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1900 Census Instructions to Enumerators

The below text is excerpted on page 34 & 35 from Measuring America: The Decennial Censuses From 1790 to 2000.

1910 Questionnaire - General Population

The Census Act of 1899 and subsequent act of February 1, 1900 authorized approximately 58,000 specially hired and trained enumerators to conduct the 1900 census. Enumerators received instructions from the booklet "Instructions to Enumerators" below.


(19 1/2″ X 18 5/8″, printed on two sides, space for 50 entries on each side; reverse side was identical except for line numbers.)

Instructions to Enumerators

Name and Relationship

108. Column 3. Name of each person enumerated.—Enter the name of every person whose usual place of abode (see paragraph 111) is in the family or dwelling place for which the enumeration is being made. The census day, that is, the day as of which the enumeration is made, is June 1, 1900. Include, therefore, every person living on June 1, 1900, or during any part of that day, and omit children born after that date.

109. It is intended that the name of every man, woman, and child whose usual place of abode on the first day of June, 1900, was within your district shall be entered on the population schedule, but no entry is to be made of a child born between the first day of June, 1900, and the day of your visit, say June 5, June 15, etc., as the case may be.

110. On the other hand, every person who was a resident of your district upon the first day of June, 1900, but between that date and the day of your visit shall have died, should be entered on the schedule precisely as if still living. The object of the schedule is to obtain a list of the inhabitants on the first day of June, 1900, and all changes after that date, whether in the nature of gain or loss, are to be disregarded.

111. The census law furnishes no definitions of the phrase ‘‘usual place of abode;’’ and it is difficult to guard against the danger that some persons will be reported in two places and others not reported at all. Much must be left to the judgement of the enumerator, who, if he will take the pains, can satisfy himself, in the great majority of instances, as to the propriety of including or not including doubtful cases in his enumeration of any given family.

112. In the case of boarders at hotels, students at schools or colleges, and inmates of institutions, ascertain whether the person concerning whom the question may arise has at the time any other place of abode within another district at which he is likely to be reported. Seafaring men are to be reported at their land homes, no matter how long they may have been absent, if they are supposed to be still alive. Hence, sailors temporarily at a sailors’ boarding or lodging house, if they acknowledge any other home within the United States, are not to be included in the family of the lodging or boarding house.

113. Persons engaged in internal transportation, canal men, expressmen, railroad men, etc., if they habitually return to their homes in the intervals of their occupations, will be reported as of their families, and not where they may be temporarily staying on June 1, 1900.

114. The transient guests of a hotel are not to be enumerated as of the hotel, unless they are likely otherwise to be omitted from the enumeration; but the proprietor and his family, and those boarders, employees, and servants who regularly sleep there are to be so included.

115. The inmates of transient lodging-houses are to be so enumerated, if they claim no other home or have no other place of abode.

116. All inmates of hospitals or other institutions are to be enumerated; but if they have some other permanent place of residence, write it in the margin of the schedule on the left-hand side of the page.

117. If a soldier, sailor, or marine (officer or enlisted man), or civilian employee in the service of the United States at a station at home or abroad, is a member of a family living in your district, he should be enumerated as a member of that family, even though he may be absent on duty at the time of the enumeration.

118. Summer boarders at hotels or country houses and persons temporarily residing in foreign lands should be enumerated as part of their family at their home or usual place of abode.

119. The floating population in vessels, steamboats, and house boats at wharves and piers or river landings should be enumerated on the morning of June 1, as far as possible, by the enumerators of the districts contiguous to the water front, including in the enumeration all persons who claim to be residents of the United States, even though they have no other home than on board the craft where they are found; but the officers and crew of a foreign ship only temporarily in the harbor are not to be enumerated.

120. It is important to ascertain beyond a doubt whether the information given by the person supplying the same covers all the persons in the family, including not only the immediate members of the family, as the head, wife, and children, but also other relatives living with the family, servants (if they sleep in the house), and persons who live with the family, as boarders, lodgers, etc.

121. In the case of families reported ‘‘out’’ at the first visit, but enumerated at a later visit, no spaces should be left blank on the population schedule for the entries concerning the members of such a family, as you can have no knowledge, in most cases, of the number of members constituting the family, and hence of the number of lines to be left blank. The enumeration of the family is to be made on that sheet of the population schedule on which you are at work on the day when the information concerning such family is finally obtained by you.

122. In the case, however, of boarders, lodgers, or other persons living in a family, for whom no information can be obtained at the first visit, but which is supplied later, either in person or through the lady of the house, you should duly enter the name of such person as a member of the family so enumerated, and arrange to secure by a second or third visit, if necessary, the information needed to complete the record for such person. It is important that the person should be recorded by name at least as a member of the family with whom he resides, as otherwise the enumeration of that family will be incomplete, and if omitted from its proper place on the population schedule, such person is likely to be counted, when finally enumerated, as a family of one, which is not the fact.

