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2016-2020 American Community Survey 5-year estimates are now available, including the Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) Files and Variance Replicate Estimate (VRE) Tables.

Data Suppression

Data users often question why certain American Community Survey (ACS) estimates are not available. The missing estimates can be caused by data suppression. Data suppression refers to the various methods or restrictions that are applied to ACS estimates to limit the disclosure of information about individual respondents and to reduce the number of estimates with unacceptable levels of statistical reliability.

This document explains the factors that contribute to data supression, including:

  • Population Thresholds
  • Geographic Restrictions for Tables
  • Data Quality Filtering
  • Collapsed Tables
  • Disclosure Review Board Rules
  • Table Suppression for Specific Geographies

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