each urban place included for any year in Table 19 is included in Table 22. Available data on nativity of the population are included for each year, regardless of whether or not the urban place was among the 50 largest urban places in that year. Ranks in total population for 1950 to 1990 among all urban places in the United States, which are based on sample data, differ in a few cases from those shown in Gibson, 1998, which are based on complete-count data for all censuses in the 1850 to 1990 period.


1 U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, 1997, Table 1, p.25.

2 The decennial census data are from Table 1 in this report. Estimates for 1997 are from U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1998, p.1.

3 Immigration to the United States increased from 599,000 in the 1831-1840 period to 1.7 million in the 1841-1850 period. Annual data show an increase from 52,000 in 1843 to 235,000 in 1847, and the figure remained above 200,000 through 1857 (U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, 1997, Table 1, p.25).

4 Wright and Hunt, 1900, pp. 172 and 188.

5 "Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity" (U.S. Office of Management and Budget, 1997) makes some changes to the standards in Directive No. 15, including permitting individuals to report more than one race. These revisions will be implemented in the 2000 census.


REFERENCES

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Dahmann, Donald C. 1992. "Accounting for the Geography of Population: 200 Years of Census Bureau Practice with Macro-Scale Sub-National Regions." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers, San Diego, CA, 18-22 April 1992.

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Wright, Carroll D. and William C. Hunt. 1900. The History and Growth of the United States Census. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

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