123. Enter the members of each family in the following order, namely: Head first, wife second, children (whether sons or daughters) in the order of their ages, and all other persons living with the family, whether relatives, boarders, lodgers, or servants.

124. Enter first the surname, then the given name in full, and the initial of the middle name, if any. Where the surname is the same as, that of the person on the preceding line indicate this by drawing a horizontal line (___) thereunder, as shown in illustrative example.

125. Column 4. Relationship to head of family. Designate the head of the family, whether a husband or father, widow or unmarried person of either sex, by the word ‘‘Head;’’ for other members of a family write wife, mother, father, son, daughter, grandson, daughter-in-law, aunt, uncle, nephew, niece, boarder, lodger, servant, etc., according to the particular relationship which the person bears to the head of the family. Occupants of an institution or school, living under a common roof, should be designated as officer, inmate, pupil, patient, prisoner, etc., and in case of the chief officer his title should be used, as warden, principal, superintendent, etc. Institutions whose inmates occupy different buildings should be enumerated as though they occupied one institution building. If more than one family resides in the institution building or buildings, group the members together and distinguish them in some intelligible way. If two or more persons share a common abode as partners, write ’’head‘‘ for one and ‘‘partner’’ for the other or others.

Personal Description

126. Column 5. Color or race. Write ‘‘W’’ for white; ‘‘B’’ for black (negro or negro descent); ‘‘Ch’’ for Chinese; ‘‘Jp’’ for Japanese, and ‘‘In’’ for Indian, as the case may be.

127. Column 6. Sex. Write ‘‘M’’ for male and ‘‘F’’ for female, as the case may be.

128. Column 7. Date of birth. The object of this question is to help in getting the exact age in years of each person enumerated. Many a person who can tell the month and year of his birth will be careless or forgetful in stating the years of his age, and so an error will creep into the census. This danger can not be entirely avoided, but asking the question in two forms will prevent it in many cases.

129. Enter in the first division of column 7 the name or abbreviation of the month in which the person was born, thus: Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., May, June, July, Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., or Dec.

130. Enter in the second division the year in which the person was born, thus: 1841, 1897, etc.

131. Column 8. Age at last birthday. The object of this question is to get the age of each person in completed years, or in the case of a child under one year of age in completed months.

132. For each person of one year of age or over, enter the age at last birthday in whole years, omitting months and days. For children who, on the first day of June, 1900, were less than one year of age, enter the age in months, or twelfths of a year, thus 3/12, 7/12, 8/12. For a child less than one month old, enter the age as follows: 0/12.

133. Endeavor to ascertain in each case the month and year of birth called for in column 7, but where this is impossible get as nearly as possible the exact years of age. An answer given in round numbers, such as ‘‘about 30,’’ ‘‘about 45,’’ is likely to be wrong. In such cases endeavor to get the exact age.

134. Column 9. Whether single, married, widowed, or divorced. Write ‘‘S’’ for single or unmarried persons, ‘‘M’’ for married, ‘‘Wd’’ for widowed (man or woman), and ‘‘D’’ for divorced.

135. Column 10. Number of years married. Enter in this column for all persons reported as married (column 9) the number of years married (to present husband or wife), as 5, 9, 29, etc.; for person married during the census year, that is, from June 1, 1899, to May 31, 1900, write ‘‘0;’’ for all other persons leave the column blank. Notice that this question can not be answered for single persons and need not be for widowed or divorced persons.

136. Columns 11 and 12. Mother of how many children and number of these children living. This question applies only to women, and its object is to get the number of children each woman has had, and whether the children are or are not living on the census day. Stillborn children are not to be counted.

137. Enter in column 11 the figure showing the number of children born to this woman, as 1, 2, 3, 6, 10, etc. If she has had none, write ‘‘0.’’ Enter in column 12 the figure showing the number of these children living on the census day. Whether the children are living in your district or elsewhere makes no difference. If the woman has had no children, or if they are all dead, write ‘‘0.’’


138. Column 13. Place of birth of person. The object of this question is to get the birthplace of every person living in your district. If the person was born in the United States, enter in column 13 the state or territory (not city or town) of the United States in which he was born. A person born in what is now West Virginia, North Dakota, South Dakota, or Oklahoma should be reported as so born, although at the time of his birth the particular region may have had a different name.

139. If the person was born outside the United States, enter in column 13 the country (not city or district) in which he was born. By country is meant usually a region whose people have direct relation with other countries. Thus, do not write Prussia or Saxony, but Germany. To this rule, however, note the following exceptions.

140. Write Ireland, England, Scotland, or Wales rather than Great Britain. Write Hungary or Bohemia rather than Austria for persons born in Hungary or Bohemia, respectively. Write Finland rather than Russia for persons born in Finland.

