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CPS Historical Poverty Footnotes

N- Not available or not applicable

  1. Estimates reflect the implementation of an updated processing system and should be used to make comparisons to 2018 and subsequent years.
  2. The 2014 CPS ASEC included redesigned questions for income and health insurance coverage. All of the approximately 98,000 addresses were eligible to receive the redesigned set of health insurance coverage questions. The redesigned income questions were implemented to a subsample of the 98,000 addresses using a probability split panel design. Approximately 68,000 addresses were eligible to receive a set of income questions similar to those used in the 2013 CPS ASEC, and the remaining 30,000 addresses were eligible to receive the redesigned income questions. The source of these 2013 estimates is the portion of the CPS ASEC sample that received the redesigned income questions, approximately 30,000 addresses.
  3. The source of these 2013 estimates is the portion of the CPS ASEC sample that received the income questions consistent with the 2013 CPS ASEC, approximately 68,000 addresses.
  4. Implementation of 2010 Census-based population controls.
  5. Data have been revised to reflect a correction to the weights in the 2005 CPS ASEC.
  6. Implementation of a 28,000 household expansion.
  7. Implementation of 2000 Census-based population controls.
  8. Full implementation of 1990 Census-based sample design and metropolitan definitions, 7,000 household sample reduction, and revised editing of responses on race.
  9. Introduction of 1990 Census sample design.
  10. Data collection method changed from paper and pencil to computer-assisted interviewing. In addition, the 1994 CPS ASEC was revised to allow for the coding of different income amounts on selected questionnaire items. Limits either increased or decreased in the following categories: earnings limits increased to $999,999; social security limits increased to $49,999; supplemental security income and public assistance limits increased to $24,999; veterans' benefits limits increased to $99,999; child support and alimony limits decreased to $49,999.
  11. Implementation of 1990 Census population controls.
  12. Estimates are revised to correct for nine omitted weights from the original 1992 CPS ASEC. More information is available in "Money Income of Households, Families, and Persons in the United States:1992" P60-184.
  13. Estimates reflect the implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system and are also revised to reflect corrections to the files after publication of the 1988 advance report "Money Income and Poverty Status in the United States: 1988" P60-166.
  14. Full implementation of 1980 Census-based sample design.
  15. Implementation of Hispanic population weighting controls and introduction of 1980 Census-based sample design.
  16. Implemented three technical changes to the poverty definition. More information is available in "Characteristics of the Population Below the Poverty Level: 1980," P60-133.
  17. Implementation of 1980 Census population controls. Questionnaire expanded to show 27 possible values from 51 possible sources of income.
  18. Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system. Questionnaire expanded to ask 11 income questions.
  19. Full implementation of 1970 Census-based sample design.
  20. Introduction of 1970 Census sample design and population controls.
  21. Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system.
  22. Beginning with the 2003 CPS ASEC, respondents were allowed to choose one or more races. White alone refers to people who reported White and did not report any other race category. The use of this single-race population does not imply that it is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing the data. The Census Bureau uses a variety of approaches.
  23. For the year 2001 and earlier, the CPS ASEC allowed respondents to report only one race group.
  24. Black alone refers to people who reported Black and did not report any other race category.
  25. Asian alone refers to people who reported Asian and did not report any other race category.
  26. Because Hispanics may be any race, data in this report for Hispanics overlap with data for racial groups. Being Hispanic was reported by 16.0 percent of White householders who reported only one race, 5.3 percent of Black householders who reported only one race, and 2.7 percent of Asian householders who reported only one race. Data users should exercise caution when interpreting aggregate results for the Hispanic population and for race groups because these populations consist of many distinct groups that differ in socioeconomic characteristics, culture, and recency of immigration. Data were first collected for Hispanics in 1972.
  27. Beginning in January 1978, the Bureau of Labor Statistics introduced a new price index for all urban consumers (CPI-U) that forms a continuous series with the earlier index for urban wage earners and for clerical workers as of December 1997.
  28. The "Outside metropolitan statistical areas" category includes both micropolitan statistical areas and territory outside of metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas. More information is available at "About Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas" www.census.gov/programs-surveys/metro-micro/about/glossary.html.
  29. The 2015 and 2016 estimates presented for residence may not match the previously published estimates due to a correction in the assignments of principal city status for a small number of households.
  30. In 2005, the CPS ASEC sample transitioned from a Census 1990-based sample design to a Census 2000-based sample design, which used different definitions of metropolitan areas. As a result, estimates for 2004 that rely on metropolitan definitions are not directly comparable with either the Census 1990 or Census 2000 definitions and are thus suppressed.
  31. To calculate the 3 year average, we used the 2019 production file, 2018 Bridge File, and the 2017 Research File (which is not shown).
  32. Beginning in 2003, CPS ASEC offered respondents the option of choosing more than one race. The 2002 and 2001 CPS ASEC recorded only one race for each respondent. The 3-year averages for 2002 are based on combining the 2003 CPS ASEC race categories shown in the stub with the relevant single race categories of White, Black, American Indian or Alaska Native, or Asian and Pacific Islander recorded in the 2002 and 2001 CPS ASEC.
  33. Work experience: Refers to the longest job held in the previous calendar year. The work experience categories are based on the number of weeks worked, and the number of hours worked per week. Full-time year-round: Worked at least 35 hours per week, for at least 50 weeks last year (including paid sick leave and vacations). Not full-time year-round: Worked for at least 1 week last year, but for less than 50 weeks, or less than 35 hours per week, or both.

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