141. Note, also, that the language spoken is not always a safe guide to the birthplace. This is especially true of Germans, for over one-third of the Austrians and nearly three-fourths of the Swiss speak German. In case a person speaks German, therefore, inquire carefully whether the birthplace was Germany, Austria, or Switzerland.

142. In case the person speaks Polish, as Poland is not now a country, inquire whether the birthplace was what is now known as German Poland or Austrian Poland or Russian Poland, and enter the answer accordingly as Poland (Ger.), Poland (Aust.), or Poland (Russ.).

143. If the birthplace reported is Canada or Newfoundland, ask whether the person is of English or French decent. Write Canada English or Canada French, according to the answer.

144. If the person was born abroad of American parents, write in column 13 both the birthplace and ‘‘Am. Cit.;’’ that is, American citizen.

145. If the person was born at sea, write ‘‘at sea.’’

146. Spell out the names of states, territories, and countries, and do not abbreviate, except for American Citizen, as mentioned in paragraph 144.

147. Columns 14 and 15. Place of birth of father and mother. Apply the instructions for filling column 13 to these two columns; but where either the father or mother was born at sea, write in the proper column, besides the words ‘‘at sea,’’ the birthplace of the father’s father or mother’s mother.


148. Column 16. Year of immigration to the United States.—If the person is a native of the United States, leave the column blank. If he was born abroad, enter the year in which he arrived in the United States.

149. Column 17. Number of years in the United States.—If the person is a native of the United States, leave the column blank. If he was born abroad, enter the number of years since his arrival in the United States. Disregard all fractions of a year. If the time is less than one year, write ‘‘0.’ Endeavor to get the exact number of years in all cases.

150. The question of immigration (columns 16 and 17) applies to all foreign-born persons, male and female, of whatever age. It does not apply to persons born in the United States.

151. Column 18. Naturalization.—If the person is a native of the United States, leave the column blank. If he was born abroad, and has taken no steps toward becoming an American citizen, write ‘‘Al’’(for alien). If he has declared his intention to become an American citizen and taken out his ‘‘first’’ papers, write ‘‘Pa’’ (for papers). If he has become a full citizen by taking out second or final papers of naturalization, write ‘‘Na’’ (for naturalized).

152. The question of naturalization (column 18) applies only to foreign-born males 21 years of age and over. It does not apply to foreign-born minors, to foreign-born females, or to any person, male or female, who was born in the United States, either of native or foreign parentage.

Occupation, Trade, or Profession

153. NOTE.—The following instructions concerning the return of the occupation, trade, or profession in column 19 do not, in the main, form a part of the instructions contained in the portfolio or the instructions printed at the bottom of the illustrative example. These instructions are very important, however, and must be not only read but studied carefully.

154. Column 19. Occupation.—This question applies to every person 10 years of age and over who is at work, that is, occupied in gainful labor, and calls for the profession, trade, or branch of work upon which each person depends chiefly for support, or in which he is engaged ordinarily during the larger part of the time. (See paragraph 223.)

155. This is a most important question. In reporting occupations avoid the use of general or indefinite terms which do not indicate the kind of work done. You need not give a person’s occupation just as he expresses it. If he can not tell intelligibly what he is, find out what he does, and describe his occupation accordingly. Endeavor to ascertain always the kind of work done, and so state it.

156. Indicate in every case the kind of work done or character of service rendered. Do not state merely the article made or worked upon, or the place where the work is done. For example, the reply ‘‘carriage builder,’’ or ’’works in carriage factory,‘‘ is unsatisfactory, because men of different trades, such as blacksmiths, joiners, wheelwrights, painters, upholsterers, work together in building carriages. Such an answer, therefore, does not show what kind of work the person performs.

157. Return every person according to his own occupation, not that of his employer. For example, describe a blacksmith employed by a manufacturer of carriages as a carriage blacksmith and not as a carriage builder, or a cooper employed by a brewery as a cooper and not a brewer, etc.

158. If a person has two occupations, enter the more important one, that is, the one from which he gets the more money. If you can not learn that, enter the one in which he spends the more time. For example, describe a person who gets most of his income by managing a farm, but also preaches, as a ‘‘farmer,’’ but if he gets more income from his preaching, describe him as a ‘‘preacher’’ and not as a farmer.

159. Sometimes you will find a person engaged in one occupation, but claiming a different one. This will be common in certain resorts for invalids. Such persons often take up for the time occupations different from those followed at home. For example, you may find a clergyman canvassing for books or a physician herding cattle. In such a case ask from which occupation the person gets the more money or to which he gives more time during the year.

160. If a married woman has a gainful occupation, return the occupation accordingly, whether she does the work at her home or goes regularly to a place of employment, and whether she is regularly or only occasionally so employed. For example, ‘‘milliner,’’ ‘‘dressmaker,’’ ‘‘nurse,’’ etc.

161. In farming sections, where a farm is found that is under the management or supervision of a woman as owner or tenant, return the occupation of such woman as ‘‘farmer’’ in all cases.

162. Report a student who supports himself by some occupation according to the occupation, if more time is given to that, but as a student, if more time is given to study. Thus report a student who does stenographic work as a student unless more of his time is spent in stenography. Report a salesman in a grocery store, who attends a night school as ‘‘salesman, groceries,’’ because most of his day is spent in the store. (See paragraph 219.)

163. Many a person who does not follow any occupation still has an income. In that case indicate the source of the income. Report a person whose income comes from the rent of lands or buildings as ‘‘landlord.’ ’Report a person who receives his income, or most of it, from money loaned at interest, or from stocks, bonds, or other securities, as a ‘‘capitalist.’’

164. Abbreviations.—The space in column 19 is somewhat narrow, and it may be necessary to use the following abbreviations (but no others):

Agric. agriculture

Mft. manufacturer

Agt. agent

Prest. president

Asst. assistant

R.R. railroad or railway

Co. company

Sch. school

Comsn. commission

Secy. secretary

Dept. department

Supt. superintendent

Fcty. factory

Teleg. telegraph

Insur. insurance

Telph. telephone

Merch. merchant

Trav. traveling, or traveler

Mfg. manufacturing

Treas. treasurer

165. The illustrations given under this head show the nature of the answers which should be made to this inquiry. They are not intended to cover all occupations, but are merely examples of the answers desired in order to secure a proper description of the character of the service rendered or kind of work done by each and every person engaged in gainful labor.

Agricultural Pursuits

166. Do not confuse a farmer with a farm laborer. If a person works on a farm for a stated wage (in money or its equivalent), even though he may be a son or other relative of the person who conducts the farm, he should be entered as a farm laborer, and not as a farmer. On the other hand, if a person owns or rents a farm, or operates it with or for another person, for a fixed share of the products, he should be entered as a farmer, and not as a farm laborer. Enter the older children of a farmer (who work on the farm) as farm laborers, except when a father and son (or sons) jointly operate the farm for fixed shares of the product.

167. Do not confuse a day laborer at work for the city, town, or at odd jobs with a farm laborer at work on the farm or plantation or in the employ of gardeners, nurserymen, etc. Do not say simply ‘‘laborer,’’ but state in every case the kind of work done as day laborer, farm laborer, garden laborer, etc. If a person is a laborer in a mill, workshop, or factory, specify the fact, in addition to the word laborer, as laborer (cement works), etc.

168. Distinguish between a woodchopper at work regularly in the woods or forests and an ordinary laborer who takes a job occasionally at chopping wood.

169. Distinguish between a farmer or a planter who owns, hires, or carries on a farm or plantation, and a gardener, fruit grower, nurseryman, florist, or vine grower, etc., who is engaged in raising vegetables for market or in the cultivation of fruit, flowers, seeds, nursery products, etc.

170. Avoid the confusion of the garden laborer, nursery laborer, etc., who hires out his services, with the proprietor gardener, florist, nurseryman, etc., who carries on the business himself or employs others to assist him.

171. Return as a dairyman or dairywoman any person whose occupation in connection with the farm has to do chiefly with the dairy. Do not confuse such a person with an employee of a butter and cheese or condensed milk factory, who should be separately returned by some distinctive term.

172. Return a stock herder or stock drover separately from a stock raiser.

173. Do not include a lumberman, raftsman, log driver, etc., engaged in hauling or transporting lumber (generally by water) from the forest to the mill with an employee of a lumber yard or a lumber mill.


174. For a fisherman or oysterman describe the occupation as accurately as possible. Be careful to avoid the return of a fisherman on a vessel as a sailor. If he gains his living by fishing, he should be returned as a ‘‘fisherman,’’ and not as a sailor.

Mining and Quarrying

175. Make a careful distinction between a coal miner and a miner of ores; also between a miner and a quarryman. State the kind of ore mined or stone quarried.

176. Do not return a proprietor or official of a mining or quarrying company as a miner or quarryman, but state his business or official position accurately.

Professional Pursuits

177. Specify each profession in detail, according to the fact, as follows: actor, artist or teacher of art, clergyman, dentist, designer, draftsman, engraver, civil engineer or surveyor, mechanical or mining engineer, government clerk or official, journalist, lawyer, librarian, musician or teacher of music, physician, surgeon, professor (in college or university), teacher (in school), or other pursuits of a professional nature.

178. Distinguish between an actor, a theatrical manager, and a showman.

179. Return a government official, in the service of the national, state, county, city, or town government, by the title of his office, if that is the occupation upon which he depends chiefly for a livelihood; otherwise by his usual trade or profession.

180. Distinguish between a government clerk occupying a position under the national, state, county, city, or town government and a clerk in an office, store, manufacturing establishment, etc.

181. Return a veterinary surgeon separately from another surgeon.

182. Distinguish a journalist editor, or reporter from an author or other literary person who does not follow journalism as a distinct profession.

183. Return a chemist, assayer, metallurgist, or other scientific person by his distinctive title.

Domestic and Personal Service

184. Specify each occupation or kind of service rendered in detail, according to the fact, as hotel keeper, boarding-house keeper, restaurant keeper, saloon keeper, or bartender; housekeeper, cook, or servant (in hotel, boarding-house, hospital, institution, private family, etc.); barber or hairdresser; janitor, sexton, or undertaker; nurse or midwife; watchman, policeman, or detective. The above are given only as examples of the occupations which would naturally be included under this general class of work.

185. Return as a housekeeper a woman who receives a stated wage or salary for her services, and do not confuse her with a woman who keeps house for her own family or for herself, without any gainful occupation, or with a grown daughter who assists in the household duties without pay. A wife or daughter who simply keeps house for her own family should not be returned as a housekeeper in any case. (See paragraph 218.)

186. A clerk in a hotel, restaurant, or saloon should be so described and carefully distinguished from a bartender. In many instances a bartender will state his occupation as ‘‘clerk’’ in wine store, etc., but the character of the service rendered by such a person will readily determine whether he should be classed as a ‘‘bartender,’’ or as a ‘‘clerk.’’

187. A stationary engineer or fireman should be carefully distinguished from a locomotive engineer or fireman.

188. A soldier, sailor, or marine enlisted in the service of the United States should be so returned. Distinguish between an officer and an enlisted man, and for a civilian employee state the kind of service performed by him.

Pursuits of Trade and Transportation

189. Distinguish carefully between a real estate agent, insurance agent, claim agent, or commission agent, etc.

190. If a person combines two or more of these occupations, as is often the case, return the occupation from which he derives the larger share of his income.

191. Return an accountant, bookkeeper, clerk, cashier, etc., according to his distinctive occupation, and state the kind of service rendered, as accountant—insurance; bookkeeper—wholesale dry goods; clerk—gas company; cashier—music store.

192. Do not confound a clerk with a salesman, as is often done, especially in dry goods stores, grocery stores, and provision stores. Generally speaking, a person so employed is to be considered as a salesman, unless most of his service is in the office on the books and accounts; otherwise he should be returned as salesman—dry goods; salesman—groceries, etc.

193. A stenographer or typewriter should be reported as such, and should not be described simply as a ‘‘clerk.’’

194. Distinguish carefully between a bank clerk in bank, cashier in bank, or bank official, describing the particular position filled in each case. In no case should a bank cashier be confounded with a cashier in a store, etc.

195. Distinguish between a foreman and overseer, a packer and shipper, a porter and helper, and an errand, office, and messenger boy in a store, etc., and state in each case the character of the duties performed by him, as foreman—wholesale wool; packer—crockery; porter—rubber goods; errand boy—dry goods; messenger boy—telegraph.

196. State the kind of merchant or dealer, as dry goods merchant, wood and coal dealer, etc. Whenever a single word will express the business carried on, as grocer, it should be used.

197. In the case of a huckster or peddler also state the kind of goods sold, as peddler—tinware.

198. Distinguish a traveling salesman from a salesman in a store, return the former as a ‘‘commercial traveler,’’ and state the kind of goods sold by him.

199. Return a boarding or livery stable keeper separately from a hostler or other stable employee.

200. Distinguish also between an expressman, teamster, drayman, and carriage and hack driver.

201. A steam railroad employee should be reported according to the nature of his work, as baggageman, brakeman, conductor, railroad laborer, locomotive engineer, locomotive fireman, switchman, yardman, etc.

202. An official of a railroad, telegraph, express, or other company should be returned by his title and carefully distinguished from an employee of such company.

203. Return a boatman, canalman, pilot, longshoreman, stevedore, or sailor (on a steam or sailing vessel) according to his distinctive occupation.

204. A telegraph operator, telephone operator, telegraph lineman, telephone lineman, electric-light man, etc., should be reported according to the nature of the work performed.

Manufacturing and Mechanical Pursuits

205. In reporting this class of occupations there are many difficulties in the way of showing the kind of work done rather than the article made or the place worked in. The nature of certain occupations is such that it is well-nigh impossible to find properly descriptive terms without the use of some expression relating to the article made or place in which the work is carried on.

206. Do not accept ‘‘maker’’ of an article or ‘‘works in’’ mill, shop, or factory, but strive always to find out the particular work done.

207. Do not use the words ‘‘factory operative,’’ but specify the kind of work done, as cotton mill—spinner; silk mill—weaver, etc.

208. Avoid in all cases the use of the word ‘‘mechanic,’’ and state whether a carpenter, mason, house painter, machinist, plumber, etc.

209. Do not say ‘‘finisher,’’ ‘‘molder,’’ ‘‘polisher,’’ etc., but describe the work done as brass finisher, iron molder, steel polisher, etc.

210. Distinguish between a person who tends machines and the unskilled workman or laborer in mills, factories, and workshops.

211. Describe the proprietor of the establishment as a ‘‘manufacturer,’’ and specify the branch of manufacture, as cotton manufacturer, etc. In no case should a manufacturer be returned as a ‘‘maker’’ of any article.

212. In the case of an apprentice, state the trade to which apprenticed, as Apprentice—carpenter, etc.

213. Distinguish between a butcher, whose business is to slaughter cattle, swine, etc., and a provision dealer, who sells meats.

214. Distinguish also between a glover, hatter, or furrier who actually makes in his own establishment all or part of the gloves, hats, or furs which he sells, and a person who simply deals in but does not make these articles.

215. Do not describe a person in a printing office as a ‘‘printer’’ where a more expressive term can be used, as compositer, pressman, press feeder, etc.

216. Make the proper distinction between a clock or watch ‘‘maker’’ and a clock or watch ‘‘repairer.’’ Do not apply the word ‘‘jeweler’’ to those who make watches, watch chains, or jewelry in large establishments.

217. Distinguish between a cloakmaker, dressmaker, seamstress, tailoress, etc. In the case of a sewingmachine operator, specify the kind of work done.

Nongainful Pursuits

218. If a person is attending school write ‘‘at school.’’ No entry in column 19 should be made, however, for a lawyer, merchant, manufacturer, etc., who has retired from practice or business; nor for a wife or daughter living at home and assisting only in the household duties without pay (see paragraph 185); nor for a person too old to work, or a child under 10 years of age not at school.

219. The doing of domestic errands or family chores out of school hours, where a child regularly attends school, is not an occupation. But if a boy or girl, above 10 years of age, is earning money regularly by labor, contributing to the family support, or appreciably assisting in mechanical or agricultural industry, the kind of work performed should be stated. (See paragraph 162.)

220. In the case of an inmate of an institution or home, such as a hospital, asylum, home for the aged, soldiers’ home, penitentiary, jail, etc., no entry is required in column 19 unless the inmate is actually engaged in remunerative work for which he receives a stated wage in addition to his board. The occupation of an officer or regular employee of such institution or home, however, is to be entered in this column, the same as for all other persons having a gainful occupation.

221. Column 20.—Months not employed. The object of this question is to get the number of months (or parts of months) in the census year (June 1, 1899, to May 31, 1900) during which each person having a gainful occupation was not employed. For those who have no gainful occupation, leave the column blank.

222. The law does not contemplate that this question shall apply solely to the principal occupation in which the person may have been engaged during the year, but it is the intent to find out the number of months (or parts of months) during which a person ordinarily engaged in gainful labor was not employed at all.

223. A return is required in columns 19 and 20 for each and every person 10 years of age and over who was engaged in gainful labor during any part of the census year (June 1, 1899, to May 31, 1900, inclusive), or who is ordinarily occupied in remunerative work but during the census year was unable to secure work of any kind. In the latter case enter his customary occupation, as carpenter, bricklayer, etc., in column 19 and the figure ‘‘12’’ in column 20 to show that, although he had an occupation or trade, he was not employed at all during the year at that or any other kind of work.


224. Column 21.—Attended school (in months). For all persons attending school during the year ending June 1, 1900, enter the number of months (or parts of months) of school attendance, as 9, 8 , etc. If a person of school age did not attend school at all during the year, write ‘‘0.’’ For all other persons to whom the inquiry is not applicable, leave the column blank.

225. Column 22. Can read.—Write ‘‘Yes’’ for all persons 10 years of age and over who can read any language, and ‘‘No’’ for all other person of that age who can not read in any language. For persons under 10 years, leave the column blank.

226. Column 23. Can write.—Write ‘‘Yes’’ for all persons 10 years of age and over who can write any language, and ‘‘No’’ for all other person of that age who can not write in any language. For persons under 10 years, leave the column blank.

227. The inquiries in columns 22 and 23 are intended to show the literacy of all persons 10 years of age and over, and should be answered according as they are able to read or write the language ordinarily spoken by them.

228. Column 24. Can speak English.—Write ‘‘Yes’’ for all persons 10 years of age and over who can speak English, and ‘‘No’’ for all other persons of that age who can not speak English. For persons under 10 years, leave the column blank.

Ownership of Home

229. Fill columns 25, 26, and 27 for each head of family only; for every other person, leave the columns blank.

230. Column 25.—If the home is owned, write ‘‘O.’’ If it is rented, write ‘‘R.’’

231. Column 26.—If the home is rented, leave the column blank. If it is owned and mortgaged, write ‘‘M.’’ If it is owned free from mortgage encumbrance, write ‘‘F.’’

232. Column 27.—If the home is a farm, write ‘‘F.’’ If it is only a house, write ‘‘H.’’

233. Column 28.—If the home is only a house, leave the column blank. If the home is a farm, write the number of its farm schedule; that is, the farm number as reported on Schedule No. 2, relating to agriculture. Enter the number of each farm schedule on the line for the member of the family by whom the farm is operated. (See paragraph 246.)

234. Definition of home. By the word ‘‘home’’ in the census is meant any place of abode inhabited by any person or persons, whether it is a house, a tent, a boat, or whatever it may be. If any such place of abode is inhabited by more than one family, it is the home of each of them, and it may accordingly be counted as two or more homes instead of one. The family is the basis for all inquiries in columns 25, 26, and 27.

235. A home occupied by a family engaged in farming, gardening, or any other form of agricultural production includes the land cultivated. If occupied by a family not so engaged, it includes only the dwelling and the ground occupied by it, with the appurtenances thereto.

236. In case a family resides in a tent or boat, write in column 27 the word ‘‘tent’’ or ‘‘boat.’

237. If a family cultivates a farm, but resides in a house detached from the farm, in a village or elsewhere, the farm and the house must jointly be considered the family home and that home a farm, unless the chief occupation of the person operating the farm is  something other than farming. In the latter case, the house alone is to be regarded as the home.

238. Owned or rented.—A home is to be classed as ‘‘owned’’ whenever the title, in whole or in part, is vested in any member of the family (not a boarder) by which the house is occupied. It is owned if any member of the family has a life interest or estate in it; or if it is occupied by a settler on the public domain who has not ‘‘proved up;’’ or if it is held under a contract or bond for a deed, or occupied for redemption purposes after having been sold for debt. It is not necessary that full payment for the property should have been made. All homes not owned as herein explained are to be classed as ‘‘rented.’’

239. In case of a farm part of which is owned and part rented; or in case different members of the same family operate different farms, of which one is owned and the other rented; or in case of the cultivation of a farm by a family which does not reside upon the farm, but elsewhere, the dwelling being owned and the farm rented, or, on the contrary, the farm being owned and the dwelling rented, the principle applies that ’’part ownership is ownership.‘‘ In all these and similar cases write in column 25 the letter ‘‘O.’’

240. Following the same general rule, if a family occupies a house upon leased land for which ‘‘ground rent’’ is paid, and the building is owned by any member of the family (not boarder), write ‘‘O.’’ Ownership of the building and not the ground, or of the ground and not the building, but the occupant, is part ownership.

241. If, of two families occupying the same house, one has an interest in it, and the other not, the home occupied by the former is to be returned as ‘‘owned’’ but that occupied by the other as ‘‘rented.’’

242. Free or mortgaged.—The question in column 26 applies only to homes which are owned (in whole or in part, as explained above). Its aim is to ascertain whether the home, or so much of the home as is owned by the occupant, has been fully paid for and is without encumbrance of any sort, either in the form of a mortgage or otherwise. This question has no relation to rented property.

243. All homes which are not fully paid for, or upon which there is any encumbrance in the form either of a mortgage or of a lien upon which judgment has been had in a court, are to be reported as mortgaged, but not others.

244. Liabilities or encumbrances of any sort which attach to land occupied in connection with a home, but not owned by the family, are not to be regarded as mortgages upon the home. For instance, if, as mentioned in paragraphs 239 and 240, in the case of a farm partly owned and partly rented, or in that of two farms, one of which is owned and the other rented, or in that of a house erected by the occupant upon ground owned by another person, there is a mortgage upon the leased land, but not upon the farm or portion of a farm or dwelling owned by the occupant, the house is to be returned as free from mortgage.

245. Farm or house.—The letter ‘‘F’’ in column 27 means that some member of the family operates a farm, which should be separately reported on the agricultural schedule, and its number in the order of visitation entered in column 28. In all other cases enter in column 27 the letter ‘‘H.’’ Usually a farmer resides upon his farm, and persons who reside on farms are farmers. If, however, a family resides upon a farm, but no member of the family operates it, write ‘‘H.’’ On the other hand, if a farm is operated by any person who does not reside upon it, but off the farm, in a village, or elsewhere, enter against the name of the head of the family of which such person is a member the letter ‘‘F.’’

246. Farm number.—The serial number of each farm reported, in the order of visitation, is to be entered in column 28, precisely as the numbers of houses and families enumerated are entered in columns 1 and 2. This number should, in every instance, be the same as the number in the heading of the corresponding farm schedule. (See paragraphs 233.)

Indian Population

(19 1/2″ X 18 3/4″, printed on two sides, space for 20 entries on each side, reverse side contained continuation of instructions. The top of the questionnaire contained questions 1-28 which were identical with those on the general schedule)

The 1900 Indian schedule collected the following information in addition to that of the general population schedule: Other name, if any; name of Indian tribe; tribal affiliation of mother and father; whether of full or mixed blood; whether living in polygamy; whether taxed; year of acquiring citizenship and whether acquired by allotment; whether living in a fixed or moveable dwelling.

Instructions for Enumerators

This modified form of Schedule No. 1 is to be used in making the enumeration of Indians, both those on reservations and those living in family groups outside of reservations.

Detached Indians living either in white or negro families outside of reservations should be enumerated on the general population schedule (Form 7-224) as members of the family in which they are found; but detached whites or negroes living in Indian families should be enumerated on this schedule as members of the Indian families in which they are found. In other words, every family composed mainly of Indians should be reported entirely on this schedule, and every family composed mainly of persons not Indian should be reported entirely on the general population schedule.

This schedule contains on each side twenty horizontal lines, each running twice across the page, and it is consequently possible to enumerate on it only forty persons (twenty persons on the A side and twenty persons on the B side). Each Indian should be carried through from the beginning to the end of the line on which he is entered, as line 1, line 2, etc., and each inquiry from column 1 to column 38 which applies to the individual case should be answered.

Columns 1 to 28.—These columns are identical with those on the general population schedule. Fill each column, so far as the inquiry applies, in accordance with the instructions for filling the corresponding columns in the general population schedule, but note the following additional instructions in relation to filling columns 1, 2, and 19.

Columns 1 and 2.—If you are canvassing a given territory with both the general population schedule (Form 7-224) and this schedule for Indian population, make two independent series of numbers for these columns, one series in each kind of schedule, so that the last numbers on the two schedules when added together will correctly give the whole number of dwellings and of families visited and enumerated in your entire district.

Column 19.—If the Indian has no occupation and is wholly dependent on the Government for support, write ‘‘Ration Indian.’’ If he is partly self-supporting and partly dependent on the Government, write the occupation and then the letter ‘‘R’’ (for ration). If the Indian is under ten years of age and receives rations, write ‘‘Under age R.’’

Instruction Continued on "B" Side of Sheet
(Instructions for Filing this Schedule)

The following instructions apply to columns 29 to 38:

Column 29.—Write the Indian name, if the person has one, in addition to the English name given in column 3. If the Indian has only one name, Indian or English, repeat the name in this column.

Column 30, 31, and 32.—If the Indian was born in this country answers should be obtained, if possible, to inquiries 13, 14, and 15, relating to the state of birth of the person and of his or her parents. In any event secure the name of the tribe with which the person is connected and the name of the tribe of his or her parents, and enter the same in columns 30, 31, and 32.

Column 33.—If the Indian has no white blood, write 0. If he or she has white blood, write 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, whichever fraction is nearest the truth.

Column 34.—If the Indian man is living with more than one wife, or if the Indian woman is a plural wife or has more than one husband, write ‘‘Yes.’’ If not, write ‘‘No.’’ If the Indian is single, leave the column blank.

Citizenship.—If the Indian was born in this country, no entry can be made in columns 16, 17, or 18; but for columns 35, 36, and 37 answers must be obtained. If the Indian was born in another country, answers will be made both in columns 16, 17, and 18, and in columns 35, 36, and 37, in accordance with the facts.

Column 35.—An Indian is to be considered ‘‘taxed’’ if he or she is detached from his or her tribe and living among white people as an individual, and as such subject to taxation, whether he or she actually pays taxes or not; also if he or she is living with his or her tribe but has received an allotment of land, and thereby has acquired citizenship; in either of these two cases the answer to this inquiry is ‘‘Yes.’’

An Indian on a reservation, without an allotment, or roaming over unsettled territory, is considered ‘‘not taxed,’’ and for such Indians the answer to this inquiry is ‘‘No.’’

Column 36.—If the Indian was born in tribal relations, but has acquired American citizenship, write the year in which it was acquired. If he or she has not acquired citizenship, leave the column blank.

Column 37.—If the Indian acquired citizenship by receiving an allotment of land from the Government, write ‘‘Yes.’’ If he or she acquired citizenship by other means, write ‘‘No.’’ If he or she has not acquired American citizenship, leave the column blank.

Column 38.—If the Indian is living in a tent, tepee, or other temporary structure, write ‘‘movable.’’ If he or she is living in a permanent dwelling of any kind, write ‘‘fixed.’’

Page Last Revised - October 8, 2021
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